A simple 5-step process to etch your own printed circuit boards at home.

You'll need the following ingredients:
  • laser printer/photocopier & transparencies (I go to a print shop to do this)
  • copper board (local electronics store)
  • scrubbing pads (SOS or a generic brand is perfect)
  • iron
  • rubber gloves (like the ones you use for washing dishes)
  • Ferric Chloride or Ammonium Persulphate (local electronics store)
  • drill and drill bits

Step 1: Design and print

Design your PCB. I use anything from Adobe Illustrator to Cadsoft Eagle. Once you think everything is perfect, print it on a piece of paper and test it by placing your components over it. You have to 'flip horizontal' your final design so that the transfer from the transparency to the copper board 'restores' the intended design... Then print it on a transparency. It has to be a laser printer or a photocopier because we want toner on the transparency. If you can, ask the guy at the print shop to make it as dark as possible (more toner). I've noticed that I've had the best results at the worst print shops in town.
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<p>*sigh* Instructables is NOT Google Ad</p>
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1 part HCl + 2 parts H2O2 = &quot;PCB Cocktail&quot;!!!!<br/><br/>I keep looking for the downside to it, but it doesn't stain the sink, doesn't turn your fingers brown... what's not to love?<br/><br/>May smell a little funky when the acid is opened, but otherwise ferri-chloride can just go play with itself.<br/>
<p>Here do you usaly find HCL ? <br>H2O2 its easy to find but HCL ...</p>
Take a look in the hardware store. It's used as a cement/driveway/pool tile cleaner.
I have used a clear etchant before from Mega Electronics but I don't know what it consisted of. It did seem to etch a lot quicker and of course was cleaner... although I heard that it was very dangerous in comparison to FeCl3. Not sure if this is the same stuff that you talk of or not?
What's the opinion on drill bits?&nbsp; I've heard people say that if you don't use tungsten carbide, the bit will wear away from the fiberglass.&nbsp; Is this true?<br />
I think this is true to some extent. The fiberglass in the board is very abrasive to the drill bits. I have some specific tungsten carbide drill bits specifically for drilling PCBs in mini sizes (admittedly they are about &pound;2.50 a piece and very easy to break if not used in a drilling stand). These work wonders and have drilled many boards. I was drilling a grill for a speaker once though and I got through 3 drill bits! The holes were drilled using the PCB drill first and opened out using a 2.5mm standard HSS drill. Now of course these all need sharpening. Speaking of which I may go to the hardware store on my way home and get a selection of small tungsten carbide drills for such purpose now!
no...not neccessarily true...i drilled 6 pcb's BY HAND with a dremel engraving bit...it was small enough for the job i was doing and still has bite in it to drill. and the crappy etchant from radio took 1h to etch away 80% of the copper i wanted gone.
i suggest u use a glass bearker or other such container for holding the etching sloution
if your working on a small project a small plastic bowl works just fine. i use one of my son's mini cereal bowls for etching w/ radio shak etchant...and no i dont was out the bowl and give it to him...its permanently mine now!! :)
I was going to say! I seem to recall someone in my house using a plastic jug for antifreeze and permanently damaging it! Needless to say this is now replaced and only used in the garage!
If i was making a single sided board (traces on bottom), would i have to mirror the image before printing, or could i leave it as it is?
Yeah, you have to mirror the image if you are using the iron on method
Thanks! Are you sure though, surfing around, some people say for toner transfer with eagle on the bottom layer you don't mirror,because you are actually lookin through the board, and that you only mirror the top. Oh well, i have no idea, I will mirror the board and see if the text comes out right, if it doesn'y, i will clean and leave it as is. Thanks!
It depends on the program that you use to design it with. I use something called Circuit Wizard and they normally come out the wrong way up which is fine because they end up the correct way once ironed onto the copper board. There is an invert and also a mirror feature on the program though if required. The sure way of doing it is to put some text on it and if you need to hold it in a mirror to read it then it's the correct way for the toner transfer method. If you can already ready it then it's wrong.
I think you do leave it as is. I'm sorry as I didn't understand your first question. I assumed you just wanted to make a single side board.<br/><br/>So if I now understand your question; I <em>dont</em> think you need to mirror it. Sorry for any confusion.<br/>
Thanks man, i thought you didn't need to mirror it. No, no you didn't confuse me, actually it just aided in the logical thought process. Thanks, i think ill go make that board now
you dont have to mirror it, just remember where the components are supposed to go and ur good. but mirroring sure does make the process easier.
this is a great guide to etching, thanks! Only a question, you use transparencies, but are not they made by plastic? I thought they should melt down under the iron...
I'd have thought this but I have to admit I gave it a try and it does work... to some extent, I've seen videos of this and it works perfect, although I ended up using an indelible pen to fill in the patchy bits. The transparencies must have a really high melting point... because considering they work in a laser printer they don't come out molten ;)
I like your name! It just haunts me because it seems so familiar but I just can't seem to put my finger on it!
hmm... i might want to .try this sometime.<br>
Nice instructable... <br/><br/>I've had really good luck doing this using glossy photo paper instead of transparencies... it has the advantage that it gets soggy and falls apart in water so it is pretty easy to remove from the board. I learned how to do it, including a review of the suitability of different brands of paper, from a really useful post here:<br/><br/><a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.fullnet.com/u/tomg/gooteepc.htm">http://www.fullnet.com/u/tomg/gooteepc.htm</a><br/>
Thanks mooseo for your tips, i want to know if the &quot;classic&quot; printer paper is bad to make these PCB, why the glossy paper is better than the classic paper?<br /> <br /> Cheers<br />
My feeling about the glossy paper is that the toner doesn't stick to it as well so it transfers more easily to the board. With &quot;classic&nbsp;&quot;&nbsp;printer paper, there is a lot of topography in the fibers where toner grains can hide.<br />
&nbsp;exactly, with gloss paper ALL the toner gets onto the copper, and there's no toner sticking to the paper :)
I've had trouble with photo paper recently. It's covered in plastic so after you transfer the decal and go to soak the paper to let the toner go it just sits there.
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Does anyone know if <a href="http://www.amazon.com/Copper-Etching-Solution/dp/B001PNDIP0/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=home-garden&qid=1284514727&sr=8-1">this stuff</a> will work, or should I use the stuff you can buy at <a href="http://www.radioshack.com/product/index.jsp?productId=2102868">Radio Shack</a>.
yea it works really good its way faster than that crud from radio shack but i still go with the radio shack solution cause i cant find any ferric cloride around town
Apparently acetone works very well for removing toner as well.<br />
&nbsp;Hello, totally new with this stuff. Could anyone actually explain how do PCBs work (Wikipedia? You bet, I am still cross-eyed), their point and advantages over point-to-point circuits?
PCB work as the wires for a circut. The etched part of the PCB are the wires, and the components are soldered to the board in the correct places.&nbsp;
&nbsp;Oh... I see. OK, so what's with the draft boards then, they have no visible etched paths.<br />
those are for prototyping or drafting your circuit<br />
You can see also:<br/><br/><a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.sysameri.com/marcelo/placa.htm">http://www.sysameri.com/marcelo/placa.htm</a><br/><br/>from several years ago!<br/><br/>Marcelo Fornaso<br/>
<a rel="nofollow" href="http://translate.google.com/translate?js=y&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sysameri.com%2Fmarcelo%2Fplaca.htm&sl=es&tl=en&history_state0=/">English</a><br/>
i found a small (but useful!) 12-18v drill (based on a small motor!!) for 8$.. i am now powering it on 24v using a transformer... it makes well job!!
is there any replacement for copper chloride? i cant find it in my country...
i mean ferric chloride
Actually, you can use copper chloride :P<br/><br/>More details in this instructable: <a href="http://www.instructables.com/id/Stop-using-Ferric-Chloride-etchant!--A-better-etc/?ALLSTEPS">http://www.instructables.com/id/Stop-using-Ferric-Chloride-etchant!--A-better-etc/?ALLSTEPS</a><br/><br/>Your best bet for getting Muriatic Acid is at a pool store. Getting that was the only hard part for me. <br/>
Hello, I just wanted to add that Muriatic Acid is also used for etching concrete prior to painting... So, you can often find it at a paint store.
. Oh another thing: The BEST paper for this, are the CLAY coated papers - that means a layer of very fine clay is used to coat the paper, to provide a very fine film - and this is smooth and the toner film sits ON the clay instead of melting into the paper fiber; and when the toner is fused onto the copper, and the paper is soaked the clay provides a soft release from the paper fiber. This gives a CLEAN and solid film of toner, instead of a toner film that is kind of porous and kind of furry and fiberous.
I use the same process, BUT<br/><br/>1. I use Open Office Draw; as I can use paper sizes up to 300 x 300 - be that mm, cm or Km.. which is way larger than A0; it also has excellent zoom in or out; which is really great for doing HUGE circuit boards to a scale, and then copy with new slide, and then convert to metafile and then PROPORTIONALLY scale the image down and copy it onto your printers paper size.<br/><br/>The IMAGE can be flipped into a &quot;mirror image&quot; or a reversed image; that means you can do track overlays for each side of the circuit board - and making use of layers.<br/><br/>I don't have a laser printer - BUT when I print with ink jet, I print at the highest density - for the blackest image; then I when I get it photocopied; I ask for the image to be as BLACK or with the highest image density possible - when the overall copy is starting to look a bit specky - that means that the toner is on as thickly as it can be put...<br/><br/>A very thick toner layer = better bonding to the copper = a thicker and homogenous layer of &quot;resist&quot; on the coper = better quality tracks.<br/><br/>
Thank you so much for sharing this!
you could just dump it in a hole in the woods.
I've experimented with dilute HCl and a bit of H2o2. The HCl is sold as "drain cleaner" over here and H2o2 is available as hydrogen peroxide at any chemist. Both of which can be purchased at a local general goods store. :)

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