How do I wire ground circuits?

I'm building this circuit, and it uses ground marks which I'm unfamiliar with these kinds of circuits (this is my first one) can anybody explain to me how it works? 

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Not only that, but ground is UP on the darned drawing.

Steve
lemonie5 years ago

Ground is zero volts.
You connect those to a mains-earth/ground, or you arbitrarily call either the -ve or +ve supply "ground". But they all connect to the same common, it saves you the hassle of drawing the wires in the schematic.

L
Not ALL grounds though are equal - we differentiate between a signal ground and a chassis ground in some circumstances for example, and you can have a virtual earth, which is not at ground potential !

I like learning things - thanks. Would the signal and chassis grounds be at different potentials?

L
I hate to say this, but, "potentially"
;-)

...at a low level YES, they will be different, because any currents flowing in the grounds will raise their potentials relative to each other...

Steve

I get that, practically speaking yes because of the wire, but theoretically no.

L
The ground marks makes the diagram easier to read, but this circuit is very badly drawn anyway.

COnnect ALL your "ground marks" together, and connect them to the 0V of your supply