Introduction: 250 Quadcopter, Full Build

Picture of 250 Quadcopter, Full Build

a homemade 250 size quadcopter is not difficult to build. it just takes a bit of time to find and get he necessary components. The following components have been used in this project:

  • 4 motors, 2206-2150kv, baby beast, hobbyking
  • 4 esc's, 12 amps, afro
  • 1 receiver, frsky tfr6
  • 1 flight controller, naze32, flashed with cleanflight
  • 1 analog video transmitter with antenna, immersionrc
  • 1 fpv camera, cmos mini, hobbyking
  • 1 hd camera, mobius
  • 1 lipo alarm
  • 1 power distribution cable, hobbyking
  • 1 lipo battery, 1400 mah
  • 1 "dirty" frame, laser cut from 6 mm poplar plywood
  • 1 "clean" frame bottom, laser cut from 2 mm birch plywood
  • 1 "clean" frame top, laser cut from 2mm birch plywood
  • 2 motor mounts top, motors 1 and 3, 3d printed
  • 2 motor mounts top, motors 2 and 4, 3d printed
  • 2 motor mounts bottom, motors 1 and 3, 3d printed
  • 2 motor mounts bottom, motors 2 and 4, 3d printed
  • 6 vibration damping ball, 80 g, hobbyking
  • 6 hex spacers, 29 mm, hobbyking
  • 12 bolts, m3 x 6 mm
  • 12 bolts, m3 x 20 mm (3 per motor is enough)
  • 4 bolts, m3 x 16 (nylon)
  • 8 nuts, m3 (nylon)
  • 4 lock nuts, m4
  • 4 propellers, 5030
  • 1 alpha gel, 30 x 30 x 5
  • 1 alpha gel, 60 x 20 x 5
  • 2 velcro straps
  • lots of zip ties

Step 1: Laser Cut Frame Parts

Picture of Laser Cut Frame Parts

the base frame has to be cut from 6 mm poplar plywood. the remaining frame parts are cut from 2 mm birch plywood. if you don't have a laser cutting machine just print out the plans, glue them to the plywood and cut the frame parts with a fretsaw or a scroll saw.

Step 2: Glue Adaptors to Base Frame

Picture of Glue Adaptors to Base Frame

the 2 mm adaptors for the vibration isolator are glued to the base frame. this is necessary because the vibration isolator do not fit the 6 mm thick plywood.

Step 3: Paint Frame Parts

Picture of Paint Frame Parts

paint all frame parts so they are water-resistant. i like to use acrylic paint because the paint roller can be cleaned very easily with water.

Step 4: 3d Print Motor Mounts

Picture of 3d Print Motor Mounts

to improve flight stability angled motor mounts are supposedly helpful. they are not a requirement and some might even dispute their effectiveness. but they can be made very easily by everyone who has access to a 3d printer.

Step 5: Attach Prop Adaptors

Picture of Attach Prop Adaptors

attach the prop mounts to the motors. in order to keep the bolts from loosening under the vibrations of the motors i always use a thread locker similar to loctite.

Step 6: Mount Rubber Vibration Isolators

Picture of Mount Rubber Vibration Isolators

mount the rubber vibration isolators to the base frame (the dirty side, i.e. the side with the vibrations from the motors). i don't use any glue to secure them, they are just held in place by a form fit.

Step 7: Attach Motors to Base Frame

Picture of Attach Motors to Base Frame

each motor is bolted to the base frame with three (to save the weight of the fourth) m3x20 bolts and the two pieces of the motor mounts. care must be taken when orienting the motor mounts. the motor must be slanted towards the center of the base frame.

Step 8: Connect Esc's and Attach to Base Frame With Zip Ties

Picture of Connect Esc's and Attach to Base Frame With Zip Ties

each esc's three adjacent connectors are connected to a motor. at this moment the rotation direction of the motors is arbitrary. this has to be checked later, when the flight controller is being configured. the esc's are fastened to the base frame with zip ties through the predrilled holes.

Step 9: Install Power Distribution Cable

Picture of Install Power Distribution Cable

the power distribution cable is connected to each esc and attached to the frame with a zip tie. the power cable of an immersion rc video transmitter can be directly plugged to a special connector of the power distribution cable.

Step 10: Bolt Flight Controller to "clean" Frame

Picture of Bolt Flight Controller to "clean" Frame

the naze32 acro flight controller is bolted to the lower plate of the clean side of the frame with nylon bolts.

Step 11: Install Fpv Camera

Picture of Install Fpv Camera

the tiny fpv camera is attached to the frame with a zip tie. better check the orientation of the camera first.

Step 12: Connect Receiver

Picture of Connect Receiver

the naze32 comes with a wire harness than makes it easy to connect it to the receiver.

Step 13: Bolt Hex Spacers to Frame, Attach Velcros

Picture of Bolt Hex Spacers to Frame, Attach Velcros

the six hex spacers are bolted to the lower plate of the clean frame with m3x6 bolts.

Step 14: Attach Analog Transmitter With Zip Ties

Picture of Attach Analog Transmitter With Zip Ties

mount the antenna to the video transmitter and fix the transmitter to the upper plate of the clean frame.

Step 15: Prepare Esc's and Connect to Flight Controller

Picture of Prepare Esc's and Connect to Flight Controller

remove the red wire from the jst connectors of three esc's. this might not be necessary for esc's with a linear bec. i would do it anyway. the wire can be removed by lifting the little tab of the plastic connector casing while pulling on the cable. the freed connector has to be isolated with tape.

the connectors are then connected to the flight controller. see the naze32 documentation for detailed information.

Step 16: Connect Flight Controller to Computer, Check Motor Rotation

Picture of Connect Flight Controller to Computer, Check Motor Rotation

install the cleanflight configuration software and connect the flight controller to the computer via a micro usb cable. the configuration software allows calibration of the esc's. additionally the rotation directions of the motors has to be checked. the rotation direction for a quadcopter is described in the naze32 documentation.

in case the rotation direction of a motor is found to be incorrect, simply swap two wires to the motor.

once the motor rotations are set, the bottom plate of the clean frame is connected with the bottom plate of the dirty frame with the rubber vibration isolators. this can be tricky but a pair of pliers and a screw driver help a lot.

Step 17: Conect Camera and Transmitter

Picture of Conect Camera and Transmitter

connect the camera and the power supply to the video transmitter.

Step 18: Tidy Up Cabling Mess, Attach Top Plate

Picture of Tidy Up Cabling Mess, Attach Top Plate

there are lots and lots of cables from esc's, video and others that need to be secured away from the propellers. more zip ties and tape can be very helpful...

bolt the top plate of the clean frame to the bottom part.

Step 19: Mount Props

mount a prop with correct rotation direction to each motor. in case all prop adapter have a right-hand thread use lock nuts to avoid loosing propellers in mid-air.

Step 20: Install Mobius, Lipo and Lipo Alarm

Picture of Install Mobius, Lipo and Lipo Alarm

strap the mobius camera to the top plate with a velcro strap. the separation of the dirty and the clean frame with vibration isolator eliminates already some vibration from the motors. alpha gel around the mobius camera reduces vibration further.

Step 21: Done!

Picture of Done!

finally, we are done. charge your batteries and let's go test fly!

Step 22: The Files

here you find the stl-files for 3d printing, pdf and corel files for laser cutting and the full 3d model for creo elements express (free cad software from ptc).


paladin66 (author)2016-12-27


can Someone help to connect
Saitek Joystick X56 + Scherrer Tx700 Pro + Rx700 LR +PSU
in order to fly a quadcopter ?

And if it is impossible
How to connect the TX700 Pro and the Quanum V52 Ground Control System, please?


Ayush Naik (author)2016-08-29

one help pls I have also made this same drone...I had all the part ready from amazon.
I fixed up all the parts correctly but two motors does works properly, it is like they are very slow and the other some times work very good
And the about the transmitter fly sky ct6b it was working fine for 1 week but after that some of the keys don't work and I used the software given with the product and it was working fine and for information I am using cc3d board for my quadcopter
pls try to solve my problem

open the ct6b and see if any wire is damaged.i have the same transmitter and yes ,don't buy parts from amazon but rather buy from banggood .I have also bought the parts from amazon they were defective.using the kingkong motors from banggod and they are working perfectly (are you from india ,I am).

AndreMendes (author)Ayush Naik2016-10-05

Hi, do you have resolved this problem!?

Cyberi (author)2016-07-18

I purchased the m4 locknuts (hobbyking), however they don't fit, then I purched the M5 version of the locknuts. They fitted, but when it reached the rubber part of the locknut, it was really hard to screw it further.

What should I do? (author)Cyberi2016-07-18

Yeah, that requires quite a torque. When it's too high I first screw them to a regular bolt. The torque is then much lower the second time I tighten them on the motors.

RaptorS (author)2016-06-16

Hey. I make for the first time a drone . can anyone help me how my receiver FrySky X4R connect with Afro Flight Naze32 rev5 ?

RaptorS (author)2016-05-30

can i use the motor from hobbyking DYS BE1806-2300kv Brushless Multirotor Motor 3S~4S? with esc 12amp (author)RaptorS 2016-05-30

Yes, that works. In fact I used these motors on one of my setups with afro 12a esc's. But if you want to make a frame based on the pdf-file given, you would have to adjust the mounting holes for the motors.

RaptorS (author)muellerr.ch2016-06-08

I have 20a esc's is that een problem? (author)RaptorS 2016-06-08

No, they should work fine with your motors.

RaptorS (author)muellerr.ch2016-05-31

Thanks for helping me!

Cyberi (author)2016-03-22

Apart from the wires and the vibration damping balls, how else is the lower 'clean' frame secured to the 6mm 'dirty'frame base?

Is it screwed or possibly zip-tied to 6mm 'dirty' frame base? (author)Cyberi2016-03-22

I put two zip ties through two of the six rubber damping balls (one on each side). But I did not tighten the zip ties much. The aim was really just to limit the motion and make sure the top and the bottom would not separate.

Cyberi (author)2016-03-21

I accidentally bought '50g vibration damping balls' instead of the '80g vibration damping balls'...

Do I have to buy the 80g ones or can I just go ahead with the 50g balls? (author)Cyberi2016-03-21

I don't think that's a problem since these values are not really scientific. The problem of vibration isolation is not solvable with just a simple value like 50g or 80g. Just try them out, they might work just fine.

My original intention for using these rubber thingies was to isolate the naze board and the camera from motor vibration. The naze in order to reduce random twitches caused by vibration. The camera to remove the rolling shutter effect. With Betaflight I don't even use these "dampers" anymore thanks to sensor data filtering implemented in Betaflight. To remove the rolling shutter effect in my videos I use a 5 mm thick alpha gel underneath the camera. The camera itself is held in place with a few rubber bands.

om3ganet (author)2016-03-05

Hi, nice build. I noticed in step 6 you appear to know what way the wires go on the motor. Are you spinning them to determine resistance? I'd be curious if there's a technique I'm not aware of. Cheers, Dan (author)om3ganet2016-03-05

Are you talking about the direction of rotation? I see two ways to get them correct:

1) Connect the wires arbitrarily, check rotation direction, switch two wires if necessary

2) Connect the wires arbitrarily, check rotation, change direction with the esc flashing tool (it's really simple with blheli)

Cyberi (author)2016-03-05

Can 6mm black acrylic be used instead for the base? (author)Cyberi2016-03-05

Yes, that's possible but it is brittle and may not take hard crashes well.

Adityaarun (author)2016-02-02

1 Final question can you give me the measurements for both the coreldraw files, they seem to change for some reason. The height and width that we input in coreldraw. Thanks. (author)Adityaarun2016-02-02

I'm not sure which dimensions you need. So I hope the following measurements help.

The bounding box for the 6mm plywood drawing measures 214.55mm x 225.32mm. With these dimensions the center of the motors lie on a circle having a diameter of 260mm. The center of the motors actually span a perfect square.

The bounding box for the 2mm plywood drawing measures 223.4mm x 113.6mm. Since the holes for the bolts have to align you can lay the 2mm plates over the 6mm plate as a check.

Adityaarun (author)2016-01-06

Is there an alternative for the wood? (author)Adityaarun2016-01-10

What did you have in mind?

I think wood is about the cheapest material you can use. It can easily be sawn, drilled, laser cut, etc. But there are alternatives such as carbon or glass fiber reinforced plastic or even non reinforced plastic. The carbon and glass fiber plastics are a mess to saw and are best cut with a waterjet. If I'd want a frame made from these materials I would most likely buy a frame such as a zmr250 or a lumenier qav250, etc.

The non reinforced plastic is too heavy when compared to plywood. Except when it is 3d printed (fdm for example) and the cross sections are modified to compensate for the lower rigidity.

Adityaarun (author)muellerr.ch2016-01-11

No, I meant if I cold use a different type of wood. Thanks for the inputs anyway. (author)Adityaarun2016-01-11

I like plywood due to its rigidity, strength and dimensional stability. But I'm sure you could also use another type of wood.

Adityaarun (author)muellerr.ch2016-01-14

So, it can be any type of plywood, and it doesn't have to be poplar and birch? (author)Adityaarun2016-01-15

Sure, as long as it's not too heavy or to floppy...

Ripunjoy Choudhury (author)2015-12-25


Cyberi (author)2015-11-20

Hi, I'm going to attempt to make this for my electronics major project for high school.
I was wondering if you could please answer my questions in order to assist me in making this project? Here are the questions:

• What Remote Control (Transmitter) did you use?
• What kind of Remote Controllers can be used?
• Can I use these motors instead, as HobbyKing has stopped selling the Multistar 'Baby Beast' (V2) motors:

Thanks! (author)Cyberi2015-11-20

Hello Cyberi, sure I can give you some answers:

- You can use any remote as long as it has at least 4(better 8) channels. I use a Futaba t8fg, which I believe was replaced by the t14sg (= expensive!). If I had to buy a replacement I would get a frsky taranis, since it seems to work great and does not cost as much as a Futaba.

- The motors might work but they seem a bit heavy. If I had to buy new motors I would get the multistar elite vortex upgrade motors from hobbyking (2x ccw, 2x cw). These are new motors so I have no experience with them. If you want something proven get some type of 1806-2300kv motors.

- I always use 3s batteries with my 250s. In order to fly really aggressively one would probably need 4s lipos. Just check that the esc's and the motors can handle the higher voltage.

By the way, if you upload new firmware to your flight controller you might want to consider using betaflight together with blheli and oneshot. I'v upgraded all my 250s with it and they fly much more stable without random twitches or roll/nick oscillations.

Good luck with your project!

Cyberi (author)muellerr.ch2015-11-21

Thanks a lot for the answers :)
I checked out the prices for those remote controls and they're way too expensive for me. The maximum I'm willing to spend for the Remote Control is $100.

• Could I simply replace the whole Rx and Tx of this build for this instead? :

(Turnigy TGY-i6 AFHDS Transmitter and 6CH Receiver)

• Also, what would you use to 'receive' the footage from the immersionrc in this build?

Thanks once again! (author)Cyberi2015-11-21

I think the TGY-i6 (2.4Ghz, frequency hopping, 6 channels) should suffice for flying and mode switching, maybe even pid adjusting in-flight (depending on the switch types).

If you are on a budget I would not get an immersionrc transmitter, they are a bit expensive. I have several ft951 from hobbyking and they work fine but give me a bit less of a flying range. An ft952 should be better but I don't know if 200mW is legal in your country. To receive the signal you have lots of options. Are you going to use fpv goggles or an lcd screen? Make sure you have the same channels on both the receiver and the transmitter.

In the past I have used a Raceband receiver from immersionrc for my dominator goggles, an immersionrc duo and a boscam receiver. The boscam was only compatible with my tbs receivers. By the way don't buy a 25mW tbs greenhorn transmitter. It gave me a flight radius of around 20 yards!!!

Cyberi (author)muellerr.ch2015-11-22

Alright, I've made the decision that I'm going to go with this build but I'm going to modify the motors to the 'Multistar Elite Vortex Upgrade. 2204-2300kv'.

And I will modify the Transmitter and Receiver to the 'TGY-i6'.

I will also buy a used 'Fatshark Predator V2 RTF FPV kit' on Ebay for the FPV:

Hopefully everything will be compatible and that it all goes well!
I'll post the results mid next year.


UpaT made it! (author)2015-09-23

hey guys i really like this page but besides this page i found this app that helps you build your own drone in one day check it out

rony31 (author)UpaT2015-10-14

dude please tell me how to make a simple remote control...because i have already done the quardcoptar...but i need remote system in that

MoTinkerGNome made it! (author)2015-09-19

My version

navnitsingh (author)2015-08-21

I want to make an quadroter hoverbike .. So can u provide me the instructables on this project

stupidityisanart (author)2015-03-15

How much did it cost for the whole build?

without fpv and camera the quad
cost around $180 ($100 motors/esc's, $30 flight controller, $20
receiver, $12 lipo battery, $4 lipo alarm, $4 vibration damping balls,
$4 aluminum hex spacers).

Revanchist (author)muellerr.ch2015-08-01

How did you get to that??!!!!! I'm in hobby king and all the materials you have listed go for at least $269... and that's not including the battery, frame alpha gels, zip ties, bolts, spacers... etc... here's a picture... I was excited to see $180 and added all to the cart... sigh...

Revanchist (author)Revanchist2015-08-01

There's also no remote control...

couleurastas made it! (author)2015-06-15

this is a great job, thank you.

Whatever, there are some little problemes, that could easyly correct.

It fly perfectly after that , there is absolutly no vibration at all for video filming.

Akin Yildiz (author)2015-05-25

finally all my questions got answered in a very simple manner.


i am working on a custom build myself. 120 or 200mm frame, very small. 5x4.5 props, 2000kv, cc3d or multiwii, 3s1250 and/or 2200 (to compare weight), 18 or 30A esc. is what i'm thinking and hoping that will work together.. no fpv or camera, purely for acrobatic reasons.. as light as possible.

quick question, why would I need 30A instead of 18A esc. as long as my battery is 25-50C.?

thank you very much for sharing..

Basement Engineer (author)2015-04-22

Hey, I'm thinking about doing this build, but I have a question. Could you give a .pdf with reference measurements for cutting, or could you tell me the length of the plates so I could print them out to be the right size?

You are right there are no reference measurements. What you could use as a reference is the distance between the motors which is 260 mm (it's not 250 mm because of the angled motor mounts that require a larger spacing in order to get 250 mm at the props). I hope this helps. If not let me know and I'll make a pdf with reference dimensions. (author)muellerr.ch2015-04-24

I just noticed that my answer is ambiguous. The 260 mm apply to the diagonal motor distance.

ulucan.kaymak (author)2015-04-11

Hello, I dont have 3D printer, how can ı angle motor mount, Do ı really need, how do I live a problem, if I dont use?

Thanks :)

Honestly I'm not yet convinced that the angled motor mounts help at all. I think it's much more important to tune the PID settings of the flight controller.

If you want to angle the motors a bit anyway, you could use a varying number of washers for each bolt.

Ray Kim (author)2015-03-24

what power distribution cable do you use ? is it JST to 4X2mm gold connector ?

If yes, do you change XT60 connector of battery in order to connect to JST power cable ?

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