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DC relays consist of wire wound on a bobbin, which is placed over a ferromagnetic core. A hinged contact assembly is positioned over the core .When current is applied to the coil, flux is induced in the ferromagnetic core, causing the contacts to close.
AC relays are manufactured similar to their DC counterparts. If AC current is applied to a DC relay, the relay will pulse at the frequency of the AC current. To overcome this problem, the core is equipped with a shading ring on one-half of the core (Photo 2). The shading ring acts like a shorted secondary winding in a transformer, causing the flux in that half of the core to be 90° out of phase with the flux in the other half. The result is that the flux in the core never falls to zero, allowing the relay to energize the contacts.
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