Step 3: Principle of Operation
Induction heaters function by surrounding the work piece with a coil carrying a high-frequency (kHz to low MHz) alternating current. This induces eddy currents in the work piece, which acts as a shorted 1-turn transformer secondary. The currents can be tremendous, on the order of several thousands of amps. This causes high I^2R losses in the work piece, heating it.
Note: Ignore the transistor model numbers; I just used what Eagle had built in.
IC1 is a TL494 acting as an oscillator with adjustable dead time and frequency. The output is fed into the input of two UCC37322 9A gate drive ICs, which "beef up" the signal into something capable of driving high-capacitance transistor gates. The output signal is passed through C5 to insure only the AC component reaches GDT1, a gate drive transformer. This transformer provides the electrical isolation necessary to drive Q1 through Q4, which form a full-bridge. This intermediate bridge is necessary to provide the high average power necessary to drive Q5 through Q8, a full-bridge of large IGBT modules.
This bridge forms the main inverter. The output of this inverter is stepped down through a 20:1 torodial transformer TR_MATCH, which provides impedance matching as well as isolation for L_WORK, the work coil inductor. The capacitor C_TANK forms a resonant LC circuit with L_WORK; when driven at resonance, this circuit displays zero reactive impedance to the inverter, allowing for higher powers and minimizing switching losses in the inverter.