Introduction: 9 Easy Ways to Distress Wood

Picture of 9 Easy Ways to Distress Wood

Distressed wood has the look of being weathered and old, giving it texture and a rustic, homey appeal. In some lumber stores you can buy salvaged wood called barn wood, so named as it's mostly salvaged from old barns which have seen many years of weathering. If you were to buy wood like this for a project you can expect to pay a premium for the aged look of barn wood. However, making your own distressed wood is incredibly easy, and can be made a fraction of the price.

We'll explore nine simple techniques that will take any store bought wood from cheap to chic. The best part about doing it yourself is that you can modify any of the techniques to suit the tools on hand, and combine the treatments in different ways to get just the look you want.

Let's distress!

Step 1: Use Cheap Wood

Picture of Use Cheap Wood

Distressing wood to look old usually involves some superficial damage to the wood surface, because of this there is no need to use expensive wood.

More expensive wood is usually free of knots and warping, whereas cheap wood usually has more knots and other surface imperfections that will add to the effect of distressing. Though you don't want warped wood, having surface damage will add depth to the wood when stain or paint is added.

Skip the expensive stuff and find inexpensive wood.

Step 2: Beat It Up

Picture of Beat It Up

Aged and distressed wood looks like it's been through a lot in its life. That's not going to be the case with new wood, so we'll have to improvise on how to add a story to the wood surface through texturing.

A great way to add texture is to make marks in the wood with just about any hard instrument you have on hand. The more varied the better.

Hammerhead divots will add a dished depression.

Threading from large screws leave an evenly spaced pattern.

Steel chain can make irregular divots. greasy chains leave divots and some discoloration.

Placing a handful of nails into a shop rag and beating on the wood allows all kind of small indents to be made, rounded marks from the heads, spirals from the threads, and sharp pocks from the pointed ends. This is one of my favorites.

Of course, this is just what I had on hand. Experimenting with anything dense that has some shape or texture can provide pleasing results.

The divots and dents are just part of the process. To really make these imperfections stand out you need to add color.

Step 3: Wire Brush

Picture of Wire Brush

Barn wood is prized due to the deep weathering that comes from being left exposed to the elements. You can mimic this in a fraction of the time by using a variety of wire brushes that fit into your drill.

If you're using any kind of softwood (and if you're using cheap wood, then it will be soft) this part is super easy. Load up any wire brush into the chuck of your drill and move the brush over the wood along the grain.

The brush will easily dig out the soft wood fibers and leave behind some of the denser grains, etching in the texture of the brush along the way. Depending on how much pressure is applied to the brush against the wood there are varying levels of texture you can achieve.

Make sure to wear a dust mask, this process can get a little messy.

Step 4: Wood Staining

Picture of Wood Staining

Any surface imperfections from the previous steps will stand out when you apply a stain to wood. The stain collects in the divots and makes these areas much darker, and more visually appealing.

To really get the effect to look dramatic I've had success spending a little extra time over the divots to ensure a good amount of stain has been deposited, and allow it longer to soak into the wood.

Step 5: Tea Staining (With Vinegar + Steel Wool)

Picture of Tea Staining (With Vinegar + Steel Wool)

Tea staining is a chemical reaction between the bitter tannin from steeped tea and a mixture of iron acetate from the steel wool and vinegar to turn the wood a dark color.

Black tea is steeped and left to cool to room temperature. In a separate container, steel wool is submerged in vinegar and left for about 10 hours. When steel wool is combined with an acedic acid (vinegar) it causes the steel to oxidize (rust), making iron acetate.

When both solutions are ready, brush the tea onto the wood and allow it to soak in. Next, brush on the iron acetate solution and watch as the wood slowly begins to darken.

CAUTION:

  • Making iron acetate produces hydrogen gas, do not seal containers and keep in a ventilated area.
  • Staining will occur mostly on wood surface, be careful if you need to sand afterwards.

The tannin content of the wood is the predominate factor in the darkness of the stain. The best part about this technique is the close substitutes work! Don't have white vinegar? Use any other type of vinegar. Don't have steel wool? Use any other steel bits (staples, nails, shavings, etc.)

Step 6: Paint + Sand

Picture of Paint + Sand

To go along with additive methods of distressing, like making divots and staining, you can also distress wood by subtractive methods, like sanding.

Maybe your salvaged wood already has some paint, if not add a quick coat of whatever color you like and then sand it off using a rough grit sandpaper.

I used a 80 grit sandpaper on my random orbital sander to remove some of the paint from the surface of this piece of wood. If you work aggressively and try not to spend too long in one spot you'll end up with texture from the sandpaper and do a haphazard job of sanding - both desirable for the end product.

Step 7: Scraping

Picture of Scraping

Using cabinet scrapers is a great way to get a faded look to painted wood without much effort.

These straight edged flat scrapers are used in woodwork to scrape and smooth the surface of wood, a common tool for cabinetmakers. However, they are put to good use for scraping off a painted wood panel to get a fatigued appearance without having to wait for the wood to naturally weather and remove the paint.

Cabinet scrapers come in a few different shapes, and are usually able to get into any spot you might need.

This set of 3 was under $20 and take up no room in my tool cabinet.

Step 8: White Wash Pickling

Picture of White Wash Pickling

a white wash pickling solution is similar to a stain, but instead of turning the wood a darker color it lightens it with a subtle white color while allowing the grain to show through.

The stain can be applied in multiple coats, or allowed to sit on the wood longer for a deeper white appearance. Alternatively, you can apply and then wipe the white wash off the wood for a faint effect, which looks more like aged wood than if you left it for longer.

Step 9: Build Up Layers

Applying any of the above methods will achieve good results to make new wood look weathered, but the real secret to making your fatigued wood look amazing is to build up the layers by combining different methods.

This makes sense if you think about how naturally aged wood got to looking the way it is: It's probably been painted a few times, has had some damage over the years, and been baked in the sun resulting in a faded appearance. Think of this when you're applying treatments to your wood. The more layers of distressing your wood has, the better it will appear.


Do you have a favorite method to distress wood? I want to see it!

Share a picture of your best methods for distressing wood in the comments below and get a free Pro Membership to Instructables!

Comments

ivan_ind (author)2017-07-10

burn it!

Cavechild (author)2017-07-03

Don't forget the edges. I use an old screwdriver or a chain and drag/tap it along the edges/corners to round and smooth them.

webpuddin made it! (author)2017-06-22

I distressed a new white oak hardwood floor, but the technique was learned doing other smaller projects & works anywhere. Don't like 'fussy' floors. So I used a combination of things. 1) a chain where I beat the floor; 2) assorted hardware hit with a hammer: old hinges, bolts, screws, nails with large heads, crowbar, old butcher knife, paint can opener, screwdrivers, - anything that will scratch, cut, or dent.; 3) chisels; 4) fake wormholes - via drill bits & nails ; and 5) patches; cut hole & rough patch. For all of these I used water-based aniline stain. It was the first time I'd used this kind of 'stain'. I loved it - it dries slowly enough (5 - 10 min working time) so you can blend, puddle it, dilute it in place for less effect, blend it. And it dries fast enough that within an hour or less you can sand it. After distressing, I'd use a dark, concentrated color & let it dry. Then sand all (or nearly all - no need to be fussy) of it off with an orbital sander. That accented all of the dents & scratches. Then re-stain if you want an all over darker look, or use final finish when sanded as smooth as you want & is dry. The patches were inspired by reclaimed wood from old factories & barns that I'd seen patched roughly similar to this. I used a router to make a random shaped smooth bottomed hole, made some strips of wood just slightly thicker than depth of hole. Cut them out (very roughly), glued them in place with wood glue, set weight on them. Next day, sanded them flush with floor with coarse orbital sander. Then used a wood filler that was stainable to fill gap, but left it slightly lower than surface. Stained filler, let dry, then sanded all smooth & applied finish. I don't have pictures here, but I have a 7" grinder with sanding pad, & with sandpaper I can mimic circular sawmill marks on pieces of wood. I kind of did it in a place or two on this. It's fun 'cause you don't have to be so particular. One thing I learned - there is a LOT of floor, as opposed to a table top, shelf, etc. But I didn't have to do ALL of it - just in strategic places - in front of fridge, sink, stove; around dining chairs; near recliners ... and then randomly here & there. The EFFECT is there - but its not overdone. Turned our really nice. It's hard to 'mess up'! Enjoy!

mikeasaurus (author)webpuddin2017-06-23

Great layering technique. It looks very good!

Thanks for sharing your process, and a few pictures. Enjoy the Pro Membership!

plansinwood made it! (author)2017-06-20

Found the table and drawer pics to go with the comments below.

mikeasaurus (author)plansinwood2017-06-22

Looks like the paint and sand technique. Classic!

plansinwood made it! (author)mikeasaurus2017-06-22

Only the painted wood is edge sanded....the top is antiqued, stained natural, urethaned and paint then only applied to the marks. That way wet sanding is only needed to leave the paint in the indents....then another layer of urethane to seal it in. This shelf is the same top style as the table.

plansinwood (author)2017-06-20

I was kept very busy back in the country craft days in the eighties with my distressed furniture, shelves and other items.....now it's all back and even better techniques. I like the steel brush idea.

As well as the techniques above, I added "worm holes" with the stick shown. After adding the scratches and stain, I paint the indents with milk paint and sand to leave the paint so it looks like previously stripped wood. I also add a coat of hide glue after staining, then the paint will crackle like an antique piece. I do this with different color layers to replicate layers of paint over years of time. I will try to find my sample board to add a pic.

mikeasaurus (author)plansinwood2017-06-20

Layering a few techniques is definitely the way to go. Thanks for sharing a picture of your "worm holes" device, I'll have to make one of my own to add to the collection!

Enjoy the Pro Membership!

kenneth.venosdel (author)2017-06-17

Help! Help! I'm being distressed!

andypugh (author)2017-06-13

Oak can be aged nicely by fuming with ammonia.

I did this with a bamboo and cling-film tent a while ago, and it worked nicely. For a smaller item you could just use a transparent bag.

Just leave a saucer of ammonia in the tent with the oak and and take it out when the desired shade is achieved. There are before-and-after pictures at this URL (if this chat allows URLs) http://bodgesoc.blogspot.de/2014/01/rivett-lathe-stand.html

mikeasaurus (author)andypugh2017-06-16

This is a very unique way to age oak, and one I'm not familiar with. Great idea! Do you have a picture of the before and after to compare?

Thanks for sharing a picture, enjoy the Pro Membership!

andypugh (author)mikeasaurus2017-06-16

Having looked, I do have a picture of one treated and one untreated piece of wood. I was only wanting a subtle ageing effect, so I think I left it for a few hours. You could leave it for days or weeks to get a full Tudor Oak effect. I believe that it replicates the natural process that darkens oak over time. I didn't invent the process, it is quite well known and mentioned in many books.

mikeasaurus (author)andypugh2017-06-16

Thanks for sharing. Such a neat idea!

Yonatan24 (author)andypugh2017-06-14

I think I saw a few I'bles on this subject.

Yes, you can links, but they are spam, they will get flagged.

StevenS343 (author)andypugh2017-06-13

very nice example of craftsmanship. was well worth the time to enter your URL manually. had not heard of using ammonia, thank you

monstertrucker35 (author)2017-06-13

I designed my own machine that allowed me to replicate the "Old Sawmill wood" look. Then it was a painful 5 long step process to make the wood age to match the age of a log cabin they were going on.

How did you do it? The circular pattern of the blade along the wood is a nice touch.

Thanks for sharing a picture, enjoy the Pro Membership!

That is incredible. I'd love to hear more about how the saw mill effect was done.

Buso made it! (author)2017-06-12

Making small indentations with a wood burning tool . . .

mikeasaurus (author)Buso2017-06-16

I didn't think of using a wood burning tool, good idea!

Thanks for sharing a picture, enjoy the Pro Membership!

gbig95 (author)Buso2017-06-13

Masterful idea for simulating wormy/diseased wood!

MarissaM10 (author)Buso2017-06-13

Love it! Kinda looks like ants or some other small bugs got into it.

animalsandearth (author)2017-06-13

Paint then sand.

I like this method, too.

DuncanS3 (author)2017-06-13

I use a Tekton 6696 shoe rasp. I place the rounded side of the rasp against the wood, push down and draw it along the grain of the wood. Repete as many times as you like untill you get the effect you want. Then i stain with dark stain, paint (dry brush), sand edges, stain with dark stain and finally... poly

mikeasaurus (author)DuncanS32017-06-16

A rasp is a great way to get different tooling onto wood, good suggestion.

Thanks for sharing a picture, enjoy the Pro Membership!

Wild-Bill made it! (author)2017-06-13

My favourite technique, at the moment, is Shou Sugi Ban or The Japanese burnt cedar technique, but then I am building a sauna and I am using it on the exterior. I like the way it raises the grain. I burn it with a Tiger Torch, put out the fire by soak it down with water, remove the char with a nylon brush and finally wash it off the loose char. I am going to finish it with boiled linseed oil (traditionally it is done with Tung Oil).

mikeasaurus (author)Wild-Bill2017-06-16

Great technique. Thanks for sharing a picture, enjoy the Pro Membership!

cerberustugowar (author)2017-06-13

i remember a customer renting a plate compactor ( http://www.gardenland.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/8716_01.jpg ) and then putting gravel on unlayed hardwood floor boards and then running the plate tamper on top. You could maybe get a bit less indentation if you used a heavy linoleum roller ( http://asrentall.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/linoleum-roller2.jpg )

Ruffle (author)2017-06-13

You can raise the grain on soft woods by misting with water, this works well on fresh cut wood.

The wire wheel works great too, then I finish it off with a light touch from a blow torch.

jwzumwalt (author)Ruffle2017-06-13

You can get the same effect with less trouble by just wiping the wood with a damp cloth. The wood fibers will stick up :)

KennethR14 (author)jwzumwalt2017-06-13

water does raise the grain - but only makes it rough. Wire-brushing replicates the deeply etched effect you get with weathering over time.

jwzumwalt (author)KennethR142017-06-13

Good point.

This got me to thinking about when I use to pressure wash before painting. If you get the pressure washer too close to the wood it will remove about 1/16" of the soft grain; the effect leaves a very polished look, simular to drift wood - another possibility!

jacrook22 (author)2017-06-13

Thank you so much, Mike! I bought a cheap bookcase-like piece w cubbies instead of shelves, but it's painted white & I want to distress it. Your Instructable came at exactly the right time! Don'tcha LUV it when that happens?!!

giarcar (author)2017-06-13

If you lightly go over the surface of the wood with a blowtorch till you char the surface grain,then wire brush in the direction of the grain it will remove the burnt softer wood
Finish off by rubbing in dark brown (or any other preferred colour) boot polish then buff to required finish,using this method you can make it look hundreds of years old.
But for very obvious reasons great fire precautions must be observed!

ty520 (author)2017-06-13

I would recommend a word of caution against using "cheap wood" based on personal experience.

I
applied a tea stain to a table I built using lumber from a 'big box'
home improvement store. Their lumber is not kiln-dried, nor seasoned -
in other words, it is still saturated with moisture, and is prone to
warping as it dries out over time.

In a couple months,
my table started to twist - now, only 3 feet touch the ground at any
given time. I also suspect that the tea stain might have amplified
warping because it soaks into the wood, adding more moisture

when sourcing wood, try to make sure it is either kiln-dried, or has been seasoned over 1 year

PhilipB92 (author)2017-06-13

Hammer some nails of various sizes partly into the wood. Bend some
over in the process - then remove not too carefully with a wrecking bar
(crow bar). Once stained, the holes and levering marks left behind wil
really enhance the distressed effect.

Bestdyi (author)2017-06-13

Sand blasting easily removes softer grain, high pressure water from power washer will also work. Experiment first, these two methods are aggressive.

Irritable_Badger (author)2017-06-13

A dirt and gravel road is a great distressing tool. Put the sides you want to distress on the road then walk around on the boards.

You'll have to experiment with it, but it's really easy and the results are instant. If you don't weight a lot and want more distressing you can bounce up and down in places, but don't jump. It's too much and looks fabricated. If too much dirt/clay/mud gets packed on that's ok. Just scrape it off with a little muscle behind it. Practice with your road surface is key.

What you are doing is replicating barn/southern farmhouse entryway flooring without the centuries of walking normally required. We figured this out replacing irreparably damaged planks in a barn my friend converted into a house. It looks authentic because it is! You're just doing it backwards.

jbrand6 (author)2017-06-13

I designed my own machine, so I could replicate the "Sawmill" look, then a long 5 step process to darken the wood to match an old log cabin.

RussellW44 (author)2017-06-13

I make a solution of 2 parts stain and 1 part mineral spirits (if oil based stain, water if not) then use a qtip to highlight all the marks I just added to my board. The diluted stain will go deeper into the wood grain and really make the distressing pop. Then just stain the piece as usual.

jacrook22 (author)RussellW442017-06-13

I luv the qtip idea! Thx 4 sharing!

squishoso (author)2017-06-13

First of all, your work looks awesome and beautiful and I envy your skills! =D

But I still think the idea behind upcycling stuff from aged wood is not about the awesome look of it. I don't know much about woodworking, but I think aged wood is the wood that have already passed through a lot of weathering, reaching a state where it won't warp or bend anymore if exposed to the weather again (at least not much more than it have already). So, more than looks, I think it is supposed to be functional and more resilient to bugs and weather than common wood.

Again, congrats for the work! It realy gives a homey feeling to stuff!

CasualT (author)2017-06-13

I have used a propane torch and charred the surface, then a wire brush! Careful , and you get distress and color!! Made a four poster bed this way that went over very well!!

peteandoreen1 (author)2017-06-13

Nice set, thanks for sharing. Another for the wire brush is old pine pallets. Old to start with cleaned and aged somemore with the brush. Again thanks.

JaWell071 (author)2017-06-13

Cool!! I like the result from the nail bashing a lot.

Buso (author)2017-06-12

Placing small indentations with a wood burning tool provides an instant weathered look.

StudioDarose (author)Buso2017-06-12

Cool idea Buso!

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