Introduction: Casting Aluminium With Lost PLA Investment Mold

Picture of Casting Aluminium With Lost PLA Investment Mold

I made a home made CNC with a spindle with external Ø=65mm (Ebay link), and at that time I had available a plastic bracket that I used to hold the spindle on the machine. Right now I need more rigidity, so I decided to make two brackets and mill them to the spec.

So just to clarify, I could make the part directly on the CNC (But, where is the fun of it?), so I decided to make it by casting.

Precedents on aluminium casting:

First plaster mold aluminium casting video

First Lost PLA in plaster mold aluminium casting video

This videos show the learning curve and the improvements that I made on my process, and the actual project will add even more improvements, I will try to show you all the information that is relevant to you don´t make the same mistakes that I had already made.

Step 1: Fusion 360 3D CAD Modeling

Picture of Fusion 360 3D CAD Modeling

Since we have to begin somewhere, I decided to start with CAD modeling!

I started to use Fusion 360 as a hobbyist and I enjoy it, they made lot of improvements last years.

So I made some sketch on paper to have an idea what I will model, make sure you get your dimensions, restrictions and ideas clear before start!

For the CAD model I made the sketch, extrude and add the features that I need to connect to the machine and to hold the spindle. After that I modeled the sprue, runner and gates for the casting process.

Exported the 3D models to STL files to be able to use them on Sli3r(or other Gcode generator). Just be careful about export STL file quality, if your definitions on are very rough the file will have a very low definition.

Step 2: 3D Printing

Picture of 3D Printing

My printer was made in 2013, i used Slic3r since then, you may use your preferred G code generator.

So at this point I used the follow setup to print PLA (Ebay PLA link):

Layer thickness: 0.25mm

Bottom/Top/Vertical shells layers: 2

Infill: 8% rectilinear

Support material: Yes

Extruder Temperature: 205ºC (use your best temperature setting for PLA)

Bed temperature: 60ºC (use your best temperature setting for PLA)

I printed two spindle brackets and one sprue&gating, after that had join them together with some glue.(you can other methods for joining, like hot glue, heating both parts, ect.)

***Don´t forget to increase part size between 3-5% due casting shrinkage.

Here you can see the Step 1 & 2 video:

Step 3: Plaster Mold Preparation

Picture of Plaster Mold Preparation

The preparation of plaster mold is the most critical part of the process, mixing the components, drying the plaster, burning the PLA, you can easily put your work on the garbage. You should prepare you work before start with plaster mixing.

For the plaster (Ebay example) I used more or less 1:1 water/plaster ratio and I added 2/3 of plaster weight in sand to improve mechanical resistance after drying the mold. If you use cold water the plaster setting time will increase, I just cooled the 5L bottle on the freezer until 5-8ºC.

You should calculate the total volume of plaster that you need, in my case it was a box of 20*12*20cm=4800cm^3, you could use USG plaster calculator to calculate how much plaster you need.

I used:

Water: 5L (cold water 8ºC)

Plaster: 4.5kg

Sand: 3kg

Always put the water in first place, never the other way, or you will get lot's of plaster agglomerates. You could add the sand alone or pre-mixed with plaster, I prefer to do it separate, so I add the sand to the water and after that I add the plaster slowly to avoid formation of agglomerates. After add the plaster wait 1-2min to wet it with water.

You should mix the slurry during 2-3min slowly to avoid air entrance, this is very important for your casting details.

After that is time to pour the plaster slurry, just do it slowly to avoid air bubbles. ***Tip: Fix your PLA part somehow, the part will have lots of buoyancy (see the video)

Let the plaster set for 20-30min, and here you have the plaster mold!

Step 4: PLA Burnout

Picture of PLA Burnout

This is the most important part of the process, fails that you should expect that will ruin your casting:

-Cracks on the mold

-Broken mold

-PLA not fully burned

-Particles inside of the mold

How to avoid cracks and keep good mechanical resistance on the mold:

Every plaster/water ratio will change this a little bit, but you can see on the image above how I normally do the mold drying and PLA burn out.

You should dry the water from the mold during 2-3h at a temperature between 100-120ºC, this should be done slowly, if you increase the temperature too much the water will be retained inside of the mold due wall calcination.

After that the mold still contain residual water, this water SHOULD BE REMOVED before casting or it may lead in mold EXPLOSION during casting!!! So to avoid that you should dry the mold during 2-3h at 200-240ºC

To burn the PLA from the mold you should heat the PLA more than 400ºC, remember that plaster has a very low thermal conductivity, so this process will take a long time and is always better to let the mold more hours in this step to assure that all the PLA was burned out. I maintained the temperature at 500ºC during 6h with forced air in to the mold, this worked out form me.

Step 5: Aluminium Casting

This step I think that don´t need too many details, there are lot's of information about how you can melt the aluminium.

Just tree tips:

-Always use protection!

-Always melt more aluminium that what you need, you don't want to ruin all the work on the last process!

-When you start the pour, don't stop until the mold is filled.

Step 6: The Casting Result

Picture of The Casting Result

I would say that the result was very good, the detail on the parts exceeded my expectation!

Anyway, there are a lack of feeding on the top of the parts, next time is good idea to implement some feeder.

You could see on the last image that the initial slug has been retained on the runner, this was done on purpose to avoid the initial slug to get on the parts.

Step 7: Bracket Milling With Fusion 360 & GRBL

Picture of Bracket Milling With Fusion 360 & GRBL

The last spep was to mill the part to the spec, I didn't detailed the CAM process too much beacause this was the first part that I milled in a CNC.

I used mainly a 6mm carbide tool (6mm Carbide from Ebay)

And used GRBLPanel to run the G-code

You can see the video here:

Step 8: Support TailorTech

Picture of Support TailorTech

If you enjoy the project you can support me watching my videos:

https://www.youtube.com/user/laranjas3

And supporting my projects directly:

https://www.patreon.com/tailortech

Thank you guys.

Comments

stephenfitton (author)2017-11-06

loved your airation holes! If you make this more a box mould with cover and give two inch height above plaster and fit a nossle connector to a VERY -WEAK, vacumn cleaner, this should drawout any air bubbles inside the plaster mould that would disrupt your perfect shape. (Circa- silicon moulding techniques).

Regards Stephen Fitton.

Tailortech (author)stephenfitton2017-11-07

Thank you for the tip!
I already made some research about it, In near future I will try to apply that technic!

Tailortech (author)2017-11-04

Hello guys,

Just to update the status, I was milling the parts to finish the Instructable, but this come on my way. So I will finish next week.


astrong0 (author)2017-11-02

Is there some reason as to why you did a riser sprue instead of just a cupped sprue?

Tailortech (author)astrong02017-11-02

The gating system was inspired on casting books, if you feed the metal from the bottom to the top, with controlled speed, the casting will have less chance of get bubbles inside or defects on surface.

astrong0 (author)Tailortech2017-11-02

Ah, okay. Makes sense. We use a different process here at the university i’m Attending, but it appears to yeild the same results. Superb instructable.

wcr2007 (author)2017-10-31

What are you using for an oven? 500C is obviously too high for a standard kitchen oven! Seems like the oven might be expensive, although a useful tool for a hobbyist to have. Appreciate any advice you have on what oven to get, best place to buy one, how much I should plan on spending. Thanks in advance!

Tailortech (author)wcr20072017-11-01

Hello, this was an homemade hoven.

I used a old dishwasher, removed all the plastic parts, add some insulation to the walls and add a fan assisted burner.

So I would say I spender 30-40€.

Now I'm trying to control it automatically with an Arduino.

wcr2007 (author)Tailortech2017-11-01

Sounds like that would make an interesting instructable! Hint, hint ... :)

Tailortech (author)wcr20072017-11-01

All right, I will keep that in mind! ;)

xenoscientific (author)wcr20072017-10-31

A small electric kiln (use for firing pottery) will work. I have one that accommodates about 7 by 8 by 8 inches that goes up to 2000 F, that I have used for mold burnout. (It can also be used for melting aluminum.) It also has programable heat ramps and hold times which is very handy as per the steps above. But it is small and I think it cost about $500. You would need something larger, and they make them larger, but more expensive too.

Zaacharia (author)2017-11-01

A friend worked with a sculptor in carving and casting "Waiting for the Interurban" in Seattle; it was carved in Styrofoam and cast in aluminum (you can see the styro bead-form when you look close). I assume it was pretty much the same process

Tailortech (author)Zaacharia2017-11-01

For lost foam process you may not use burnout,. You could cast directly over foam, but it will affect mechanical strength and surface quality.

xenoscientific (author)2017-10-31

You can buy plaster made especially for foundry work. it incorporates glass fibers and such. It may have slightly different composition as well. Adding sand may work nearly as well. But most DIY pottery stores sell silica at differnt mesh sizes that would work better as it will adhere to the plater better.

Thank you, I will make some research about it!

Zaacharia (author)2017-11-01

Darn, I got sidetracked on my previous post; I cast in glass and have been thinking about getting a 3d printer - I think this convinced me to invest in one.

tinkerbrad (author)2017-10-31

Have you thought about using jewelry investment compound instead of plaster? It has the quartz already added...try visiting riogrande.com. Did the PLA burn out completely?I would suggest a process similar to jewelry making. Cast obect in silicone mold; fill mold with wax; cast wax in plaster, etc.

Tailortech (author)tinkerbrad2017-10-31

Hi, I prefer to use plaster because for the detail I'm looking has a good cost/benefit ratio. I like to keep the hobby low budget! ;)

Yes PLA burned out completely, at article below you can see that for temperature higher than 450ºC with proper air flow you can promote PLA combustion. That's why I used 500ºC.

https://www.researchgate.net/figure/45492906_fig2_...

tinkerbrad (author)Tailortech2017-10-31

LOL!! I wish i could keep mine cheap!Seems to act like some polyamides? they sublime.\ Thanks for the idea...I did locate a wax print jewelry printer, but didn't look at price...

oldfatnbroke (author)2017-10-31

I have never cast anything but I have been interested in it for a long time. Would it not be better to cast your spindle supports in one piece that could be separated on a band saw possibly after some or all of the machining is completed? You would cut out half of the setup time in the machine shop and even make the casting big enough to cut three supports in case one was damaged or messed up during machining.

Tailortech (author)oldfatnbroke2017-10-31

That's a clever idea, that would help for the final assembly tolerances for sure!

In my case I will mill the part with the actual CNC, so I'm not able to mill very deep, that's the reason why I did separated.

tytower (author)2017-10-30

What the heck is PLA ?

Tailortech (author)tytower2017-10-30

PLA is a polymer that is widely used as 3d printer filament.

In future I pretend to try wax filament instead of PLA filament.

Razanur (author)Tailortech2017-10-31

Why do you think wax is preferable over PLA?

leschyna (author)Razanur2017-10-31

Wax will melt at a much lower temperature and be more likely to clear out of the mold.

Tailortech (author)leschyna2017-10-31

Exactly, with PLA the process of burnout will take much longer than wax.

jfryar30272 (author)tytower2017-10-31

PolyLactic Acid. It is a very common 3D printing material. It is biodegradable and has a relatively low melting point. This makes it perfect for lost casting methods, for it melts quickly and does not cause any environmental issues. As stated below, wax will work very well, as it melts at very low temperatures, creating very good casts. Great question! I couldn't even know it was biodegradable, but once you asked that question, it helped me to remember and learn more! Thanks!

Jobar007 (author)tytower2017-10-30

Auntie Wikipedia has your answer: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polylactic_acid

Mmmmatt (author)2017-10-31

What type of plaster are you using? We've tried to do this but even with a heating profile like the one you suggest we usually get cracks.

thanks!

Tailortech (author)Mmmmatt 2017-10-31

Hello, this is commercial plaster of paris. For my experience the cracks will come from the first drying (around 100ºC), so if you are having problems try to dry the mold during 2-3h @lower temperature like 80ºC.

One important thing about plaster drying is to have forced air around the mold. You could add some holes on the mold (like I did) to improve venting.

Oncer (author)2017-10-31

Why can't you have this sintered?

DIY Hacks and How Tos (author)2017-10-29

Awesome! I have always thought that 3D printing would be great for investment casting but I never had the equipment to try it out.

Thank you, I think the process may be even more optimized! Since we can print the part, feeder, ect we can do parts that may be impossible to do with CNC milling!

About This Instructable

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Bio: I like to do homemade projects with low budget. If you would like to support: https://www.patreon.com/tailortech
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