Instructables
Picture of 3D Printed Quadcopter
This amazing looking device is a quadcopter that was designed by me and my team at the University of Victoria. The project built completely from scratch using 3D printed parts, some cheap electronics, and a modified version of the AeroQuad software. The purpose of the project was to create a DIY quadcopter for under $200 and push the limits of what the 3D printer in our laboratory can do. You can see the full project page here.

Step 1: Components

The goal of our design is to keep the parts relatively cheap (under $200) and light enough to allow 3D printed parts. Our quadcopter design consists of four main components:

Rotors - Brushless DC motors that can provide the necessary thrust to propel the craft. Each rotor needs to be controlled separately by a speed controller.

Frame - The structure that holds all the components together. These parts are all 3D printed so they need to be designed to be strong but also lightweight.

Prop Guard - Styrofoam structure around the props to protect the device in the event of a collision.

Microcontroller & Sensors - The Arduino microcontroller loaded with a 9 degree of freedom sensor from sparkfun.  This allows the quadcopter to adjust for stability during flight.

Step 2: Rotors

For those of you who are looking for an easy way to calculate the power requirements for your RC device, you should check out the online calculator eCalc. It's an amazing tool that helps you decide what components to purchase depending on the payload that you want to carry. For our project we chose the 1900 KV HobbyKing Outrunners because it best satisfied our criteria for power, weight, and price.  If you attach an eight inch diameter propeller to each of the motors you get around 270 g of thrust per rotor. This is more than enough thrust to lift the frame and the small lithium ion battery that powers the quadcopter. Make sure you buy the counter-rotating to counteract the torque effect of the props.

Step 3: Frame

We created the quadcopter frame’s using the makerBot Thing-o-matic 3D printer. The printed parts are made of ABS plastic; the same material used for Lego bricks. The components of the frame were printed separately and then later assembled together using interference fits and screws. Some of the parts had to be printed diagonally because they were too long to be printed on the platform. The total weight of our quadcopter frame turned out to be 176 g. You can get these parts from my thingiverse page.


Step 4: Prop Guard

For the safety of the craft and of those around it’s flight zone, we wanted to build some sort of protector around the quadcopter. The CAD model that was drawn for the Styrofoam protector was converted into a template which was then used to trace the lines where the Styrofoam needed to be cut. The circles and curves were cut using a custom made compass device with a Styrofoam cutter attached to the end.

Step 5: Mechanical Assembly

Assemble the parts

Step 6: Electronics & Software

The 9 Degrees of freedom sensor stick (9DOF) contains 3 sensors: an accelerometer, a gyroscope, and a magnetometer. Each sensor can be communicated with using I2C from analog pins 4 and 5 on the Arduino Uno. We powered the sensor stick using the 5 volts out available on the Arduino Uno.  I2C also requires pull-up resistors on the data (SDA) and clock (SCL) buses.  We used two pull up resistors soldered to the 5 volt output of the Arduino shield and SCL/SDA. To prevent the sensor from receiving too much noise during flight, the sensor was soldered to an Arduino ProtoShield on the pins.  The other end of the 9DOF was glued to the shield. The source code for the project is based on the AeroQuad software  and can be found here.

Video
dchall89 days ago

Propellers create their own lift killing drag when they spin. You can kill off that drag and improve your thrust efficiency by reducing the clearance between your rotor blades and the prop guard.

Dany23451 month ago

May i ask what 3D printer you have?

therobotfish (author)  Dany23451 month ago
This was way back. We used the makerbot thingomatic

nice. thank you for replying. I have a printerbot.... i was thinking on geting that one

jharris652 months ago

This is awesome! Next project for me... Why did you choose styrofoam instead of printing the prop guards? Weight factor? Props (pun) on the print!

therobotfish (author)  jharris652 months ago
We used Styrofoam mostly because of the size limitation of the printable parts. Styrofoam is also indeed lighter.
robobot31122 months ago

cool.how many RPM motor can i use anyway.

therobotfish (author)  robobot31122 months ago
Check out this online calculator: http://www.ecalc.ch/indexcalc.htm
yfisseha5 months ago

What software did you use for the video in step number 5?

therobotfish (author)  yfisseha5 months ago

I used motion analysis in Solidworks

ghsandwich7 months ago

Could you please post a bill of materials for the quadcopter parts you used?

scci1 year ago
Have you experimented with thinner or lighter frames, how long is the fly time
therobotfish (author)  scci1 year ago
This was our first quadcopter so we have not tried any other frames. One group in our class tried fiberglass but it didn't turn out too well. I encourage you to experiment! Flight time for our device is about 2 to 3 hours.
My calculations give you about 20 munities of fly time. Dude that is nice! I don't know your total weight , nor do I know you electronic set up, but I can assume you get even more out of that by not having to ride on the throttle. 2.5 hours seems unlikely but I trust you :) nice. I am current printing my own frame hoping to be 1/2 of what yours is by not printing the wing guards
therobotfish (author)  scci1 year ago
Good luck with your project. I might have over estimated the flight time. When we were debugging the device, a single battery would last us more than 3 hours. But that's with frequent stops though.
Collie1471 year ago
If you dont mind me asking, what speed controllers did you use?
About the battery, was it a 30C you used and did you need to install anything to ensure the LiPo battery didnt overcharge/completely discharge?
therobotfish (author)  Collie1471 year ago
We used as ESC that we brought from hobby king. http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/store/uh_viewItem.asp?idProduct=9485

There is a lithium battery charger that we used in our lab. I can't recall the name of it though. It auto shuts off and does trickle charging.
cpadilla101 year ago
Thank you I hope I would be able to build my own quadcopter
therobotfish (author)  cpadilla101 year ago
Yeah it's definitely been a long way since we made our quad copter. It seems so much easier now . Check this project out, I really like this idea. http://vimeo.com/68841788
cpadilla101 year ago
NIce!, What about the remote? How do you control it?
therobotfish (author)  cpadilla101 year ago
We used the aeroquad software with a ps2 controller. My friend wrote a bit on how he set it up here: http://robots.dacloughb.com/project-3/quadcopter-software/
When you say University of Victoria, Which Victoria are you talking about?
therobotfish (author)  Michael_Bell1 year ago
The one in Canada.
Redmario1 year ago
Nice !
sleeping1 year ago
I didn't see a mention of the battery you used. By the way, really nice work.
therobotfish (author)  sleeping1 year ago
We used the Lipo 7.4v 2000mAh Battery. You can get it at HobbyKing.
rimar20001 year ago
¡WOW, this is A-WE-SO-ME!