Step 3: Pasteurise

Position your drum onto the heat source (we used a gas burner), pouring around 40 litres of water into the drum. Place a suitable platform at the bottom of the drum, one that will keep the bags above the water yet allow steam to rise. Insert a material bin liner and fill with the prepared bags of straw. Close off the bags with the liner and cover the drum with a lid. Heat the drum, steaming the bags for approximately 60 minutes. It should take around 30 minutes for the steam to make its way to the top bags (the temperature should near 95ºC ~200ºF). Leave to cool, removing the bags and transferring them to the growing area.
<p>hi :)</p><p>i'm growing oyster mushroom , following the steps you showed , i'm now in production phase its kind of hot out side 30 c but in oyster room its around 27 c the mushroom is drying out and it stopped growing the little heads are not growing i spray them 3 times a day 1.5 L in each spry .</p><p> so i need your help should i spry them more ?</p><p>or should i increase the amount of water ? </p><p>and what about the light and co2 ? </p><p>i would very happy to hear from you </p><p>because everything was going great before .</p><p>:) :) HELP ME ....</p>
<p>If you can get a simple hygrometer (you can buy ok ones for around $3 to $15) that will tell you whether you need to increase the humidity. Flushing the growing room with fresh air occasionally (then quickly regenerate humidity levels) will help prevent deformities due to CO2. During the fruit stage make sure you have some levels of light. Looking at your mushrooms, perhaps concentrate on fresh air flushes as you want to avoid the CO2 build up and try to get a gauge to note your humidity levels. I'm sure you'll solve this. :)</p>
<p>Thank you so much for the self-explanatory tutorial. Unfortunately we do not have wheat straw in my country so I have to go with sawdust method. </p><p>Please do you have tutorial on Sawdust substrate? </p><p>For a 100kg subsrate, is the following substrate preparation analysis ok?</p><p>Sawdust - 79kg</p><p>Rice Bran - 15kg</p><p>Lime - 2kg</p><p>Gypsum - 2kg</p><p>Milled Corn - 2kg</p><p>Do you think I should add any other material in order to increase yield? If yes, please suggest to me.</p><p>How long should I compost my substrate for? And would you recommend close sheet method? I mean covering the compost with polythene in a shade. And at what interval should I be wetting and turning the sawdust compost?</p><p>I'll really appreciate your prompt response.</p><p>Thanks again.</p>
<p>Your sawdust mix looks fine. Have a look at this paper re: levels <a href="http://www.bapress.ca/eah/v1n2/Tajudeen%20O.%20Oseni.pdf" rel="nofollow">http://www.bapress.ca/eah/v1n2/Tajudeen%20O.%20Ose...</a></p><p>and method.</p>
<p>Thank you so much for your response. However, please what can I use in place of gypsum cos it seems to be scarce here? Can I just simply grind school chalks? Will it work? Also, does my substrate bag have to be polypropylene? Which other type can work for me?</p><p>Thanks again</p>
<p>Gypsum adds calcium and sulphur (calcium sulphate) which are excellent nutrients for mushrooms. You can grow without it but the more nutrients the more mushrooms. If you can't find gypsum school chalk is sometimes made from calcium sulphate but sometimes calcium carbonate... perhaps you can find plaster of Paris, add water and let it set, crush it up and there you have gypsum, you can also crush up dry wall and use that.</p><p>Your bags don't need to be plastic... cotton can be used, but sterilise them first. All the best!</p>
<p>Since I can't thank you enough for your kind responses, the Almighty God will thank you for me by blessing you more abundantly. I really appreciate you. </p><p>Plaster of Paris is everywhere in my country, it's a big relief for me.</p><p>Thanks again.</p>
<p>I have just constructed a greenhouse to grow vegetables and want to incorporate mushroom with other vegetables in the greenhouse. Can you please advice me with instructions on how to get started. </p>
<p>This instructable should help you with regard to what type of growing conditions you require, however you may find that the growing environment that benefits your mushrooms may not be the same for your vegetables. If you can separate an area off to isolate your mushrooms then great, but perhaps a separate area may be simplest.</p>
<p>if my bag starts to pin sooner thin i like .... once if starts to pine can i still mix it with my sub..strait... is it ok to mix after it starts to pine ......</p>
<p>Hey Janale, if a few pins form in the grain, it could actually be a good thing. They can still be used to inoculate the straw (or even to propagate the spawn through more grain), they shouldn't rot or be a source of contamination. Paul Stamets (the mushroom guru) suggests that this can actually help give a faster and more uniform pin set in the eventual flushes, possibly due to hormones or other chemical triggers in the early pins. Your early pinning may be due to exposure to higher levels of light, and perhaps humidity and temperature changes, but in any case you can still use the pinning spawn to inoculate your substrate.</p><p>In the past we tried to emulate what happens in nature (mycelium colonisation tends to occur in darkness), but we should always be willing to experiment. Let me know how your pinning spawn does in colonising your substrate.</p><p>Hope that helps, all the best!!</p>
Are 'Ink Caps' a psilocybe variety? Do they go blue/purlish when handled?
Ink caps are of the genus coprinopsis, as opposed to psilocybe... I believe psilocybe cubensis is commonly found in India (not sure if it is found this far west)... The ink caps give off a dark brown/black spore print (not hallucinogenic blue or purple :)... as they mature over night the gills liquefy (or deliquesce) and become an inky mess... I'm not an expert, so am only guessing that these are ink caps... have a look at the end pictures of step 7 and let me know what you think...
<p>Some ink cap varieties are themselves edible, but I guess the slimy messiness puts people off. </p><p>I think P. cubensis is the kind found in the Southern US and Mexico - I just did a little research and it is found all around the tropics; India, from South America as far north as Florida, SE Asia, and Western Australia. Cultivation of this used to be quasi-legal in the UK, but the law changed in the early 2000s and it is now definitely not allowed!</p>
Psilocybes are found all around the world, if they don't grow anywhere close to where you live, you should try http://fsre.nl/ you have to send an euro (or 2 dollars) to help keep the site up and they'll send you a spore print of the psilocybe strain you choose, and for people intersted in edible, non-hallucinogenic mushrooms, try http://bemushroomed.com
do I need to spray water during the inoculation period for oyster
<p>Hi there, you don't need to spray until the bags become fully colonised and pinning has started. Only once you remove the substrate from the bags do you require to increase the room's humidity with spraying (see step 8).</p>
<p>Excellent!!! Growing Magic Mushrooms is easy, sterilized substrates like vermiculite, perlite, organic rye grain are the ideal mushroom substrate. Substrate is essential for growing mushrooms <a href="http://www.magic-spores-shop.com/growing-supplies-tools/raw-material.html" rel="nofollow">http://www.magic-spores-shop.com/growing-supplies-tools/raw-material.html</a>.</p>
<p>Great. It grow well and the equipment will make it better if you can adopt cultivation in bottle .</p>
<p>What did you use as lids on your jars? I have some slowly growing in a couple jars. I add a bit of used coffee grounds to them every once in a while. I just put the lids on very loosely because I feel like they need air but don't want too much contaminates to get in. Today I noticed some mushrooms forming! But I really have no idea what I am doing. What should I do? :s </p>
<p>i made it</p>
<p>Great! You may find the your mushrooms require a little more light and perhaps more fresh air.</p>
<p>i have the following questions: </p><p>1-how does the additive such as rice bran, soybean powder added to the growing medium to stimulate fruiting</p><p>2- is it possible that one can harvest more than once after the first harvest</p><p>3-do you mean once pinning begun the bags should be removed entirely from the substrate?</p><p>thanks for the wonderful lecture</p>
<p>1. In tests, substrates (like sawdust) supplemented with rice bran or other nitrogen sources (like fermented soybean powder or wheat bran) can increase yields. Straw has long been favoured because it is easy to get in most regions rich in lignin and cellulose.</p><p>2. Yes, you should be able to have 3 or more harvests from the same substrate, with each crop taking around a week to fully mature (make sure the substrate is kept moist).</p><p>3. Yes, remove the plastic (or reusable cloth) and then make sure that the growing room humidity increases as you do.</p><p>Thanks for your encouragement.</p>
<p>Valeu , muito obrigado ! ! ! tutorial muito detalhado e rico em imagens ! ! ! espetacular !!!!</p>
<p>Obrigado pelo seu incentivo!</p>
By material bin liner do you mean cloth or canvas?
Sorry for the late reply (your post Oct 7 2012 on mushroom growing). I did mean a canvas type bag (something that breathes).
With regard to growing mushrooms on used coffee grounds, there is a commercial producer in the UK using nothing but coffee grounds sourced from his local cafes. Good for him (they're free!) good for the cafe owners (less rubbish to be collected, as in the UK commercial waste collection is chargeable!)
Hello I was just woundering where I could get plastic? <br> <br> Great instructable!
Thanks build52,<br><br>Perhaps you could find plastic sheeting at a gardening outlet (think plastic greenhouse).
I'm sorry I ment to say where I could get plastic bags for growing mushrooms in.
Oh the bags, sorry...<br> <br> You can use any old bags, clean and reasonably thick to act as spawn bags, but if you want to, you can purchase actually spawn bags <a href="http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&tbm=shop&q=spawn%20bags" rel="nofollow">online</a>.<br> <br> I was reading of why some people like using spawn bags...<br> <br> &quot;Regardless of the type of mushroom that one wants to grow, spawn bags provide an excellent solution to handle many pounds of substrate in a totally sterile environment with relative ease. Spawn bags can be used to colonize either spawn or the final fruiting substrate (which can then be laid in a tray if desired). As a cultivation tool for the colonizing the fruiting substrate, spawn bags greatly simplify the process of bulk growing, reducing the chance of failure and speeding the growing cycle by one or two weeks since the spawning process is bypassed entirely.&quot;<br> <br> <br> <br>
Nice tutorial. What kind of medium did you use inside the glass jars? I have some Pleurotus eryngii plugs which I might try to inoculate a glass jar --&gt; plastic bag --&gt; compost full of dried grass =D
Thanks xallie!<br> <br> Have a look at the <a href="http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-Grow-Oyster-Mushroom-Spawn-Low-Tech/" rel="nofollow">How to Grow Oyster Mushroom Spawn</a> instructable. &nbsp;We trailed millet, wheat, corn and arzan (birdseed). Millet and arzan was the cheapest and most reliable, with higher&nbsp;contamination&nbsp;rates in the larger grains. &nbsp;There is no reason not to try to propagate your plugs, before inoculating your final medium.<br> <br> All the best!
Well, I have colonized plugs, but no glass jar full with colonized medium 8)
Excellent. I will be trying some of your techniques in Canada. If i remember i will let you know how they grow. Most likely i will be growing indoors during the winter so i have something to do :)
Hey thanks! Hope your mushroom growing goes smoothly... one thing to watch in cold temps is oxygen levels (depending on what heating source you are using)... if the pinning is slow or small and deformed... allow regular fresh air to flush to growing environment... all the best and thanks again.
Great instructable!
Really? Thanks!
Thanks for posting this article. I have grown oysters one time on a rack with a plastic cover to keep up moisture. but thank goodness I did not know they would produce so many spores and the corner of my room was covered, so I removed it and immediately cleaned the area with bleach and harvested the huge mushrooms. After that I was supposed to get a second flush but it started to yellow, so I composted it. I was hoping to keep it going some way, so definitely going to read on to How to grow mushroom spawn. I think it would be great if I know how to effectively contain it.
Hey NaturalCrafter... your oyster mushroom experience sounds really interesting... I haven't had an issue re: containing the spores, however, I did find mushrooms growing on the wooden supports for the plastic sheeting... I found the flushes were healthier and more vigorous when the humidity and fresh air levels were in a reasonable state... but I never got the humidity up to anywhere near the recommended 90%... If you do play with spawn production, let me know how you get on... Thanks for your interest and all the best!
All those possible bad bags would make great compost!
Also... after the straw ceases to produce mushrooms, it can be fed to livestock or composted as well :)
Have you tried breaking apart the straw once it is spent and using that mycelium to inoculate fresh substrate? Seems it would just run into the new food source. Might be worth a try.<br><br>I'm really grateful that you are doing this work. Thank you for bringing this option to the Afghan people. Options for survival are key to peace anywhere in the world and especially in an environment so harsh. Brilliant of you!
Hey thanks for your advice darrenchittick... we currently don't use the spent straw to inoculate fresh substrate (due to contamination concerns), but as you say it's worth a try... we should look into it... and also thanks so much for your encouragement...
Composting - Yes! <br>Tilling into soil - Yes! <br>Mulching - Yes! <br>Feeding to Livestock - Probably Not
Interestingly... some studies show that it is acceptable to include 15kg of spent mushroom substrate per 100kg of the diet for lambs... <a href="http://www.fungifun.org/mushworld/Oyster-Mushroom-Cultivation/mushroom-growers-handbook-1-mushworld-com-chapter-9.pdf">one book</a> I read also suggests that spent oyster mushroom straw contains enough digestible nutrition, primarily decomposed by mushrooms, to be fed to livestock... the farmers that have learned to grow mushrooms here certainly fed it to their cows... and the cows seem to really love it...
<a href="http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/paul_stamets_on_6_ways_mushrooms_can_save_the_world.html">Here</a> is a really interesting presentation from Paul Stamets (Mushroom guru and author of Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms) on how mushrooms can save our world...<br> <br> <div class="media_embed"> <iframe frameborder="0" height="390" src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/XI5frPV58tY" title="YouTube video player" width="640"></iframe></div>
Lets smoke :D

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