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250 to 5000 watts PWM DC/AC 220V Power Inverter

Picture of 250 to 5000 watts PWM DC/AC 220V Power Inverter
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This is a heavy duty design of a Pulse Width Modulator DC/AC inverter using the chip SG3524 .
I've been using it as a backup to power up all my house when outages occur since aprox. 6 years non stop.

If you like the work and intend to build the circuit don't forget to click on the "follow" button so I know how many people benefit from the design, Thanks.

Notes:

1> The schematic circuit design is for a 250 watt output, while the pics are of my 1500 watts inverter that i built, to increase the power of the circuit you have to add more of the Q7 and Q8 transistors in parallel, each pair you add will increase your power by 250 watts, ex: to get 750 watts of power from the inverter you need to add in parallel 2 of Q7 and 2 of Q8 to the original design.

2> If you increase the power transistors you have to enlarge the T2 transformer to match the new needs, the circuit's transformer is rated 25 amps to handle 250 watts of 220v, for every 1 additional amp you need on the 220v side you have to increase 10 amps on the 12v side, of course there are limits to the thickness of the winding so if you need more than 750 watts i recommend that you use a 24VDC supply instead of 12 volts:

DC voltage and Transformer "T2" winding recommendation:
Power     Supply     Winding
750w       12VDC     P:24V "12-0-12" / S:220V
1500w     24VDC     P:48V "24-0-24" / S:220V
2250w     36VDC     P:72V "36-0-36" / S:220V
3000w     48VDC     P:96V "48-0-48" / S:220V
3750w     60VDC     P:120V "60-0-60" / S:220V
4500w     72VDC     P:144V "72-0-72" / S:220V
5250w     84VDC     P:168V "84-0-84" / S:220V
*The transformer should be "center tapped" at the primary side.
**You can make the secondary 110v if needed.
***The transformer in the pic is a custom made (48V center tapped / 220v ) 2000 watts, weights like 10 kilos.

3> R1 is to set the PWM duty cycle to 220v. Connect voltmeter to the output of your inverter and vary VR1 till the voltage reads 220V.

4> R2 is to set the frequency to 50 or 60 Hz (R2 range is between 40Hz to 75Hz), so guys that do not have a frequency meter are advised to blindly put this variable resistor mid-way which should drop you in the range of 50~60 Hz.
If you want you can substitue the variable resistor with a fixed resistor using the following formula: F = 1.3 / (RxC)
in our case to get a 50Hz output we remove both the 100K and the variable 100K both from pin 6 and we put instead a 260K fixed resistor and we leave the 0.1uF (the 104 cap) as it is, this change should give out a fixed 50Hz as per the formula :
1.3 / (260,000 ohm x 0.0000001 farad) = 50Hz
But in reality it will not exactly give 50Hz because the 260K resistor has a specific error value margin so does the capacitor, that's why i recommend a variable resistor so that accurate calibration can be achieved.

5> Use either tantalum or polyester film "as in pic" for the 104 caps, ceramic disc caps change value once hot and this in turn changes the frequency of the inverter so they are not recommended.

6> Pin 10 of the SG3524 can be used to auto shut down the inverter, once a positive voltage is given instead of negative to pin10, the SG3524 will stop oscillating. This is useful for persons wanting to add some cosmetic makeup to their inverters like overload cutoff, low battery cutoff or overheating cutoff.

7> Wiring connections on the power stage side should be thick enough to handle the huge amps drain from the batteries. I marked them with dark black on the schema also I included a pic so you see how thick those wires must be.

8> The design does not include a battery charger since each person will be building a custom version of the inverter with specific power needs. If you are ordering a custom made transformer you can ask them to take out for you an additional output wire on the primary side to give 14v (between point 0 and this new wire) and use it to charge a 12v battery, of course this needs a seperate circuit to control charging auto cut-off. But anyway this is not advisable because it will shorten the life of the transformer itself since using it as a charger will toast the enamel coating layer of the copper wires over time. Anyway .. YES can be done to reduce cost.

9> A cooling fan will be needed to reduce heat off the heat sinks and transformer, i recommend getting a 220v fan and connecting it to the output T2 transformer, when you power up the circuit the fan will start this will always give you a simple way to know that 220v is present and everything is OK.. You can use a computer's old power supply fan if you like.
Note that the fan must suck air out from the inverter case and NOT blow inside, so install it the correct way or it will be useless.
Also note how I fixed both the heat sinks and where the fan is, in a way that the fan sucks hot air from like a channel between the 2 heatsinks. 

10> 2 circuit breakers are recommended instead of fuses, one on the DC side and one on the AC side, depending on your design
Ex: for a 24vDC ( 1500 watts design ) put a 60Amp breaker on the DC side and a 6Amp on the AC side.
For every 1amp of 220vAC you will be draining like 8 to 10 Amps from the 12v battery, make your calculations !

11> The 2 Heat sinks should be big enough to cool the transistors, they are separate and should NOT touch each other. "see the pics"

12> Important: If you're building a big design that uses more than 24VDC as power source, make sure not to supply the driver circuit with more than 24v maximum. (EX: If you have 4 batteries 4x12 = 48v , connect the v+ supply of the driver circuit to the second battery's (+) terminal with a thin 1 mm wire which is more than enough. this supplies the driver circuit with +24v while supplies the power transformer with +48v) "see the batteries pic example"

13> "Optional" : Deep Cycle batteries are your best choice, consider them for best results .. read more

14> Be cautious when building this circuit it involves high voltage which is lethal, any part you touch when the circuit is ON could give you a nasty painful jolt, specially the heat-sinks, never touch them when the circuit is on to see if the transistors are hot !! I ate it several times :)

15> The optional "Low voltage warning" is already embedded in the PCB layout, you can disregard it and not install it's components if you do not need it. It does not affect the functionality of the main circuit.

16> The Motorola 2N6277 is a durable heavy duty power transistor, it is used in many US tanks for it's reliability but unfortunately it is a very hard to find part, instead you can substitute each 2N6277 with 2 x 2N3773 or any equivalent.

17> I've included an optional "Battery level indicator" circuit diagram that has 4 LEDs, you can see it installed on the front panel of my inverter pic, it is functioning great and shows precisely how much juice the batteries still have. I have included a small relay that is powered by the last LED to auto shutoff the inverter once last LED is off.

18> Also included an optional "Overload circuit", it is very easy to build and can be calibrated to the desired overload current threshold cutoff point through the potentiometer VR1.
R1 is rated 5watts for inverters upto 1000 watts. For bigger versions of the inverter like 1000 to 3000 watts inverters, replace R1 (1 ohm, 5watts) with (1 ohm, 17watts) which should handle loads upto 10 VA.
Make sure you install a proper relay to handle big current drains.

19> Please guys take your time to read and understand my notes, browse and read the posts and questions asked by others because there are many useful information listed in replies. The main reason for me not answering your question is because it has already been asked before and answered upon.

20> It would be nice and inspiring for others if you take some photos and show us how you built your version, any additions to the circuit are mostly welcomed to be listed here, we can all benefit from them.

21> Please click on the "I've made it" button/icon if you did build the circuit so I know how many people benefit from this design.

22> Testing your completed circuit with crocodile clips or thin wires WILL NOT WORK ! You'll get wrong voltage readings.
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MathieuB13 days ago

hello i de like to know if my transformer 12/220v 150VA could work for 3000 watts output! thanks for helping me

eeteddy made it!17 days ago

Thanks Nick, I made it. but i have problems with connecting the power diodes, when i connect them the way the look in the diagram, it does not work unless i remove them. so i connected them across the emitter and collector of the power transistors. will it protect the transistors that way? thank you

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Nick_Zouein (author)  eeteddy6 days ago

Hello eeteddy,

Happy to hear that you built one. The diodes are not necessarily needed, you can completely remove them they will not make any effect on the functionality on the inverter.

ciprian190327 days ago

hello sir. i want to know if a 12v750w inverter can start a fridge that have a 100w power motor, and if the inverter is pure or modified sine wave.good day

good day sir,I want make your inverter.but i have some miss understand,about power transistor, and mosfet.that both has to use in same circuit or one of that only need .if both need to use,how to connect that pin number 11 and 14.please advise.thank

s.v.premalal

S.V, you should either use only power bipolar junction transistors or power mosfets. Don't mix up the two
meggyhimself made it!1 month ago
Finally made it! Works perfectly!
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meggyhimself made it!1 month ago
Finally made it! Works perfectly!
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jawaaz.ab23 months ago

WHat if we use RC filter after pins 14 and 11 and then to mosfet so that we can get a SInewave output..we can convert square wave into sine wave using RC filter

Nick_Zouein (author)  jawaaz.ab23 months ago

test it out and post us your results.

yes I tested that but The MOSFET's are not responding to SIne wave signals,,,well we cant drive a MOSFET with AC signal....

CalebT21 month ago
dessty1 month ago

i have a 48v center tapped trafo an 16* MJ11032 how power can i have with this ?

8 transistors per side

dessty1 month ago

hi sir

can i use this 2000 w inverter for fridge and split 1.5 ch

dessty1 month ago

hi sir nick

plz how power can i have with 3 pairs of mj11032 of each side

hii Nick , i make a this inverter , but problem is the transformer output is 115 vac but i use 220vac and 12-0-12 20A transformer so what is the problem in my circuit ?

kathkathmina5 months ago

hi i'm making an 300W inverter based on your circuit, how will I know how many ampere the transformer is?

Nick_Zouein (author)  kathkathmina5 months ago

15 amps

Hi Nick

I have a 650VA Toroidal Transformer with 22V 0 22V center tapped.

Can I use it for the 24 V Purpose . I have tried it but the Moment I Power on the Transistors Blow.I used another Toroidal at lower Power and works .

Coukd it be the the Transformers windings are incorrect.

Hi Nick

The inverter is working but the feedback circuit does not seem to work.I have used IRF130 Mosfets with a 200Watt 36V036V Transformer.When I adjust the Voltage pot nothing happens.So when i put load the Voltage drops from 220V to about 170 V with a 550Watt Load.

Hello Hennie.gerber.3,

Yea, i got the same problem like you, so i'm reconstructing my circuit to see if i'll get it right. Please do keep me informed if you figure out the problem.

Hi

I managed to sort it , the problem is that the feedback Circuit I fotgot to earth it.Look at the Bridge rectifier for the Feedback there is a Earth Sign.You need to earth it.

hii, nick when i connect the 12-0-12 20A/ 220vac transformer then the transformer output is 110v ac so what is the problem ?

hendra.kho.732 months ago

Mr.Nick... I use transformator 10A CT 12v/ 220v and 5A 220v/ 12v. If You don't mind, I need Your help to explaine about the cable, it's that true or not. Thx for your help, GBU.

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hendra.kho.732 months ago

Sorry Mr.Nick...I tried to send the picture last night but it failed. Since the connection was bad ( the blank one) appeared on the forum five times. Sorry for that. I don't want people think it's a joke

hendra.kho.732 months ago
hendra.kho.732 months ago
hendra.kho.732 months ago
hendra.kho.732 months ago

Hi...Nick and someone who can help me....I need help, I've finished my inverter but no electricity flow. Was that because of the wrong wire installment or what? Pin 11 and 14 are 3,8v each. I've tried to upside-down the wire but it didn't work. My questions are: 1. The flow BC 337 PCB to BasisTJP122. How about Emiter to Emiter? n Collector to Collector?

2. I've put on diode 6A, anode connected to emiter and catode connected to Collector. What should I do then? Where should the cables from Basis n Emiter go?

Thx Mr. Nick, GBU

hendra.kho.732 months ago
hendra.kho.732 months ago
dumipunchi2 months ago

I have made it.Great ,it's working without issues.I used IRF44Zx4 with 12V/240V 8A transformer.1K used for 3.9K feedback circuit.Removed D1 D2 in 12V transformer.

Thx Zouein.

ezinne.gift2 months ago
pls help
ezinne.gift2 months ago
pls help
ezinne.gift2 months ago
Pls I'm having difficulties to connect them
jigneshramani2 months ago

i have build this circuit but facing problem with that is output voltage never exceeds 170v......please give kind suggestions...

henk.vuren2 months ago

Hi Nick, I have made PCB's for the Inverter, including low
voltage, over load protection and battery level indicator. Once tested I will
post all the pcb's.

Just one question on the transformer, I am building a 12v to
220V, 750W model, this means the secondary current is approximately 3.5A. The
total current in the primary is then 62.5A (750W / 12V = 62.5A).

  • 1.Will the current in each 12V section primary be
    half of this, 31.25A?
  • 2.If so, what will the primary wire thickness be?

Many thanks

Henk

stun gun made it!2 months ago
Hi Mr-Nick
pin 9 contact (e) bc327 our no
2-80vac only what's problem
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mohumed2 months ago

how many irfp250 should i but to get 1500 watt

jluga3 months ago

hi nick,,

is this kind of inverter can drive a 2hp capacitor motor? or not..

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