HELP! I need to understand this schematic. Can someone translate the different symbols? I do understand positive/ground.

Is something like this,
going to help you?

I could just grab one of those pictures, like this one,
and then write some more words on top it, like "this is a LED", "this is a NPN transistor", "this is a resistor", etc.

I will admit,the author of that page has not mentioned the size of those resistors.  Around 1K ohm, would be a good guess, for both of them.

I don't know what else to tell you...

The lines connecting the symbols together symbolize wires.

The little squiggly lines with arrowheads represent photons, little pieces (quanta) of light energy.  Little squiggly line photons are moving away from a diode symbol means that diode is a LED (light emitting diode).  Little  squiggly line photons moving towards a transistor base mean that transistor is a phototransistor.