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The transformer is made up of many windings of wire wrapped around a metal core (usually some sort of iron derivative) and that forms a coil. It is pretty common knowledge that when you feed DC to a coil that is wrapped around an iron core, you create an electromagnet (magnetism is what makes a transformer work). What is not so commonly known is that when you feed alternating current (AC) to any coil, the coil will try to resist any change in that current. If the coil is designed to work at a certain frequency, in this case either 50 or 60 Hz, it will present as a resistance which will limit the current through the wire of the winding. In a coil, this is called impedance, a function of inductive reactance. In addition, wire has a small physical resistance per foot, so for the length of wire used, there is a physical resistance, but it is the impedance/inductive reactance that is at work here. Your wire loop has virtually no reactance and presents a short circuit, even if you have the same length of wire as would be found in the primary of a typical transformer. Therefore you are allowing the "full" current to flow unimpeded which will trip the breaker or blow a fuse. Qa
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Posted:Nov 26, 2011
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