And a 3D zoetrope is the same except it uses static sculptures and models instead of pictures. Here's a simple zoetrope I made that can be run on a turntable.
Cardboard (the size of the turntable)
Black (or any dark colored) paper
Step 1: Chalk out the steps of the motion
I decided to simulate an ice-skater's toe loop jump since it starts and ends on the same leg; so if I play it in a loop it'll look like the skater's doing continuous jumps. I referred quite a few step-by-step tutorials for the jump and drew the above rough sketch
I have divided the final motion into 16 steps after noting that some successful zoetrope constructions had the same.
Note that this is not an accurate description of a toe loop. It's modified to get a continuous motion using pipe-cleaner models
Step 2: Make the skeleton
(I made a sample skater model first to determine the size that would fit along the arc length of one division)
Using a wire backbone gives us the flexibility to adjust the height and position of the skater; it also helps increase the distance between 2 adjacent figures by making it bend outwards.
Paint the cardboard and the support balls black to prevent them from reflecting the light.