250 Quadcopter, Full Build

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Introduction: 250 Quadcopter, Full Build

a homemade 250 size quadcopter is not difficult to build. it just takes a bit of time to find and get he necessary components. The following components have been used in this project:

  • 4 motors, 2206-2150kv, baby beast, hobbyking
  • 4 esc's, 12 amps, afro
  • 1 receiver, frsky tfr6
  • 1 flight controller, naze32, flashed with cleanflight
  • 1 analog video transmitter with antenna, immersionrc
  • 1 fpv camera, cmos mini, hobbyking
  • 1 hd camera, mobius
  • 1 lipo alarm
  • 1 power distribution cable, hobbyking
  • 1 lipo battery, 1400 mah
  • 1 "dirty" frame, laser cut from 6 mm poplar plywood
  • 1 "clean" frame bottom, laser cut from 2 mm birch plywood
  • 1 "clean" frame top, laser cut from 2mm birch plywood
  • 2 motor mounts top, motors 1 and 3, 3d printed
  • 2 motor mounts top, motors 2 and 4, 3d printed
  • 2 motor mounts bottom, motors 1 and 3, 3d printed
  • 2 motor mounts bottom, motors 2 and 4, 3d printed
  • 6 vibration damping ball, 80 g, hobbyking
  • 6 hex spacers, 29 mm, hobbyking
  • 12 bolts, m3 x 6 mm
  • 12 bolts, m3 x 20 mm (3 per motor is enough)
  • 4 bolts, m3 x 16 (nylon)
  • 8 nuts, m3 (nylon)
  • 4 lock nuts, m4
  • 4 propellers, 5030
  • 1 alpha gel, 30 x 30 x 5
  • 1 alpha gel, 60 x 20 x 5
  • 2 velcro straps
  • lots of zip ties

Step 1: Laser Cut Frame Parts

the base frame has to be cut from 6 mm poplar plywood. the remaining frame parts are cut from 2 mm birch plywood. if you don't have a laser cutting machine just print out the plans, glue them to the plywood and cut the frame parts with a fretsaw or a scroll saw.

Step 2: Glue Adaptors to Base Frame

the 2 mm adaptors for the vibration isolator are glued to the base frame. this is necessary because the vibration isolator do not fit the 6 mm thick plywood.

Step 3: Paint Frame Parts

paint all frame parts so they are water-resistant. i like to use acrylic paint because the paint roller can be cleaned very easily with water.

Step 4: 3d Print Motor Mounts

to improve flight stability angled motor mounts are supposedly helpful. they are not a requirement and some might even dispute their effectiveness. but they can be made very easily by everyone who has access to a 3d printer.

Step 5: Attach Prop Adaptors

attach the prop mounts to the motors. in order to keep the bolts from loosening under the vibrations of the motors i always use a thread locker similar to loctite.

Step 6: Mount Rubber Vibration Isolators

mount the rubber vibration isolators to the base frame (the dirty side, i.e. the side with the vibrations from the motors). i don't use any glue to secure them, they are just held in place by a form fit.

Step 7: Attach Motors to Base Frame

each motor is bolted to the base frame with three (to save the weight of the fourth) m3x20 bolts and the two pieces of the motor mounts. care must be taken when orienting the motor mounts. the motor must be slanted towards the center of the base frame.

Step 8: Connect Esc's and Attach to Base Frame With Zip Ties

each esc's three adjacent connectors are connected to a motor. at this moment the rotation direction of the motors is arbitrary. this has to be checked later, when the flight controller is being configured. the esc's are fastened to the base frame with zip ties through the predrilled holes.

Step 9: Install Power Distribution Cable

the power distribution cable is connected to each esc and attached to the frame with a zip tie. the power cable of an immersion rc video transmitter can be directly plugged to a special connector of the power distribution cable.

Step 10: Bolt Flight Controller to "clean" Frame

the naze32 acro flight controller is bolted to the lower plate of the clean side of the frame with nylon bolts.

Step 11: Install Fpv Camera

the tiny fpv camera is attached to the frame with a zip tie. better check the orientation of the camera first.

Step 12: Connect Receiver

the naze32 comes with a wire harness than makes it easy to connect it to the receiver.

Step 13: Bolt Hex Spacers to Frame, Attach Velcros

the six hex spacers are bolted to the lower plate of the clean frame with m3x6 bolts.

Step 14: Attach Analog Transmitter With Zip Ties

mount the antenna to the video transmitter and fix the transmitter to the upper plate of the clean frame.

Step 15: Prepare Esc's and Connect to Flight Controller

remove the red wire from the jst connectors of three esc's. this might not be necessary for esc's with a linear bec. i would do it anyway. the wire can be removed by lifting the little tab of the plastic connector casing while pulling on the cable. the freed connector has to be isolated with tape.

the connectors are then connected to the flight controller. see the naze32 documentation for detailed information.

Step 16: Connect Flight Controller to Computer, Check Motor Rotation

install the cleanflight configuration software and connect the flight controller to the computer via a micro usb cable. the configuration software allows calibration of the esc's. additionally the rotation directions of the motors has to be checked. the rotation direction for a quadcopter is described in the naze32 documentation.

in case the rotation direction of a motor is found to be incorrect, simply swap two wires to the motor.

once the motor rotations are set, the bottom plate of the clean frame is connected with the bottom plate of the dirty frame with the rubber vibration isolators. this can be tricky but a pair of pliers and a screw driver help a lot.

Step 17: Conect Camera and Transmitter

connect the camera and the power supply to the video transmitter.

Step 18: Tidy Up Cabling Mess, Attach Top Plate

there are lots and lots of cables from esc's, video and others that need to be secured away from the propellers. more zip ties and tape can be very helpful...

bolt the top plate of the clean frame to the bottom part.

Step 19: Mount Props

mount a prop with correct rotation direction to each motor. in case all prop adapter have a right-hand thread use lock nuts to avoid loosing propellers in mid-air.

Step 20: Install Mobius, Lipo and Lipo Alarm

strap the mobius camera to the top plate with a velcro strap. the separation of the dirty and the clean frame with vibration isolator eliminates already some vibration from the motors. alpha gel around the mobius camera reduces vibration further.

Step 21: Done!

finally, we are done. charge your batteries and let's go test fly!

Step 22: The Files

here you find the stl-files for 3d printing, pdf and corel files for laser cutting and the full 3d model for creo elements express (free cad software from ptc).

3 People Made This Project!

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101 Comments

Hello

can Someone help to connect
Saitek Joystick X56 + Scherrer Tx700 Pro + Rx700 LR +PSU
in order to fly a quadcopter ?

And if it is impossible
How to connect the TX700 Pro and the Quanum V52 Ground Control System, please?
https://hobbyking.com/en_us/winbox-ground-control-system-v52.html
https://hobbyking.com/en_us/rx700lr-psu-reseller.html
https://hobbyking.com/en_us/tx700-pro-reseller.html

Thanks

one help pls I have also made this same drone...I had all the part ready from amazon.
I fixed up all the parts correctly but two motors does works properly, it is like they are very slow and the other some times work very good
And the about the transmitter fly sky ct6b it was working fine for 1 week but after that some of the keys don't work and I used the software given with the product and it was working fine and for information I am using cc3d board for my quadcopter
pls try to solve my problem

2 replies

open the ct6b and see if any wire is damaged.i have the same transmitter and yes ,don't buy parts from amazon but rather buy from banggood .I have also bought the parts from amazon they were defective.using the kingkong motors from banggod and they are working perfectly (are you from india ,I am).

Hi, do you have resolved this problem!?

I purchased the m4 locknuts (hobbyking), however they don't fit, then I purched the M5 version of the locknuts. They fitted, but when it reached the rubber part of the locknut, it was really hard to screw it further.

What should I do?

1 reply

Yeah, that requires quite a torque. When it's too high I first screw them to a regular bolt. The torque is then much lower the second time I tighten them on the motors.

Hey. I make for the first time a drone . can anyone help me how my receiver FrySky X4R connect with Afro Flight Naze32 rev5 ?

can i use the motor from hobbyking DYS BE1806-2300kv Brushless Multirotor Motor 3S~4S? with esc 12amp

4 replies

Yes, that works. In fact I used these motors on one of my setups with afro 12a esc's. But if you want to make a frame based on the pdf-file given, you would have to adjust the mounting holes for the motors.

I have 20a esc's is that een problem?

No, they should work fine with your motors.

Thanks for helping me!

Apart from the wires and the vibration damping balls, how else is the lower 'clean' frame secured to the 6mm 'dirty'frame base?

Is it screwed or possibly zip-tied to 6mm 'dirty' frame base?

1 reply

I put two zip ties through two of the six rubber damping balls (one on each side). But I did not tighten the zip ties much. The aim was really just to limit the motion and make sure the top and the bottom would not separate.

I accidentally bought '50g vibration damping balls' instead of the '80g vibration damping balls'...

Do I have to buy the 80g ones or can I just go ahead with the 50g balls?

1 reply

I don't think that's a problem since these values are not really scientific. The problem of vibration isolation is not solvable with just a simple value like 50g or 80g. Just try them out, they might work just fine.

My original intention for using these rubber thingies was to isolate the naze board and the camera from motor vibration. The naze in order to reduce random twitches caused by vibration. The camera to remove the rolling shutter effect. With Betaflight I don't even use these "dampers" anymore thanks to sensor data filtering implemented in Betaflight. To remove the rolling shutter effect in my videos I use a 5 mm thick alpha gel underneath the camera. The camera itself is held in place with a few rubber bands.

Hi, nice build. I noticed in step 6 you appear to know what way the wires go on the motor. Are you spinning them to determine resistance? I'd be curious if there's a technique I'm not aware of. Cheers, Dan

1 reply

Are you talking about the direction of rotation? I see two ways to get them correct:

1) Connect the wires arbitrarily, check rotation direction, switch two wires if necessary

2) Connect the wires arbitrarily, check rotation, change direction with the esc flashing tool (it's really simple with blheli)

Can 6mm black acrylic be used instead for the base?