Why to use RF directional couplers in some measurements and control processes ?

I am an electronic engineer in the field of RF directional couplers, but I am puzzled about this question, why to use RF directional couplers in some measurements and control processes ? Today I come to this forum to turn to you to discuss my understandings are appropriate.

Here are my personal understandings:

RF radio frequency is referred to as RF current, it is a high frequency AC change electromagnetic wave short. Less than 1000 times per second changes in alternating current called low frequency current, more than 10000 times called high frequency current, and radio frequency is such a high frequency current. RF technology in the field of wireless communications with a wide range of irreplaceable role. In the electronics theory, the current flows through the conductor, the conductor will form a magnetic field around; alternating current through the conductor, the conductor will form an alternating electromagnetic field, known as electromagnetic waves. When the electromagnetic wave frequency is lower than 100khz, the electromagnetic wave will be absorbed by the surface, can not form an effective transmission, but the electromagnetic wave frequency is higher than 100khz, the electromagnetic wave can be spread in the air, and the outer edge of the ionospheric reflection, the formation of long-distance transmission capacity (Analog or digital) with high-frequency current modulation (amplitude modulation or FM), the formation of radio frequency signals, through the antenna to launch into the air, the radio frequency of the high-frequency electromagnetic waves.

 Long-range radio frequency signal received after the anti-modulation, reduced to the electrical information source, this process is called wireless transmission. Wireless transmission developed for nearly two hundred years, forming a large number of users and product groups, but because of climate change and the impact of surface obstacles, can not transmit the perfect information. Modern human invention of the cheap high-frequency transmission cable (radio frequency line), in order to pursue the perfect quality of information transmission, taking into account the original wireless devices, wireless cable transmission began to pop. Resulting in the concept of radio frequency transmission. If your information source through the secondary modulation, with the cable to the opposite end, the opposite side with anti-modulation of the information source after the re-application, no matter how low frequency, but also radio frequency transmission, if there is no modulation anti-modulation process, The information source is transmitted directly to the opposite end of the cable, no matter how high the frequency, are the general cable transmission. SI --- Signal Integrity Signal Integrity PI --- Power Integrity Power Integrity emc --- electromagnetic compatibility Electromagnetic Compatibility rf - radio frequency RF emc = emi + ems EMI = Conduction + Radiation Emission SI: The Fourier transform shows that the higher the signal rises, the higher the amplitude of the higher harmonics. The MAXWELL equations see that these alternating harmonics produce alternating current at the adjacent line. And even through the space parasitic capacitance directly to another conductor, so these high harmonics is caused by radiation interference (emission) of the main factors; (that the simple point is that the signal rise faster, the more complete the signal, the better the signal quality, But for emi bad) .

PI: PCB exists on the number \ \ analog area, high frequency \ 'low frequency region and other different areas and planes, if the partition is not easy to interfere with each other, that is, conduction conduction (conduction).

Ps: Excuse me if I was wrong in words or expressions as I am a green hand in the field of RF directional couplers. I need continual learnings.

What is your idea ? Do you agree with my ideas ? Any of your ideas would be highly appreciated.

May someone would like to help ?

thanks in advance.

w9sz4 months ago

A directional coupler is used to supply a small amount of RF power in proportion to the power entering one of the ports of the coupler that the full power is entering. Most have either three or four ports. Two of the ports are connected to the source and load of the RF power. The third provides a sample of the power going into one of the two ports mentioned above. They are usually labeled as to which port is being sampled. The directional coupler sampling port usually supplies much less power output; perhaps 10, 20 or 30 dB down from the input to the port it is coupling.

For an example, a power source may be supplying 100 watts to a 50 ohm resistive load. There is no reflected power from the load. Let's say it is a 30 dB coupler. If the directional coupler is connected to sample the input terminal, it will have 100 milliwatts available. If it is connected to sample the output terminal, it will have 0 watts available, as there is no reflected power.

Now suppose the output of the main path of the directional coupler is not a 50 ohm resistive load. There will now be an SWR different than 1:1 and some power will be reflected from the load back into the output terminal of the directional coupler. Connecting the directional coupler to sample the output port. The coupler will show some smaller amount of power at its coupling port, but not the full power. It will be 30 dB down from the true reflected power.

Directional couplers are useful for several things. Measuring power through the coupling port is one use. Measuring 100 watts with a 30 dB coupler, you will only need to measure 100 mW. Most power meters can handle that. Another use is to measure reflected power from the load port. If the load is not a 50 ohm resistive load, you can measure this power and calculate the SWR. You may connect a matching network between the directional coupler and load and use it to match the load to the source so the load appears to be a 50 ohm resistive load to the source. This is done by adjusting the matching network so the reflected power measures zero.

I hope this makes sense to you. A diagram would be a far better explanation.