## Step 18: Mixer Editor

### The Mixer Editor is used to input information to the the KK2.1 flight controller about the geometry of the quadcopter. Specifically, in order to control the craft, the KK2.1 must know the locations of all four motors relative to itself. In this step, we will program the KK2.1 so that it knows this information.

With the KK2.1 flight controller hooked up to the Q Brain and the radio receiver we can now start the process of programming the KK2.1 so that our quadcopter flies correctly.

In this and the next four steps, we are going to be inputting a whole bunch of numbers into the KK2.1 for various flight parameters. Before we start doing that though, I wanted to take a quick 288 characters to explain a bit about where these numbers come from and what the settings mean. In this step I just want to include some basic background information so that you have a rough understanding of what we’ll be doing, instead of just blindly pressing buttons. For more information you should definitely do some Google research.

So, let’s start by talking about how the KK2.1 controls your quadcopter. In order to control the movement of the quadcopter, the KK2.1 adjusts the lift produced by each of the four rotors. By adjusting the amount of lift produced in just the right way, the KK2.1 can make the craft ascend, descend, or tilt to move in any direction.

In order to determine exactly how to control each motor, the KK2.1 uses, as you might expect, quite a lot of math. I am not going to explain how all this math works - frankly I don’t understand it all myself - but I will explain the mathematical foundation upon which all of the flight calculations rely. In order to calculate the lift required by each motor correctly, the KK2.1 must know the exact position of each of the four motors relative to itself. By knowing these positions, the KK2.1 can calculate the leverage each arm has over the orientation of the quadcopter. Using this information, the KK2.1 can calculate how to adjust the lift produced by each motor and move the craft.

In order to express the positions of the motors in terms that the KK2.1 can understand, we must do some math of our own. Since my purpose here is only to provide some basic information, I will not discuss these calculations on this page, but I would encourage you, again, to do some research if you are interested. The math required to determine the positions of the motors is not too complex; you learned all the math skills you’ll need in high school. Basically, each of the numbers we will be inputting into the KK2.1 Mixer Editor represents the sine of various angles.

For now though, let’s quit with the background information and start programming the KK2.1. The first step is, of course, to turn on our KK2.1. To to his, simply attach a battery to the battery plug we soldered into the Q Brain a while back. You should see the screen on the KK2.1 light up and, after flashing some information about the hardware and firmware versions of the KK2.1, you will see the home screen, which should display the word “SAFE” followed by some information about the quadcopter.

Just one more thing before we get to programming. The KK2.1 has four buttons used to navigate the user-interface. From left to right, the buttons are Back, Up, Down, Select.

Let’s get started. The first settings we will adjust are the those in the Mixer Editor, which are the settings that, as we just discussed, tell the KK2.1 the positions of the four motors. In the bottom-right corner of the KK2.1 home screen, you will see the word Menu. Press the far right button to access the menu. There are a whole bunch of different settings in this menu, and we will get to most of them quite soon, but for now scroll down to Mixer Editor, which is the tenth item in the list. With Mixer Editor selected, press the Enter button.

In the upper-right corner, you will see a CH:1 label, this means that we are specifying the position of Motor 1. For reference, Motor 1 is the front-left motor, Motor 2 is the front-right motor, Motor 3 is the rear-right motor, and Motor 4 is the rear-left motor. To change a setting, use the Up and Down buttons to scroll through the list, and press the Enter button to select a setting. Use the Up and Down arrows again to change it the selected setting and when you are done, press Enter again to save the setting. The settings we’ll need are as follows:

Motor 1 Mixer Editor Settings

• Throttle: 95
• Aileron: -34
• Elevator: 94
• Rudder: 78
• Offset: 0
• Type:  ESC
• Rate: High
When you are done entering the above settings for Motor 1, switch to Motor 2 by moving the cursor up to the CH:1 label and pressing enter. Then we will repeat the process above to adjust the Mixer Editor settings for Motor 2.

Motor 2 Mixer Editor Settings
• Throttle: 95
• Aileron: 34
• Elevator: 94
• Rudder: -78
• Offset: 0
• Type:  ESC
• Rate: High
You’ve probably pretty much mastered the Mixer Editor menu by now so continue by entering the Mixer Editor settings for Motor 3 and Motor 4.

Motor 3 Mixer Editor Settings
• Throttle: 82
• Aileron: -71
• Elevator: -71
• Rudder: -100
• Offset: 0
• Type:  ESC
• Rate: High
Motor 4 Mixer Editor Settings
• Throttle: 82
• Aileron: 71
• Elevator: -71
• Rudder: 100
• Offset: 0
• Type:  ESC
• Rate: High

can i use 5000mah 2s turnigy battery
<p>Do you have to revert the 3 pin connections for the q brain back to how they were in order to use the BESC programming card? I don't want to do this each time because I want to change the song selection for the q brain. Any easier way to do this?</p>
Here is the connectionHereh
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Pls I am using a flight board KK2.1 and. Hk 16A V2 6 channels receiver. I used 2 servo cables to link them, (which am not sure is correct), but when I try to arm my motors, I get a set of steady beeps. What could be the reason for that?
<p>Great instructable. Followed a lot of this when I made my Dead Cat Defibrillator. Only thing that doesn't seem to be right are the mixer settings. For motor 3 (right rear) and 4 (left rear) they seem to be the wrong way round. I based mine on the YouTube video from HobbyKing which has 3 as 100, 71, -71, 100 and 4 as 100, -71, -71, -100. Hope this helps anyone else that get some strange flight characteristics with the settings given here.</p>
<p>Thanks for the recipe, flies really well now. But there are multiple errors in the mixer editor settings you have listed.</p><p>Importantly, the signs for the rudder numbers for motor 3 and 4 are mixed up! Motor 1 and 3 should have positive numbers for rudder, motor 2 and 4 should have negative numbers. Same applies for aileron.</p><p>I have marked in <strong>Bold </strong>the places when my number have the <u>opposite sign</u> of your numbers. My numbers are also slightly different just because i measured the angles differently from my kk unit. <br>39 comes from being sin(23 degrees) which is the angle i measured to the front arms (see picture).<br>92 = sin(90-39) =&gt; 0.92 =&gt; 92<br>73 = sin(47)<br>68 = sin(90-47)</p><p>Motor 1:<br>Throttle: 100<br>Aileron: -39 <br>Elevator: 92<br>Rudder: 70</p><p>Motor 2:<br>Throttle: 100<br>Aileron: 39 <br>Elevator: 92<br>Rudder: -70</p><p>Motor 3:<br>Throttle: 81<br><strong>Aileron: 73</strong><br>Elevator: -68<br><strong>Rudder: 100</strong></p><p>Motor 4:<br>Throttle: 81<br><strong>Aileron: -73</strong><br>Elevator: -68<br><strong>Rudder: -100</strong></p>
<p>What is the length of your flight???</p>
How durable is this model compared to other copters? Do you recommend flying this if it's my first copter, or would you suggest a more crash friendly one?
<p>Ok, I'm a little confused. Your pic of the tape on the controler is clearly mode 1 but your link to the tx/rx combo is mode 2. Which one are you running?</p>
<p>This is the very best build report I have read! </p>
<p>Thanks for taking time to put together such a comprehensive build guide. Much appreciated.</p><p>I can buy all these parts in the UK. But, I have a DX6 AR7000 and an AR6000. Will these work OK with the setup given?</p>
<p>I want to build this but I just can't find a vendor who ships those parts to Germany. Can anybody help me?</p>
<p>i found when i inputed these settings my motor 1 and 2 went much <br>more forward than sideways, i found the Aileron and Elevator settings <br>for motors 1 and 2 were slightly switched around (could be a new version <br> of the software or maybe just an oversight when typing up this amazing <br>build? lol)<br><br>I found these work best for motors 1 and 2 on my KK2.1 <br></p><p><strong>Motor 1 Mixer Editor Settings</strong> </p><ul><li> Throttle: 95 <li> Aileron: -94 <li> Elevator: 34 <li> Rudder: 78 <li> Offset: 0 <li> Type: ESC <li> Rate: High</ul><p><strong>Motor 2 Mixer Editor Settings</strong> </p><blockquote> <br> <br><ul><li> Throttle: 95 <br><li> Aileron: 94 <li> Elevator: 34 <li> Rudder: -78 <li> Offset: 0 <li> Type: ESC <li> Rate: High</ul></blockquote><p>Correct me if im wrong but that gave me the correct orientation of the motors</p>
<p>i found this section to be a bit confusing at first until i relized i didnt have enough 3pin connectors...in the parts list it only says 1 CM male to male connector so thats what i bought...maybe should be revised to say 3 or 4 lol</p>
<p>1-10CM male to male**</p>
<p>I am currently in the middle of this build. But it seems my controls are all backwards. For example left is right and throttle up is throttle down ect. Anybody else having this problem??</p>
<p>Just reverse the affected channels on your transmitter</p>
<p>Very nice! I was looking for something like his. A question: Is there place to install a gimbal underneath?</p><p>Thanks</p>
Great instructable! Thank you so much, I followed all your instructions and my dead cat flew first time perfect!!! Cheers.
<p>Sounds dumb but i can't get it right!<br>I Have a Graupner MX-12, with the throttle on the right side.</p><p>In Your Instructable, it's on the left side, so how do I have to swap the connectors, so the KK Board also recognizes the right stick as a throttle?</p>
<p>Why is finding downloads for the latest KK2.1 board firmware such an elusive thing? Google always takes me to that gigantic thread on RC Groups where finding any links is like finding a needle in a haystack. Where the heck does one find KK2.1 firmware updates?</p>
very hard
<p>Hi, useful article but have one comment regarding prop balancing - don't you have the prop balancer assembled wrong? The conical elements should normally have the tips of the cones facing each other, they are designed so that they self centre on the hole in the propeller. Also there is a second step to balancing which you haven't mentioned here - to balance the hub (often referred to as vertical balancing). Doesn't make as much different as the horizontal balance but worth doing. Enjoy your flying, R</p>
<p>Hi there, I have a deadcat 450, I also just bought a Qbrain but cannot seem to get this darn thing working, please could you be more specific about the Cabling!</p>
Hi. What settings do you have in your radiocontroler??
<p>I's using an OrangeRx DSM2 reciever without numbers. How would I wire it correctly?</p>
<p>Hello I bought Qbrain and Naza.</p><p>can you post a picture to see x </p><p>how did the connection between fate and Qbrai 4x25A naza m-lite? , Thank you</p>
<p>My motors did not come with the motor mounting screws as depicted in this picture. I purchased the &quot;Turnigy Multistar 2213-980Kv 14Pole Multi-Rotor Outrunner&quot; as listed in the parts list but there are no phillips screws with them. The motors on hobby king also dont show these screws. looking at the local hobby stores and hardware stores trying to find some that will wrk but I have not had any luck.</p>
<p>Realy great instructable, but I think that yu need to charge battery at LiPo balance mode, and not at normal charge mode. In LiPo balance mode, charger will balance each of the cell separately, so is more safe, and better for battery</p><p>:)</p>
<p>Hi great instructable, how can I connect the Q-brain to the KK2.1 voltage sensor to make use of the low voltage alarm? I cant seem to figure that out. Any help is appriciated. </p>
<p>So I am in the process of scratch-building my first quadcopter, and I am trying to use a Turnigy programming card to program my Q-Brain 4-in-1 ESC. I plug the Q-Brain in to the programming hub, and that into the programming card, and then plug in the battery to an XT60 connector I soldered onto the ESC, but the programming card doesn't light up or respond. What am I doing wrong, and what could a possible solution be?</p>
<p>Never mind, I finished the build completely! Great instructable, although I noticed that some of the mixer settings were flipped, possibly because of the recent firmware update.</p>
<p>Great instructable and now I definitely want a quadcopter for my own! One question, instead of buying a SK450 Dead Cat frame for the quadcopter could I lasercut my own such as this: (http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:113497/#files)? My idea was that it would be easier to repair broken arms and what not if I could create my own frame. I plan on using the exact same parts as the list provided but change the frame. Would this theoretically work?</p>
<p>Thank you for this great instructable ! Ordered all the parts from HK ! Looking forward for the delivery ! </p>
I voted. :)
I made my first flights and crashes today (I never flew before). Yes, I swapped motors 3 &amp; 4. I need to recalibrate the motors again; since the do not start at the same time. Thanks for the instructions.
<p>Nice Work DUDE... Voted </p>
<p>A stunning instructable! Very well presented in depth. Thanks for sharing!</p>
<p>Assuming they are compatible; can anyone tell me how to connect the Q-Brain to a DJI Naza Lite (http://www.dji.com/product/naza-m-lite). Thanks!</p>
<p>Nice work! I just finish my deadcat last week;) Just a question, are you sure that the mixer editor settings are correct? I think that you switch the third and fourth motors! Let me know!</p>
<p>please please upload video step by step please :( . so that it is more easy to understand and fix it </p>
<p>This was a great instructable, infact im building it myself, the one thing that annoyed me though, as this was my first time building a quadcopter, i didnt have the parts that werent included in the parts list, which made me pay for more shipping because i needed more parts, These parts were the threadlock, the XT60 connectors and the prop balancer, For others that are/were in the same situation as me, you should add those to the parts list, will make thier life much simplier, as im stuck waiting for threadlock and a balancer now...</p>
<p>Boy what an interesting project ! Now where does that neighbour stay that skin dip on Saturday? </p>
<p>I'm going to build this but was wondering what kind of camera did you use??</p>
<p>I use a Contour ROAM Model 1600.</p>
<p>thank you for the info and quick response! :)</p>
<p>Awwww, thought this was going to be a taxidermy quadcopter made from a dead cat. Good of you to show the crashes, most people pretend they have none.. got a nice vid myself, lots of bits of desimated copter flying past the camera.</p>
<p>Nice Build and well written instructable. I plan on building a defib. deadcat soon. I found youtube videos from HobbyKing setting up the KK2.1 for the sk450 DeadCat frame. There are several other videos they do on the KK boards as well. It is ALL about the firmware on the board (I would NOT recommend you fly stock firmware) and the set-up, calibration and tuning of the board. Nice thing about the KK board is the screen and user interface. There are tons of them out there and just as many videos and guides for set-up and tuning.</p><p>Cheers! :) and Many Happy Flights</p>