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250 to 5000 watts PWM DC/AC 220V Power Inverter

Picture of 250 to 5000 watts PWM DC/AC 220V Power Inverter
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This is a heavy duty design of a Pulse Width Modulator DC/AC inverter using the chip SG3524 .
I've been using it as a backup to power up all my house when outages occur since aprox. 6 years non stop.

If you like the work and intend to build the circuit don't forget to click on the "follow" button so I know how many people benefit from the design, Thanks.

Notes:

1> The schematic circuit design is for a 250 watt output, while the pics are of my 1500 watts inverter that i built, to increase the power of the circuit you have to add more of the Q7 and Q8 transistors in parallel, each pair you add will increase your power by 250 watts, ex: to get 750 watts of power from the inverter you need to add in parallel 2 of Q7 and 2 of Q8 to the original design.

2> If you increase the power transistors you have to enlarge the T2 transformer to match the new needs, the circuit's transformer is rated 25 amps to handle 250 watts of 220v, for every 1 additional amp you need on the 220v side you have to increase 10 amps on the 12v side, of course there are limits to the thickness of the winding so if you need more than 750 watts i recommend that you use a 24VDC supply instead of 12 volts:

DC voltage and Transformer "T2" winding recommendation:
Power     Supply     Winding
750w       12VDC     P:24V "12-0-12" / S:220V
1500w     24VDC     P:48V "24-0-24" / S:220V
2250w     36VDC     P:72V "36-0-36" / S:220V
3000w     48VDC     P:96V "48-0-48" / S:220V
3750w     60VDC     P:120V "60-0-60" / S:220V
4500w     72VDC     P:144V "72-0-72" / S:220V
5250w     84VDC     P:168V "84-0-84" / S:220V
*The transformer should be "center tapped" at the primary side.
**You can make the secondary 110v if needed.
***The transformer in the pic is a custom made (48V center tapped / 220v ) 2000 watts, weights like 10 kilos.

3> R1 is to set the PWM duty cycle to 220v. Connect voltmeter to the output of your inverter and vary VR1 till the voltage reads 220V.

4> R2 is to set the frequency to 50 or 60 Hz (R2 range is between 40Hz to 75Hz), so guys that do not have a frequency meter are advised to blindly put this variable resistor mid-way which should drop you in the range of 50~60 Hz.
If you want you can substitue the variable resistor with a fixed resistor using the following formula: F = 1.3 / (RxC)
in our case to get a 50Hz output we remove both the 100K and the variable 100K both from pin 6 and we put instead a 260K fixed resistor and we leave the 0.1uF (the 104 cap) as it is, this change should give out a fixed 50Hz as per the formula :
1.3 / (260,000 ohm x 0.0000001 farad) = 50Hz
But in reality it will not exactly give 50Hz because the 260K resistor has a specific error value margin so does the capacitor, that's why i recommend a variable resistor so that accurate calibration can be achieved.

5> Use either tantalum or polyester film "as in pic" for the 104 caps, ceramic disc caps change value once hot and this in turn changes the frequency of the inverter so they are not recommended.

6> Pin 10 of the SG3524 can be used to auto shut down the inverter, once a positive voltage is given instead of negative to pin10, the SG3524 will stop oscillating. This is useful for persons wanting to add some cosmetic makeup to their inverters like overload cutoff, low battery cutoff or overheating cutoff.

7> Wiring connections on the power stage side should be thick enough to handle the huge amps drain from the batteries. I marked them with dark black on the schema also I included a pic so you see how thick those wires must be.

8> The design does not include a battery charger since each person will be building a custom version of the inverter with specific power needs. If you are ordering a custom made transformer you can ask them to take out for you an additional output wire on the primary side to give 14v (between point 0 and this new wire) and use it to charge a 12v battery, of course this needs a seperate circuit to control charging auto cut-off. But anyway this is not advisable because it will shorten the life of the transformer itself since using it as a charger will toast the enamel coating layer of the copper wires over time. Anyway .. YES can be done to reduce cost.

9> A cooling fan will be needed to reduce heat off the heat sinks and transformer, i recommend getting a 220v fan and connecting it to the output T2 transformer, when you power up the circuit the fan will start this will always give you a simple way to know that 220v is present and everything is OK.. You can use a computer's old power supply fan if you like.
Note that the fan must suck air out from the inverter case and NOT blow inside, so install it the correct way or it will be useless.
Also note how I fixed both the heat sinks and where the fan is, in a way that the fan sucks hot air from like a channel between the 2 heatsinks. 

10> 2 circuit breakers are recommended instead of fuses, one on the DC side and one on the AC side, depending on your design
Ex: for a 24vDC ( 1500 watts design ) put a 60Amp breaker on the DC side and a 6Amp on the AC side.
For every 1amp of 220vAC you will be draining like 8 to 10 Amps from the 12v battery, make your calculations !

11> The 2 Heat sinks should be big enough to cool the transistors, they are separate and should NOT touch each other. "see the pics"

12> Important: If you're building a big design that uses more than 24VDC as power source, make sure not to supply the driver circuit with more than 24v maximum. (EX: If you have 4 batteries 4x12 = 48v , connect the v+ supply of the driver circuit to the second battery's (+) terminal with a thin 1 mm wire which is more than enough. this supplies the driver circuit with +24v while supplies the power transformer with +48v) "see the batteries pic example"

13> "Optional" : Deep Cycle batteries are your best choice, consider them for best results .. read more

14> Be cautious when building this circuit it involves high voltage which is lethal, any part you touch when the circuit is ON could give you a nasty painful jolt, specially the heat-sinks, never touch them when the circuit is on to see if the transistors are hot !! I ate it several times :)

15> The optional "Low voltage warning" is already embedded in the PCB layout, you can disregard it and not install it's components if you do not need it. It does not affect the functionality of the main circuit.

16> The Motorola 2N6277 is a durable heavy duty power transistor, it is used in many US tanks for it's reliability but unfortunately it is a very hard to find part, instead you can substitute each 2N6277 with 2 x 2N3773 or any equivalent.

17> I've included an optional "Battery level indicator" circuit diagram that has 4 LEDs, you can see it installed on the front panel of my inverter pic, it is functioning great and shows precisely how much juice the batteries still have. I have included a small relay that is powered by the last LED to auto shutoff the inverter once last LED is off.

18> Also included an optional "Overload circuit", it is very easy to build and can be calibrated to the desired overload current threshold cutoff point through the potentiometer VR1.
R1 is rated 5watts for inverters upto 1000 watts. For bigger versions of the inverter like 1000 to 3000 watts inverters, replace R1 (1 ohm, 5watts) with (1 ohm, 17watts) which should handle loads upto 10 VA.
Make sure you install a proper relay to handle big current drains.

19> Please guys take your time to read and understand my notes, browse and read the posts and questions asked by others because there are many useful information listed in replies. The main reason for me not answering your question is because it has already been asked before and answered upon.

20> It would be nice and inspiring for others if you take some photos and show us how you built your version, any additions to the circuit are mostly welcomed to be listed here, we can all benefit from them.

21> Please click on the "I've made it" button/icon if you did build the circuit so I know how many people benefit from this design.

22> Testing your completed circuit with crocodile clips or thin wires WILL NOT WORK ! You'll get wrong voltage readings.
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hii, nick when i connect the 12-0-12 20A/ 220vac transformer then the transformer output is 110v ac so what is the problem ?

Mr.Nick... I use transformator 10A CT 12v/ 220v and 5A 220v/ 12v. If You don't mind, I need Your help to explaine about the cable, it's that true or not. Thx for your help, GBU.

IMG01514-20150420-1618.jpgIMG01523-20150420-1725.jpg

Sorry Mr.Nick...I tried to send the picture last night but it failed. Since the connection was bad ( the blank one) appeared on the forum five times. Sorry for that. I don't want people think it's a joke

Hi...Nick and someone who can help me....I need help, I've finished my inverter but no electricity flow. Was that because of the wrong wire installment or what? Pin 11 and 14 are 3,8v each. I've tried to upside-down the wire but it didn't work. My questions are: 1. The flow BC 337 PCB to BasisTJP122. How about Emiter to Emiter? n Collector to Collector?

2. I've put on diode 6A, anode connected to emiter and catode connected to Collector. What should I do then? Where should the cables from Basis n Emiter go?

Thx Mr. Nick, GBU

dumipunchi7 days ago

I have made it.Great ,it's working without issues.I used IRF44Zx4 with 12V/240V 8A transformer.1K used for 3.9K feedback circuit.Removed D1 D2 in 12V transformer.

Thx Zouein.

pls help
pls help
Pls I'm having difficulties to connect them

i have build this circuit but facing problem with that is output voltage never exceeds 170v......please give kind suggestions...

henk.vuren15 days ago

Hi Nick, I have made PCB's for the Inverter, including low
voltage, over load protection and battery level indicator. Once tested I will
post all the pcb's.

Just one question on the transformer, I am building a 12v to
220V, 750W model, this means the secondary current is approximately 3.5A. The
total current in the primary is then 62.5A (750W / 12V = 62.5A).

  • 1.Will the current in each 12V section primary be
    half of this, 31.25A?
  • 2.If so, what will the primary wire thickness be?

Many thanks

Henk

stun gun made it!16 days ago
Hi Mr-Nick
pin 9 contact (e) bc327 our no
2-80vac only what's problem
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mohumed18 days ago

how many irfp250 should i but to get 1500 watt

Hi Nick

The inverter is working but the feedback circuit does not seem to work.I have used IRF130 Mosfets with a 200Watt 36V036V Transformer.When I adjust the Voltage pot nothing happens.So when i put load the Voltage drops from 220V to about 170 V with a 550Watt Load.

Hello Hennie.gerber.3,

Yea, i got the same problem like you, so i'm reconstructing my circuit to see if i'll get it right. Please do keep me informed if you figure out the problem.

jawaaz.ab228 days ago

WHat if we use RC filter after pins 14 and 11 and then to mosfet so that we can get a SInewave output..we can convert square wave into sine wave using RC filter

Nick_Zouein (author)  jawaaz.ab226 days ago

test it out and post us your results.

jluga1 month ago

hi nick,,

is this kind of inverter can drive a 2hp capacitor motor? or not..

jluga1 month ago

sir ur power inverter output 220v has a 0.1uf 600v n 2.2uf 400v capacitor is this a non polar cap.?

jluga1 month ago

sir ur power inverter output 220v has a 0.1uf 600v n 2.2uf 400v capacitor is this a non polar cap.?

SantoC11 month ago

hi Nick,

All devices in the home with this circuit does work in a healthy way?

refrigerator
TV
washing machine
computer

household appliances such as. Sorry bad English.

muhaimin1 month ago

can someone teach me from beginning ? i would love to know, i really want to make an inveter that can use in ambulance that required 3kW but only using 12V battery, please help me out by sent into my email

muhaimin.latiff90@gmail.com

jluga2 months ago

hi nick i built ur power inverter using irfp250 and it work for ligthing,tv,but not on elecrticfan why?my inverter is 1000 watts and my transformeris is 45 amps 12 volt 40ah deep cycle battery.i need ur reply pls,thanks,

gaddamvggv2 months ago

What is Output Wave form is it Square or Sine ??

Can you Please post the pictures of output AC Signals ??

jluga2 months ago

hi nick.can i used transistor d1047 insted of 2n6277

ainsworthl2 months ago

can somebody tell where where I can order the pcb for this circuit.

Ujang44882 months ago
IIt schematic battery charger for add in my inverter. It tested by me
Ujang44882 months ago
Hi nick and all
Sorry for my english, thank you nick for your schematic. I'm succes building many inverter with your schematic. First inverter 2 year ago (ujang4488), and all my inverter working perfect. This last my inverter, 20 amp transformer + feedback (using same transformer and I added 12 volt output for feedback) + battery charger (adjust voltage with ic lm317). This all fiture only used 1 transformer.
Sorry, problem networking. I cannot send pictures
anderde2 months ago

hello

I need more infomation about the transformer, such as number of turns of each coil.

Thanks

amin20052 months ago

hello man

are you have any application note for SG3524 or tc4422?

how we can control inverter's switch using micro-controller like AVR or PICs? are you have any shematic of this circuit?

lrdesigns2 months ago

Hello Nick , what will be the best method to print this inventor PCB Layout you supplied, i realy want to build this inventor , have ordered parts , will like to build it on a PCB, not perfboard

jluga2 months ago

thanks nick, for ur reply and more power !! :)

kathkathmina3 months ago

hi i'm making an 300W inverter based on your circuit, how will I know how many ampere the transformer is?

Nick_Zouein (author)  kathkathmina2 months ago

15 amps

jluga3 months ago

can u help me make my battery not to drain,,so that my inverter work round the clock 24 hours a day. thanks to ur reply,my email rustico.luga@yahoo.com rustico.luga@gmail.com

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