Introduction: 2x4 End Grain Cutting Board / Butcher Block

This is my first Instructable ever.

I want this post to be informative and simple.

Let's do this! ^_^

Step 1: Materials

Materials

  • 2 - 2x4 UNTREATED: $1.95
  • TiteBond III Glue "Waterproof": $8.00
  • Mineral Oil: $3.99 "Food Safe Finish"
  • Gulf Wax: $3.99 "Food Safe Finish"
  • 1" Anti-Skid Pads w/screws: $2.95
  • Sand Paper (not shown)

Machines and Tools

  • Bar Clamps
  • Quick hand clamps
  • Glue Scraper
  • Power Miter Saw
  • Table Saw
  • Surfacer/Planer
  • Radial Arm Saw
  • Random Orbit Sander
  • Router

Step 2: Power Miter Saw

  • Cut two 2x4 in half. Right at 48"

Step 3: Table Saw

1st Cut

  • Rip all 2x4's in half at 1-3/4", USE A PUSH STICK!!!

2nd Cut

  • Set the rip fence to 1-1/2"
  • Cut off all the curved edges.

Step 4: Clamps

Clamping - 5 total clamps

  1. Lay cardboard on the table.
  2. Lay 3 bar clamps on the cardboard. (1 clamp in the middle, 2 for the outsides)
  3. Lay 2x4 material on clamps.
  4. Spread glue on the "smooth" edge of every joint, (do not glue your boards to your metal clamps) ^_^
  5. Put the last 2 clamps on top.
  6. Apply pressure. ALSO use a rubber mallet to hit boards that warp up.
  7. Allow the glue to cure for minimum of 1 hour (longer is better). Do not stress joints for 24 hours.

Step 5: Surface

Glue Scraping

  1. Use 2 hand clamps to hold material.
  2. Use a glue scraper.
  3. Scrape the BIG beads of glue. (don't sweat the small stuff) ^_^

Surfacer Machine

  1. Measure your material thickness. Mine comes out to be around 1-7/16".
  2. Set surfacer to above measurement.
  3. Make 1/16" cut every pass until the glue beads are completely gone.
  4. Do the same on the other side of the board until the beads of glue are gone.

FYI: I feel that any and every cutting board project practically requires the use of a surfacer somewhere in the process. Otherwise, it is nearly impossible to create a perfectly smooth, even surface...quickly. If you do not have a surfacer, then perhaps call a local lumber company.

Random Orbit Sander (Optional)

  • I used 120 grit on both sides

Step 6: Crosscut

Radial Arm Saw

  • Cut the board in half.

If you have a table saw "sled", then use that.

I didn't have a table saw sled so I improvised and used a radial arm saw for the wide crosscuts.

Crosscut in fourths if that's what you need.

Table Saw Crosscutting

  • YOU MUST USE A PUSH STICK!
  • Set the rip fence to 2-1/8"
    • 2-1/8" will be how tall my cutting boards will be.
    • By crosscutting at 2-1/8", I will have 1 rectangle cutting board (15"x12") and 1 square cutting board (12"x12").
    • IF you want 2 cutting boards that are rectangle (15"x12"), then crosscut at 1-5/8", give or take.

Step 7: Alternate Tree Rings

Flip Up and Rotate

  1. Align all of the crosscut pieces so they look like the original board.
  2. Flip all of the pieces up on END in the same direction (so you can see the tree rings on top)
  3. Next, rotate every "even number" 180 degrees. 2,4,6,8,10 etc.
  4. Next step is gluing.

Step 8: Clamps

Clamping - 3 total clamps

  • This step is almost identical to the first gluing process.
    • The only difference is to not glue the 2 cutting boards together near the middle.
  • I prefer NOT to wipe the glue on this step. If you wipe the glue, it will push the glue into the end grain and then cause you to have to sand more in the next step.

Boards on the sides

  • I used 3 quick grip clamps to clamp two boards on the sides so the cutting boards would stay straight.
  • Once the metal bar clamps are tightened, then uninstall the two boards on the side.
  • Do not let them cure on the sides.

Step 9: Surface and Edges

Glue Scraping

  • Scrape just the BIG beads of glue.

FYI I did not use the surfacer for the end grain surface. I think it is too tough on the blades to make a cut on the end grain. If you have a surfacer and you want to use it, then that is up to you.

Random Orbit Sanding

Sand both cutting boards, top and bottom.

Time: took me 20mins to thoroughly do the job.

Sand evenly on the surface. Otherwise, you will have low spots like mine. oops ^_^

  • I used 3 different grit levels: (it's what I had at the time)
    1. 40 grit
    2. 100 grit
    3. 150 grit

Table Saw - Cut to Dimensions

1 - 12x12

1 - 15x12

  1. Shave a little on any given side.
  2. Rotate 90 degrees clockwise and shave a little on that side.
  3. Rotate 90 degrees again and cut to dimension.
  4. Rotate 90 degrees one last time and cut to dimension.
  5. Repeat for the other cutting board at the given dimensions.

Router Edges - 1/2" Round Over

  • Router all 4 corners first. To prevent "chip out" on the edges.
  • Then, router all of the edges, top and bottom.

Sand Edges

  • I used a sanding block with grit levels of:
    1. 120 grit
    2. 150 grit
    3. 220 grit

Step 10: Finish

Paste wax finish - Food Safe!

Most people just use pure mineral oil to finish their cutting boards.

I wanted to make a finish that was more water resistant. So I came up with an 8:1 mixture that uses a food safe wax, paraffin wax!

8:1 Ratio

  • 1 cup mineral oil = 8 ounces
  • Half block of Gulf Wax (paraffin wax) = 1 ounce
  1. Melt the paraffin wax and the mineral oil together. I used a mug in simmering hot water.

Apply the paste wax finish

  1. I heated the paste wax a little before applying. (I feel it spreads better that way)
  2. I applied the paste wax with my hands. My clean hands of course!^_^
  3. Allow the first layer of finish to soak for 20 mins.
  4. Apply three more layers before using!

DO NOT HEAT UP THE CUTTING BOARD. If the cutting board gets hot, it will dry the wood and begin to crack. We do not want cracks in our cutting board.

Step 11: Anti-Skid Pads

Anti-Skit Pads

  • Install pads 1" away or more from the corners.

Modifications

My rectangle cutting board was a little warped, so I used a small washer to give the pad a boost.

Step 12: Care and Maintenence

Surface

  • Apply a layer of mineral oil and wax once a month or when cutting board feels dry.
    • Allow the mineral oil time to soak.
  • DO NOT allow liquids and water to stand on the cutting board for long periods of time.
  • Be careful when cutting raw meat (beef, poultry and fish). Your cutting board must be thoroughly waxed.
    • I personally will NOT cut raw meat on my cutting board. I sometimes will for cooked meats.
  • Sanitize your cutting board with mild soap and water. Dry thoroughly.
    • You could also use a fresh cut lemon to sanitize and freshen the smell.

Sanding - Last result

If you feel your cutting board is beyond worn, then sanding may be your best option.

  1. Use Random Orbit Sander with grit levels of:
    1. 150 grit
    2. 220 grit (optional)

Step 13: ENJOY!!!

This was a fun and inexpensive project! Materials cost me approximately $15.

I hope my post was informative and simple like I said.

Thanks for reading!

Please vote and help me in the 2x4 Contest ^_^

Whatever you do, work at it with all your heart, as working for the Lord, not for men.

-Colossians 3:23

Comments

author
bnaivar made it!(author)2016-01-01

I'm sorry, but you shouldn't make cutting boards from Fir trees (Pine, Redwood, Cedar, etc.) or oil bearing trees(Teak). The sap and oil can leech into the food.

author
apmoritz2 made it!(author)2016-01-01

Hello bnaivar,

Thank you for posting your concerns about the use of 2x4 Douglas Fir wood.

I would like to say that before I used 2x4 Douglas Fir wood, I did some research to see the level of toxicity of the wood fibers and the sap.

My conclusion is that neither the wood fibers or the sap is toxic to humans or the human digestive system. However, there have been cases where few have been mildly allergic to the oil/sap. All the research indicates that allergies to Douglas Fir sap are rare.

Here is the link to the wood database:

http://www.wood-database.com/lumber-identification/softwoods/douglas-fir/

As far as leeching into the food, I have been using the cutting board for quite some time and have not noticed a sappy or wood taste.

author
ThomasK19 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Indeed. When you are cutting on the wood it actually frees saps that are anti-bacterial. I always use all sorts of wooden cutting boards (never ever plastics). If the wood has been dried enough you will be okay with almost all wood sorts.

I would be more concerned with using mineral oil for protection. This is really not a good idea. Use natural oil and wax instead!

author
MarkL90 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Thomas, I have made end grain cutting boards for years using mineral oil which is a safe natural product and does not interfere with the self sealing properties that cause the end grain style to be safest. While you are correct regarding the antibacterial properties in the wood itself, you will not find any recommendations for making cutting boards with soft open pored woods because that invites bacteria growth. Rockhard maple is your best and safest bet. My end grain cutting boards have always been made using tight grained wood and mineral oil and I personally cut raw meats, poultry and shellfish on them without any incident.

author
ghostgeek made it!(author)2016-11-13

That article addresses ingestion of large quantities of mineral oil as a dietary supplement - not as a wood treating agent on a cutting surface. Apples to oranges.

author
ThomasK19 made it!(author)2016-01-07

The fact that you did not suffer from using mineral oil does not mean it's without influence on your health. Our former chancellor Helmut Schmidt died at over 90 while smoking (at least) one pack of cigarettes each day his whole life. That does not prove that smoking is harmless. Anyway, the board look really nice :-)

author
apmoritz2 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Thank you for sharing!

I never knew mineral oil was potentially harmful to my health.

I used the mineral oil to hydrate the wood on the cutting board. I figure as long as I am not consuming the mineral oil in mass quantities I should be good. Besides, most of the mineral oil is absorbed into the wood, not much in getting into my digestive system.

author
ghostgeek made it!(author)2016-11-13

With all due respect, I think that Robert is simply misinformed. Not only is mineral oil safe to use, but they actually sell butcher block mineral oil specifically for this purpose. Yes - there are different grades of mineral oil. You wouldn't want to use industrial lubricant obviously. But food or pharmaceutical grade mineral oil is PERFECTLY SAFE, hence the reason it is labeled for said purposes. The paranoia is totally unfounded.

author
MarkL90 made it!(author)2016-01-07

It's not.

author
MarkL90 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Hi Thomas, I'll assume that your reply is not condescending (even if you are German:)) and will not take insult. Mineral oil is composed of carbon and hydrogen and is also available under the name Vaseline. There are no health risks associated with its use.

author
ThomasK19 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Well, it depends. There are clean mineral oils and they are harmless. But so often they are simply cheap. Here in Europe we recently had a case where the Mafia in Italy mixed mineral oil with olive oil and quite some people got sick mostly because mineral oils are usually used for industrial cases (lubrication) and are contaminated. A machine wont care. A human will. I don't say you will die and the amount on the wood for coating is very few. It's just: better safe than sorry.

author
ghostgeek made it!(author)2016-11-13

So use food grade mineral oil, and it will be perfectly safe.

author
apmoritz2 made it!(author)2016-01-07

MarkL90,

I agree that maple wood is much more preferred than 2x4 material. I mean who makes a cutting board out of 2x4 material...okay I did, but the truth is I have always wanted to see how it would work and SO FAR it works for me. I have yet to encounter any incidents either.

Thank you for sharing!

author
shantinath1000 made it!(author)2016-01-07

One problem with using a natural oil like olive or canola is that ALL food oils eventually go rancid- the mineral oil won't. The oil becoming rancid is due to oxidation of the oil.

author
ThomasK19 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Not necessarily. I often use simple olive oil to redo wood. For a long lasting coating use linseed oil.

author
MarkL90 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Nice instructable. Regarding the Fir though, soft and open pored woods allow food to be lodged in them and causes bacterial growth. That is why tight grained woods such as Rock Hard Maple are always recommended. While there are antibacterial properties in the wood, why invite a possible problem?

author
apmoritz2 made it!(author)2016-01-07

The truth is, there is a calculated risk with any time of wood that you use. Bacteria is microscopic, wood pores can be microscopic.

I guess it all depends on how well you clean your cutting board after every use...

My theory is that the wax will seal any open pores.

One person suggested using bleach to clean a cutting board. That would kill any uninvited bacteria!

Thank you for sharing!

author
MarkL90 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Everyone will have different opinions (although not sure how the wax can seal when you are continually cutting into it). Personally for me it's hardwoods and mineral oil. I have used and sold them to others for more than ten years without mishap. Anyway as I said before nice instructable.

author
bnaivar made it!(author)2016-01-02

Thanks for the reply, and the database link. I've noticed that the sap will be most present if someone uses the cutting board to place something hot on, like a casserole dish, and then you place raw food on it to be cut.

author
man-after-Gods-own-heart made it!(author)2016-03-01

Great job! Did you leave the Wax on there or did you wipe it off...?

author
Alywolf made it!(author)2016-01-31

that was an awesome first instructable, cant wait to see more.

author
warriorethos2 made it!(author)2016-01-31

apmoritz2, great job on the cutting board. Your instructions and pictures will make it easy for anyone to build a cutting board. Good tips on maintenance of the cutting board as well. Good luck in the contest.

author
Roddy+Scott made it!(author)2016-01-30

I agree with you on the raw meat!

A good sterilising agent is to use a cut lime and rub it on the surface after cleaning.

Nice work!

author
TimB2 made it!(author)2016-01-07

I just finished making an end grain cutting board from red oak. I did it pretty much the same as you did here in your project. However, my assembled board is still pulling itself apart and warping. The wood had been sitting out in the back of my shop for well over a year before I cut it up. I guess it takes a bit of luck sometimes.

author
CharlieS39 made it!(author)2016-01-21

I did, and wrote about, woodworking for many years for print magazines and books: kiln dried is one thing for construction lumber, usually making sure moisture content is under 20% , while kiln dried for furniture making--classify cutting boards here--is another thing entirely, often as low as 6%. I'd suggest investing in a low cost moisture meter. Such a little tool can save more than a little heartbreak, especially after a labor intensive project like end grain cutting boards. I have had three favorite woods for a long time when making cutting boards, but generally avoid end grain work (because it's too much work and hardwoods are harder to work than pine and fir): check out hard maple; walnut and cherry.

Oh, yeah. Moisture content is a variable, changing with the environmental humidity, but the change is slow. Try to make certain wood used for any project is close in moisture content from piece to piece so any changes are close.

Enjoy. Woodworking of any type is one of the world's great hobbies.

author
apmoritz2 made it!(author)2016-01-07

I will be honest, my cutting board was a little warped on one corner.

I wonder if my sanding caused the warp or if it was because of the way I glued it in the clamps.

I'm not the luckiest either.^_^

author
TimB2 made it!(author)2016-01-07

I would think the clamping affected the "flatness" of the project. I have read where the pro's use special clamping devices to keep their boards flat while the glue is drying. But if you have a contrary board in there somewhere it's gonna do something... particularly if a knot was close to a cut edge.

author
ILykMakin made it!(author)2016-01-07

Thanks for that. Very cool!

I did a lot of reading before making some wood items for the kitchen. Mineral oil, especially in the initial quantities and in the upkeep frequency you listed: Not recommended.

Olive oil, cold pressed, virgin, olive oil is actually best. As long as you don't saturate the wood on initial application or too often after, it soaks into the grain and does not become rancid-the major complaint against it.

I'd also not use such softwoods either.

author
apmoritz2 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Thank you for your input!

I always wondered if olive oil was a better than mineral oil. I guess, I have heard both opinions, but never knew what was true. Thank you for sharing.

I agree, that softwoods are not desired more than hard woods (maple, walnut). However, after using the 2x4 material as a cutting board, I would say that it holds up nice so far. As long as I keep a smooth polished and waxed surface, it works for me. ^_^

author
ILykMakin made it!(author)2016-01-08

Surely. The key, as MarkL failed to catch, is not soaking the wood in it. Apply the type I indicated lightly to the surface and give it time to soak in. Any build up on surface will go rancid. If it's in the wood fibre: It will not.
And besides, removing rancid oil from over saturation is still preferable, IMO, to toxic mineral oil! lolerz

author
antennas made it!(author)2016-01-11

Mineral oil is food safe and Olive oil will spoil. Professionals use mineral oil.

author
MarkL90 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Olive oil is a perishable food and will eventually go rancid. There is nothing wrong with mineral oil especially in these minimal amounts.

author
ILykMakin made it!(author)2016-01-08

As I said: Actually, No.
Only if you over do it and oil is forced to sit on the surface.
As I said, if you use the type I indicated and do, as I indicated, it does n-o-t in fact go rancid.
Again: Only goes rancid if you pile it on and 'refresh' it far too often.

author
apmoritz2 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Thank you for your input!

I always wondered if olive oil was a better than mineral oil. I guess, I have heard both opinions, but never knew what was true. Thank you for sharing.

I agree, that softwoods are not desired more than hard woods (maple, walnut). However, after using the 2x4 material as a cutting board, I would say that it holds up nice so far. As long as I keep a smooth polished and waxed surface, it works for me. ^_^

author
nereo1 made it!(author)2016-01-07

I may have missed it, but I didn't see mentioned the importance of the wood being dry -- A lot of construction lumber is green, and the tightbond 3 joints are likely to fail if the moisture content is too high -- Polyurethane glues are better for wood with higher moisture content.

author
apmoritz2 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Interesting, I had no idea that lumber could potentially be too moist.

I purchased my wood from Home Depot. As to how "dry" the wood is, I have no idea.

One thing I know for sure is that TiteBond III is "waterproof", so to the extent at which they will fail has yet to happen. I will let you know (nereo1) if the joints happen to fail and I will post on the Instructable to let others know.

Thank you for sharing!

author
sWillyPs made it!(author)2016-01-10

Lumber purchased at Home Depot is kiln dried however they sometimes store it outdoors and it get wet from weather. However this isn't the same as the natural, green wood type of moisture and will dry quickly if you store it indoors.

But, as always when wood working, use a moisture meter.

author
st_indigo made it!(author)2016-01-09

^this. What you want to buy is wood that is kiln dried. The 2x4s will feel lighter, and their color will be different than the non-dried boards. Also the dried lumber will be stamped with "KD" or similar.

author
Wild-Bill made it!(author)2016-01-09

Nice looking cutting boards and I like your method - I was talking to a fellow who makes cutting boards just the other day and he highly recommended that TiteBond III glue, so I bought some. You might consider using maple on your next cutting board as it is more of the classic wood to make cutting boards.

author
RandyBigPaPa made it!(author)2016-01-09

Beautiful, I love the end grain patterns.

author
Double+Edged made it!(author)2016-01-08

That looks amazing you have my vote.

author
dollarseed made it!(author)2016-01-07

Making anything out of wood is fun, even if it is not the best choice of wood used. I've been wanting to dabble in the cutting board market for some time, and may just make one of these to prove that my tool set up is proper before committing to the better, more expensive woods.

author
blschmidt77 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Adam great first post! I was sitting in my office and needed a break - one of the first things I do is look at Instructables to get carried away. I clicked on your post and thought I recognized the purple shirted guy and voila! It's you. Congrats on the wedding proposal - were looking forward to the event. Cheers! Brian

author
apmoritz2 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Brian! It is so cool to get to talk to you through Instructables!
I posted about this cutting board a few days ago because I wanted to compete in the 2x4 challenge. I never thought I would come across someone I actually know!

I am really excited for the wedding and I can't wait to see everyone this summer!

author
SamW17 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Hi my Christian Brother... it is actuall Colossians 3:23 Galatians is a different verse than you quoted... in Christ.

author
apmoritz2 made it!(author)2016-01-07

Thank you very much for catching that!

Brain fart! Can't believe I quoted that wrong. It's one of my favorite quotes!

author
Wowy61+ made it!(author)2016-01-07

Worked out great & no warp. Thanks for the help.

author
Daisytikityke made it!(author)2016-01-07

I am an RN and once read a study where they contaminated wood and plastic cutting boards with Salmonella. Within 24 hours the wood boards were clear of bacteria but the plastic boards were still contaminated. Since then, I clean my wood boards well after cutting meats but don't worry about bacteria lurking and growing in the pores and crevices between uses.
When I worked as a kitchen manager, we wiped the wooden surfaces with a bleach solution between uses, but still cut meats on a surface separate from where we cut fruits and vegetables.

author
Mauricio+Bearzotti+Gonzalez made it!(author)2016-01-07

Hermoso trabajo sencillo claro y entendible vamos a hacerlo para demostrarnos que si se puede lo felicito.

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