Instructables
Picture of 30 kVA Induction Heater
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Introduction

Induction heaters are used to heat conductive materials in a non-contact process. Commercially, they are used for heat treating, brazing, soldering, etc., as well as to melt and forge iron, steel, and aluminum.
This Instructable will walk you through the construction of a high-power (30kVA) heater, suitable for melting aluminum and steel. Note that to take full advantage of this design, you will need a 220V outlet, at least a 50A single-phase one and preferably a 50A or 60A 3-phase outlet.

About the author:

Bayley Wang (me) is a EE student at MIT. I'm responsible for a variety of nefarious power electronics projects which you can find on my blog; perhaps most interestingly is oneTesla, which has since gained a life of its own as a startup creating DRSSTC kits.


WARNINGS

  • This project uses mains voltage. While well-behaved, 110/220 mains can seriously injure, maim, and/or kill you if used improperly.
  • The voltage across the tank capacitor can potentially ring up to hundreds of volts. Don't let the 20:1 step-down ratio fool you!
  • When scoping the circuit, beware of ground loops.
  • The work piece, naturally, can get very hot. DO NOT TOUCH! Less obviously, do not rapidly quench the work piece with water, as this can lead to dangerous sputtering.
  • This project uses power electronics. Under fault conditions, semiconductor devices used in this project may rapidly heat, vent, and/or release rapidly moving shrapnel. Shield appropriately.

WIth that said and done, let us move on.

 
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sniffrumble2 months ago

do the ferrite cores have to be that large?, I am having difficulty finding any that big here in the UK

Thanks! They're possibly one of the best made containers of any sort.

Thanks! They're possibly one of the best made containers of any sort.

irondwarf5 months ago

do the ferrite cores have to be that large?, I am having difficulty finding any that big here in the UK

I bought mine last week from mag-inc. I`m in the US but, they might be able to ship. Seen some one e-bay too.

http://www.mag-inc.com/company/news/new-4-inch--kool-mu-toroid

chimpera4 months ago

This is the best work I have seen, thanks for sharing. Given the one picture however I wonder if your getting 30kva. Can we see more results somewhere? I understand a much lower frequency would be better for melting, what changes might that require? Thanks, Ben

sheepbars4 months ago

I've got a counter top induction range that I'd like to reverse engineer into something like this, can I use the same schemata?

I've got a counter top induction range that I'd like to reverse engineer into something like this, can I use the same schemata?

irondwarf4 months ago

this link will give you a bigger schematic

http://www.instructables.com/file/F20WZQPGQBCHZIY/?size=ORIGINAL

irondwarf5 months ago

have noticed that the photo of the inside of the case the tank coil is multi tapped and there is a toroid by the tank cap that I can see no mention of and the schematic has mosfets whilst the rest of this says IGBTs for stage 2

nahshon5 months ago

I've got a counter top induction range that I'd like to reverse engineer into something like this, can I use the same schemata?

nadrvd6 months ago

I have purchased and assembled all of the components as illustrated. The only thing I am having difficulty with are the two small ferrite inductors. Can you please send me the schematics for these?

Thank you.

elricker nadrvd6 months ago

Have a look at this:

http://wiki.4hv.org/index.php/Gate_drive_transform...

Good explaination about using a toroid as a gate drive TXer. It's important info about making this instructable since without it you are likely to lose a couple hundred dollars blowing you IGBT if done wrong. I personally think naming specific toroid types would have been proper for "instruction". I would start with something like : FT-150-J. Maybe bigger and fairly thick. That is a ferrite 1.5 inch O.D.

Wrap it tight, place it near the transistors as he has pictured. That is important. In the schematic he has a series resistor in the first gate drive board so you should not have to place one of your own.

You should not have to wrap more that 15 turns to get the proper signal transfer. No less than 9 turns. That is the "grey area". Too many wraps and it's bad. Too few and it's bad. He hints to 10 windings and that is a good starting place. Trial and error here without a scope could be frustrating. If you try it without one, monitor those IGBT and transistors with low bus voltage for a while to see how hot they get. I would use a variac and no more than 40 volts if it sucks less than 10 amps and adjust for max current draw with the inverter. If it can't handle that you will probably have a little explosion at 240 volts.

elricker6 months ago

About the 2 ferrite coils, my 2 cents.

Since these are basically isolation TX's, and from the hints from how bwang comments and the pictures, I believe he is using CAT5 cable which has 5 sets of 2 twisted wires. And that would be better to have each winding twisted tightly so it makes sense since they come that way.

And I would assume that he is using ferrite only and not iron cores that are of the material best made for the frequency they operate. That would be, I think, FT-xx- J or 77 type cores. You probably can not just use any core since some types of materials will actually "choke" signals at certain frequencies. So you should have the right ferrite to begin with.

Now with lack of detailed info I can only offer help to windings. I would assume that they are 1:1, meaning the primary will have the same amount of windings as the secondaries. It could be a bit more or less. It would be nice to know more about how he did it and I wish to have seen that in more detail.

So I would take the 5 pairs of twisted wires from the CAT5 cable and wind them around the toroid coil about 10 times. Choose one of those 5 pairs and put it to the driver, and the other 4 to the transistors as in the schematic. This is where having an oscilloscope would be handy as well as more info because of the trial and error. You are transferring the square wave signal from the drivers to the transistors. The signal needs to be clean. The wrong coil can cause no function to ringing.

I could be wrong and the windings could be a lesser or more ratio. But it would not be much, on order of . 2 in difference. He might have even wound the 4 pairs of wires first then would the primary over them. I don't know.

If you ever read this bwang, please tell us what core materials you ended up using. It appears you at least tried one other coil that did not end up being in your final pic. And info about the windings@!

Hope this helps.

elricker6 months ago

Bwang, Thank you for the great build. After mulling over your project I have a few questions and considerations.

You explain in short many of the aspects to this project but there are a few details that beginners might not be able to understand and are hard to deduce from the text. May I suggest more detail about winding the toroid cores for gate drives. I think it is confusing. I am sure you left it a little vague becuase they are areas where a bit if trial and error are needed to tune it just right and depends on the core itself. And just to be sure you used strictly ferrites and not powder iron ferrites for the gate drive TXs?

Also I think pointing out the use of ferrite for the main coupling transformer. I have seen builds using type 3 iron cores work but they got warm. Toroids are confusing to newer persons that might want to attempt this.

The schematic is useful but I found differences in it and you pics. The potentiometers are interchanged on the schematic from what is shows later. I think it was the 20k and 50k. And it looks like you used a 10 turn for the pot your mounted control. Just to be clear, which one did you mount on the board and which one on the chassis?

Last thing of question would be layout. Have you experienced any funky signals from placement? I see you mounted (glued), yours very close to the chassis. Was that needed becuase you got bad signals?

I hope you can chuck in a comment back to this. I am sure there are many persons who would appreciate it.

Thanks!

akeem22036 months ago

please, can someone tell me how to wind the "gate drive transformers" to get 8 terminals to drive the mosfet and the IGBT.

chimplost7 months ago

Great project, can you please send me the schematic drawing.

steveazhocar8 months ago
Thanks! They're possibly one of the best made containers of any sort.
Ali Suhail8 months ago
Hi,
Great project, can you please send me the schematic drawing.
thanks,
email - nuggetcreations@gmail.com
shenninger8 months ago
Awesome design. On the final iteration, did you 86 the 4 position rotary switch between the inverter & coupling transformer? I can't find it on some of the pictures or the wiring diagram. Please help me understand!
exenhin8 months ago
thanks
chirume9 months ago
sent me the shematics please
chirume9 months ago
thank you i am interested in this project. can you sent me the schematics.
HoldOnTight10 months ago
Quite impressive! Can you please send me the schematics? Thanks.
Sir Boss10 months ago
Bwang - Great Instructable!!
1) I am looking at the following IGBT:
MG200H2YS1 Specifications at the end of the note. Classic question- will it work for the main IGBT? I have never worked in IGBT land before - can you tell me exactly how this would need to be wired?
2) What is the RF danger from this apparatus? I have seen radio frequency burns and I don't want to play. 65 mH is in the lower range, but it is cranking out some wattage.
3) Is there a pacemaker danger with this apparatus?
A typical microwave oven is running about 35 GH so I really expect #2 and 3 to be minimal. I would like your opinion as someone who works in RF regularly. .
Thank you!!


Isolated Case (Y/N) : Yes
Visolation:2.5kV
Circuits Per Package : 1
V(BR)CES (V) : 500
V(BR)GES (V) : 20
I(C) Max. (A) : 200
Absolute Max. Power Diss. (W) : 800
Maximum Operating Temp (C) : 150C
Thermal Resistance Junc-Case : 156m
I(CES) Min. (A) : 1.0m @V(CES) (V) (Test Condition) : 500
I(GES) Max. (A) : 500n @V(GES) (V) (Test Condition) : 20
V(CE)sat Max. (V) : 5.0 @I(C) (A) (Test Condition) : 200 @V(GE) (Test Condition) : 15
t(r) Max. (s) Rise time : 1.5us
t(f) Max. (s) Fall time. : 1.0us
Package Style : MODULE-var
Mounting Profile Code : M:HL080HW048
jimmy rana10 months ago
dear Sir,
I Like Your Effort but i thing this is too big 30KVA Please send 10KVA if You Can
mekreck5411 months ago
Hi... I see in your prints you use 4 smaller igbt's, but in your text you say to use others. could I use the 4 smaller ones for lower voltage? could I use say 4- IXGH28N120BD1, or
IXSH45N120B. thank you...
mekreck5411 months ago
Hi.. great project, I just finished a smaller heater (360 watt) but need one that has more power. Would this heater run on 120v ac, and if so could you tell me the requirements for the igbt's modules as for voltage and amps? I have an industrial electric background but am struggling with learning electronics at component level. thank you....
erixpc11 months ago
Would this heater also work on a regular 110v outlet if I only wanted to heat up a rusty bolt loose on a car? I was looking at purchasing the 1000 watt mini inductor II (http://www.theinductor.com/index.php?m=50&s=24) but it would be ideal to build and have a unit that can do both 1kVA on regular 110v with the capability to go up to 30 kVA for forging projects. Are there any parts that need to be changed to make it work on a 110v outlet? What would you do?
clickworried12 months ago
hi My friend please send mi this schematics I cant download very thanks. my email
i can use it in one of my projects,
akeem22031 year ago
nice work, Bwang !

1) what is the rated power of the toroidal transformer ?

2) what is the rated or size of the 2 ferrite toroidal for gate drive ?

3) what is the rated amps for the enamel coil for the large transformer ?

4) is it possible to use one large toroidal transformer instead of four ?

5)What is the input voltage and output voltage for the large transformer ?

6) Can i use 600V,200A for the IGBT and get 30KVA output.

7) I hope the inductor is the heater for this work ?

8) how can i connect the water to the system for cooling ?

lastly, can you tell me how to know the rated power for the toroidal transformer ?
mvaziri1 year ago
my email docter_vaziri@yahoo.com
mvaziri1 year ago
hi My friend please send mi this schematics I cant download very thanks. my email
mvaziri1 year ago
hi My friend please send mi this schematics I cant download very thanks. my email
msmith1361 year ago
Would this design be capable of forging metals with a high melting point, i.e. Iron around 1510 degrees C (2750°F). Or steel at around 1370 degrees C (2500°F)? I'm sweating just thinking about the idea....
Hello Friend
Can you please upload a clear wiring diagram for this circuits. i am beginner to this field
if you inform me about this cause I will be thankful to you
my email
lunuwaththa@gmail.com
i saw this and its looks very intersting.
i can use it in one of my projects,
i need your help to build it (i have no experiance in electronics)
i have no problem to pay thru paypal and pick it up
i need it asap.
if someine can help me please contact me
eoberlender@gmail.com
thank you
John48901 year ago
Is there any chance of you making a video of how to put one of these things together? I have a basic understanding of electronics, but this is a little too advanced to know what I'm doing just by reading.
patryxpz2 years ago
Why didn't you use a tank cap on the primary side of the power transformer? First, on the primary side you have smaller current and voltage that on the secondary, so you can use cap with lower nominal voltage and current (smaller cost of cap). Second, with cap on primary side, resonance frequency of tank not depend so much on melting material.
Waiting for replay.
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