Instructables

How do you make sodium chlorate?

I want to make some sodium chlorate.Is there any way to make it?I have heard there is some way to make it through electrolysis.I have a wall wart.

arefiq5 years ago
i heard that it can be made from electrolysis of common salt. and also from bleach. i think better to buy instead making one. precipitating sodium chlorate from bleach need much of energy(heat). you need to heat up the bleach then cool it. filter crystal, then the solution is heat up again, cool, filter.. over and over again. not conventional. i got my sodium chlorate from hardware store that sell weed killer. and its almost pure.

I would have to disagree with Arefuq's answer, electrolysis of Salt water will yield Sodium Hypochlorate (NaClO) Not Sodium Chlorate (NaClo3) or Sodium Perchlorate (NaClO4...)

The only way I believe that it is possible via the method specified is by using Lead Dioxide Electrodes, or slimier Dioxide Conductors... However this will still render the Product tainted with Lead Particles and Lead Oxides and potential Dioxides...

As for the Electrolysis of Bleach... That will do absolutely nothing... The solution is at a stable point of NaClO, even if you give enough time for the Bleach to Decompose (2NaClO----->2NaCl+O2) You are left with Salt and Oxygen Gas...

Which the salt will Redissolve into the water and the process will begin itself again and keep doing so Until all the water has been reduced... In which case it will leave behind just Regular Salt and/or Bleach Crystal's (NaClO)... Which will eventually decomposes into Salt and Oxygen... If by chance the electrolysis of salt water has managed to Liberate all of the Chlorine gas from the Solution (2NaCl----->2Na+2Cl) then you Would be left with Sodium metal which would instantaneously react with the water in the solution to form NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide) and Hydrogen gas...

As for boiling down bleach over and over again it can Not render Quality Sodium Cholrate for where does the Oxygen come from..? You would need two extra Oxygen molecules to turn from Sodium Hypochlorate to Sodium Chrlorate, and three extra to turn it into Sodium Perchlorate... So speaking the oxygen has to come from the solution itself which would mean that the Sodium Hypochlorate is giving up it Oxygen turning it into nothing more than Salt...

That would mean if this could be done you would have a remain of roughly 2 Parts Salt and 1 part Sodium Chlorate or if you made Sodium Perchlorate you would have 3 Parts Salt 1 Part Perchlorate... The one way I can think of to efficiently separate the two would be to take them and heat them up to above 472 F (Not to exceed 572 F) and let the Sodium Cholrate melt, whilst the salt will stay solid due to It significantly higher melting temperature... The Molten Sodium Chlorate could then be poured off, cooled and stored... Or for potential Sodium Perchlorate(s) You heat it up to 874.4 F (Not to exceed 899.6 F) and the same process should occur...

However this can be Extremely Dangerous And I can NOT recommend it!!

It also might be possible to take advantage of Sodium Chlorate's high solubility in water to separate it by creating a super saturated solution... It might be also possible to separate it using re-Crystallization...

A better way to do this would be to dissolve the product of Sodium Chloride and Chlorates into water and add Potassium Chloride to it to produce Potassium Chlorate and Sodium Cholride through Metathesis... The best part about this is that the Potassium Chlorate isn't very soluble in water at all so it will simply participate out of the solution and can be collected by a filter... Also because it is Not Hygroscopic, it make for a more reliable oxidizer...

I am not sure if this method works with Sodium Perchlorate though...

Unless maybe if it was done with a solution that Exceededs 214 F...

Now the Oxygen Gas Liberated from the water could potentially bond with the NaCl to create NaClO, NaClO3 and Possibly NaClO4... However in my experience all I have seen it make thus far is NaClO or common Sodium Hypochlorate (Bleach...)

If the contianer is Under extreme pressure or under a lot of heat this might change it though...

Berkin4 years ago
All sodium chlorate products are going to be pulled from shelves by the end of September, so you won't be able to buy any. What you should do is electrolyze a saturated solution of saltwater with PURE carbon electrodes (NOT graphite), with about 5V, 1A. Let the solution electrolyze until the anode goes to pieces. Then, take your electrolyzed solution and pour it through a coffee filter into a separate container. Boil down the solution as much as you can until you obtain a slush-like material. This is a slurry of sodium chlorate. Pour into a clear glass container and allow excess water to evaporate away. The final product is hygroscopic, so it will always have a bit of moisture in it.

Why not Graphite..?

trey7773 years ago
Ok step by step instructions.... Things needed... a container "2 cups of water" pure water 2 carbon rods 2 high voltage wires... 1/4 cup of salt 1 charger "AC/DC" step 1: Create the cell.. not hard... Take the container and burn/cut/drill a hole for the anode and cathode "Rods" then wrap the wire around the rods... and hot glue or super glue into place.. "make it water/air tight !! step 2: take the salt and watter and devolve all the salt!!!!... then pour it into the cell step 3: conect wires to charger or any power sorce as long its about 5 volts 1 amp... 5 volts will supply the cell with the heat and the 1 amp will be able to speed up the electrolysis proses .... step 4: Wait about 4 days then unplug and let the cell cool down for a few hours.... you will start to see crystals forum in the cell and fall to the bottom of the cell... that is sodium chlorate.... step 5: filter the water not the crystals... step 6: put the crystalls in the filter and clean with ice cold water ! step 7: place on a surface and let it dry out... step8: add some sugar and test it XD Peace thats all there is to it.... -___- no long and hard processes to do it...
What is carbon rods?,and where did you get them,I can't figure what they are,or maybe they are just a plastic rods or something like that?

Graphite should work to, you can literally take those out of pencils, the reason Graphite, Carbon, or ceramic rods are used is because of their resistance to be dissipated into a solution...

But as I have said I don't think that the methode the person discribes will produce Sodium Chrolrate on any account...

That would Not make any sense, Sodium Chlorate is more soluble then Salt in water... So if something did participate out it would not be Sodium Chlorate but instead Sodium Chloride... Unless it had became a Super saturated solution of Sodium Chlorate, but it would still be unable to participate out unless the water had evaporated enough to force it out... Which I could possibly see through Electryolosis Decomposition...

Also you said "Air Tight" container... Which makes me think that with that much gas being produced it would explode, unless it was a Very... Very... Strong container... So please elaborate...

A for everything else you said... Simple electrolysis of salt water will not Produce Sodium Chlorate Unless it was done with a solution that Exceededs 214 F...

Now the Oxygen Gas Liberated from the water could potentially bond with the NaCl to create NaClO, NaClO3 and Possibly NaClO4... However in my experience all I have seen it make thus far is NaClO or common Sodium Hypochlorate (Bleach...)

If the contianer is Under extreme pressure or under a lot of heat this might change it though... But once again the Sodium Chloride should participate out before the Sodium Chlorate will...

jpoopdog4 years ago
making sodium chlorate from common table salt is pointless, it just goes all wet and soggy , i would recomend the exact same process only using pottasium chloride which just so you know is called sodium free salt or a sodium substitute, anyway , pottasium chlorate is hardly hygroscopic and can easily be sun dried, dont use sodium chlorate ever in firworks as it tends to misfire  or seperate with other ingredients in the propelant to concentrate a powerful explosive which scatters the lowly combustible substances every where (this happend to me) if there is any moisture , it happend after 3 days of storage during the dry season in the nt
dont use it
and just to repoint this out pottasium chlorate is not hygroscopic, and also if you cant get pure substitute salt the regular 20% sodium 65%pottasium 10%ammonium 5%iron all in cloride form  ,salt  is in fact just fine

and i just figured this out that if you can get your hands on some ammonium hydroxide or clear ammonia ,soap free buy it then go to any hardwar or pool shop and buy some hydrochloric acid , then outdoors sowly as in 1 spoon full every 5 seconds , mix the two to form ammonium chloride, and electrolisisen that to form ammonium chlorate, or perchlorate , not sure but anyway this stuff when burnt doesnt leave behind anything , unlike sodium chlorate which leaves salt behind after burning, use ammonium chlorate for your fireworks if you can as it works better than most nitrate based propelants
Delaney jpoopdog9 months ago
I know this is an old post but this is meant for everyone new that reads it.
DO NOT ADD AMMONIA OR AMMONIUM IONS TO A CHLORATE CELL!
unless you want your finished crystals to spontaneously-combust or explode.
Ammonium Chlorate is unstable even at room temperature.

This is very much True, you should Not mix the two together...

Aqueous11 year ago
The best bet is to make sodium perchlorate and then potassium perchlorate. Potassium perchlorate is more stable. Soidum perchlorate is made by continuing the electrolysis process for a longer time. After about 156 hours of electolysis the oringinal sodium chloride solution will become sodium perchlorate solution. This is then added to a solution of potassium chloride. Potassium perchlorate will then precipitate out. The crystals are then filtered out of the solution, washed with cold distilled water and dried.
Mathix852 years ago
Electrolysis of NaClO3 comes from common table salt NaCl. The most efficient way is to have a platanized titanium anode (-) and a cathode (generally another platinized cathode is ideal) (+). Carbon rods work fine, but they disintegrate in the solution as the salts tear away at it over hours and you will have to filter the solution during certain parts of the electrolysis. (close to that of a quart = .946L) A general amount, at room temperature of NaCl (25 C) is about 360g, saturating the solution by heating only allows about 500 grams at boiling point.

Mind you sodium chlorate is a powerful oxidizer, and like potassium chlorate is more unstable than the perchlorate stage of Na/KClO4, it will not explode unless contained (pressure explosion from gas emission) or detonated by another means. Lemonie is right in saying that it is a dangerous compound, carbon acts as a fuel source like sugar to the composition, if it exploded it was in a container.

Think of black powder, KNO3 is the oxidizer, carbon is the fuel source and sulfur is the fuel/catalyst to lower the temperature of burn and increase the speed of burn. Overall depending on your amount, waiting two days of full electrolysis is what i found others on the internet doing. This is based on the size of your electrodes amount of voltage and ampage, if you have a power supply giving consistent current or just hooking up to a battery.

Another note if you saturated by adding as much as possible by heating you will need to continue to keep this solution warm and at that temp otherwise the NaCl will recrystalized prematurely and will contaminate your end product. My suggestion is to do a cold electrolysis without supersaturating (it might not be as fast because its doing it cold, but at least then you won't have to baby it and keep it warm for a day or two, or a contaminated a powerful oxidizer end product making it possibly more sensitive (like when adding a catalyst).
benthekahn5 years ago
Sodium chlorate is common table salt (the kind you put on your eggs). Any store will sell this.
Herp Derp, any chemist will tell you 2 letters make a HUGE difference in chemical names. Chlorate is NOT Chloride!
bylerfamily (author)  benthekahn5 years ago
I'm pretty sure salt is sodium chloride,Not chlorate.
You're right you know. There was an Instructable, but I can't find it. As a suggestion, go to www.google.com and add the words "sodium" "chlorate" and "electrolysis".

Then don't do it. It's dangerous stuff which can form some unstable and unpredictable mixtures (I know from experience)

L
bylerfamily (author)  lemonie5 years ago
I found out how to make sodium chlorate but I actually am making it right now.
Seriously dude: I mixed this stuff with something in a rather lazy approximate way thinking it'd be a nice firework, it went bang!. Don't know why but I did it again, same result. Other internet anecdotes tell of similar.

(Be very careful)

L
bylerfamily (author)  lemonie5 years ago
What did you mix it with?(Not that I will do it)
Something mostly carbon, and I only heated it up... L
bylerfamily (author)  lemonie4 years ago
Okay,my sodium chlorate cell is up an running.The container is a plastic coffee can and the electrodes are 2 stainless steel rods.it works well.Thanks for your help.
 actually it is pretty bad using plastic container to handle oxidiser . plastic is mainly hydrocarbon. and NaClO3 is pretty strong oxidiser and quite unstable at temperature higher than room temp. so , I just afraid that it can ignites the plastic cup. Be careful . cheers
Needs to be warm / hot. And like I said before it's dangerous stuff, dangerous in a dangerous way rather than a cool way.

L
bylerfamily (author)  lemonie4 years ago
What do you mean it needs to be warm?
Doesn't work too well cold, you need to put a bit of energy in. L
bylerfamily (author)  lemonie4 years ago
Okay,I keep it hot.
bylerfamily (author)  lemonie4 years ago
Yep.
bylerfamily (author)  lemonie5 years ago
Oh.I have one carbon rod but I am in no hurry to get rid of it.
you can use that carbon rod for the electrolysis. i don't know about carbon but sodium chlorate is a great oxidizer and mixing it with petroleum jelly (i.e. Vaseline) makes a type of plastic explosive (see terminator 1). don't do this though because you might get hurt.
bylerfamily (author)  lemonie5 years ago
One more thing.Could you post links to the sites you were talking about?
Kaiven lemonie4 years ago
Oh, the name changed. When it was a collaboration, I added all the people's names that edited it, a credit section, and fixed a lot of spelling errors. Now there is no credits and it's not a collaboration.
Oh, I didn't see that.
no that's sodium chloride.
Randolar324 years ago
Hey! Just wandered, if you get sodium chlorate out of electrolyzing NaCl and H2O, wouldn't the NaClO3 turn into NaClO4 with the remaining H2O? Just look:

"Sodium perchlorate is produced by anodic oxidation of sodium chlorate, not sodium chloride, at a platinum electrode.[3]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_perchlorate


You can make perchlorate the same way, you just have to run the electrolysis longer.
Pro

Get More Out of Instructables

Already have an Account?

close

PDF Downloads
As a Pro member, you will gain access to download any Instructable in the PDF format. You also have the ability to customize your PDF download.

Upgrade to Pro today!