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A USB Power Controled Plug Strip. With Isolation.

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The whole point of this Instructable was to allow me to power on all the accessories for my computer without thinking about it. And then not power all the little power vampire wall warts when I am not using the computer. The idea is simple, you power on your CPU, all of the other parts of the system power up (monitor, laser printer, speakers, etc) When you power off your CPU, they follow suit.Now there products out there that will do this for you, and if you do not have the experience working with line voltage electricity, please stop reading and just go buy one. There are several products that do exactly what we are trying to do here, but of all the ones that I have reviewed have disadvantages over the device that we are going to build. They fall into three basic types:

There are cheap usb controlled power strips, but I have seen several that do not offer any isolation, and if you are creating a possible path for line voltage (120v here in the USA) to your mother board, and its many hundred dollars worth of over-clocked goodness. I would like some isolation.

There are current sensing power strips, One of the outlets is set up to sense current flow. When this happens the electronics in the power strip power on the other outlets. Its a good idea, but sometimes they do not sense correctly, and will not turn on the accesories. Also the electronics require yet another little power supply to be on 24/7, this we are trying to avoid.

There are well designed enterprise grade solutions with isolation, that work very well and have a very hefty price tag as well.

This circuit uses no extra power when it is not in use, and offers some hefty isolation from power surges, and does not cost a fortune to build.
 
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Step 1: What you will need

Picture of What you will need
First off if you do not feel confident in your ability to work with line voltage power, please stop reading. If you build this project wrong, you have the ability to destroy your motherboard on your PC. I'm not kidding.

The heart of this system is two things really, the actual switching is done by a DC controlled solid state relay, All the isolation is provided by a pair of fuses and some transient voltage surge supressing diodes (TVSS)

All of the other parts are really up to you, I used what I had kicking around. Which was mostly standard electrical fittings, and an old plug strip, and a heatsink from a junk processor, and a USB cable that was miss ordered with usb "A" connectors on both ends. Feel free to use whatever works for you.

All told the parts that I had to order (fuses and holders, TVSS, and Solid State Relay) were less then $30.00 USD from an online supplier.


Step 2: The schematic!

Picture of The schematic!
The concept of this circuit is pretty simple. The 5 volts provided in the USB connector is used to turn on a large Solid State Relay, which turns on the power to the power strip. All of the power control is done by the solid state relay(SSR). If you have never used and SSR for controliing power it could not be any easier, the designers have taken all of the hard engineering out of thier use. And what you get is a box with 4 terminals. Two of the terminals are for the line voltage. The other two are for the control voltage. When you supply control voltage to the control terminals, the line voltage terminals turn on. Thats it. No, really. Its just a little black box. No further engineering needed. Inductive loads, motors, lighting, resistive loads. They don't really care as long as they are within there rated current range.

The relay I chose was a Z240D10 from OPTO22. It has a maximum rated current of 10 amps @ 120VAC. This should be more then enough for my desk. The control input accepts from 3-32 VDC. So the 5 volts from the USB connector is more then enough. It was also chosen for its low cost. If you need more current capacity you can order a larger SSR.

The protection part of the circuit is three fold:

The first line of defense is the actual SSR. It uses an optical isolation between the power and control rated at a 4000 volts.

The second part of the circuit is a pair of 125mA fuses that will blow if over loaded.

The third part of the circuit is a pair of (1.5KE6.8CA) 7.14v transient voltage surge supressing diodes (TVSS) These are similar to a Zeiner diode. When the voltage across the terminals exceeds a limit. They begin conducting. Except unlike the Zeiner diode, they are bidirectional. So if for any reason the voltage in the control parts of the circuit exceeds 7.14v they act like a short and blow the fuses. The power dissapation for these parts is rated at 1500 watts for 1 millisecond. Which is more then enough to blow the fuses and protect the circuit. Circuits like this one are used in various communication devices that are subject to lightning and power surges.

Step 3: Enough talking time to build.

I chose to mount all of the components in a standard electrical box, for low load situations the box itself is probably enough of a heatsink for the SSR. But I had an old processor heatsink that was pretty good fit. So it was added to the box behind where the SSR mounts. Don't forget to add some heatsink compound between the SSR and the box, and some between the box and the heatsink.

The cord for the Plugstrip is cut in half and run through the electrical box. The neutral (white wire) is spliced with a crimp terminal. The grounds (green wire) are spliced and connected to the metal chassis for safety. The hot wire (black) is connected through the SSR with crimp terminals. This concludes the line voltage wiring.

The +5V and Ground from the USB cable (pins1 and 4) are are connected to one end of the fuse block, and one TVSS The TVSS diodes are simply crimped into the connectors for the fuse blocks. Simple, fast, easy. Then two wires are run from the other end of the fuses (with another TVSS) to the control terminals of the SSR. Most SSR's will have one of the control terminals marked for the positive (+) lead. Make sure to get the polarity right.

Make sure to insulate the other two wires in the USB cable from each other and the metal case. If you do not you can short out the USB buss and cause all kinds of other problems.

This concludes the wiring.

I added a small piece of plastic (recycled blister packaging) to form a voltage barrier between the high and low voltage sides of the case, as extra insurance.

Step 4: Close it up and test!

So with the wiring completed. and checked. Its time to close it up and test. I recommend starting with things other then your computer and all its toys for testing. Plug a light bulb into the plugstrip. Plug the power strip into the wall. If everything is correct, nothing will happen. Now DO NOT USE YOUR COMPUTER FOR THE NEXT STEP. Find yourself a USB charger from your iWatever, and plug it into the wall. When you plug the USB cable from the unit into the charger the lightbulb should light. This way if you get anything wrong, the most you should be out is the cost of the charger.

Troubleshooting: If it does not work check the switch on the power strip. Then check if you have the polarity from the USB cable to the SSR correct.

Hope you have enjoyed this. Its a fun little project. And has the side benefits of making your life easier, saving you money on electricity, and doing your part to save the planet.

Keep tinkering,
Richard.
When8 months ago
Thanks for this. If you wanted to use two independent sources to control the power strip, what would be a proper way to do this? In other words, two USB inputs from two computers so that whichever computer happens to be in use controls the power strip. How would you isolate (if that's the right word here) the two 5V inputs from each other? Thanks for any help.
globrite9 months ago
A nice and safe alternative is to use a Wattstopper power unit which is UL approved, has zero voltage switching and as a bonus has DC output at about 150 mA to power your controller. One such unit (B-120 EP) is available from Amazon for about $15. - Enjoy.
mantasxxi1 year ago
Hi lads,have read all this,i know is such of old thread,but like to ask how these tvss diodes working? How its proctecting circuit and blows the fuses? And why there are two of these on each side of fuses? Thanks
toymotorhead (author)  mantasxxi1 year ago
Ok, TVSS diodes are are also known as avalanche diodes. Under normal operation they do not conduct. When the voltage rises to a designated amount they begin conducting. So in this case we are using 7.4 VDC diodes, in a circuit tht is powered by USB power at 5 VDC. So as long as the voltage does not rise above 7.4 VDC they do nothing. If the voltage does rise above that, they begin conducting. This will overload the fuses, and make them fail open, disconnecting the two sides of the circuit.

Its probably a bit of overkill in this circuit as the solid state relay already has quite a bit of isolation built in. But its a second line of defense, which is good, as computers are quite expensive.
sorry once again for my silly questions,but is this protection in case relay fail and starts give an AC power to pc usb port? is this possible? can't understand why should be another reason that usb power should rise above normal 5V?
tell me,can be used one diode and one fuse? or this won't work? is the zener diode will do the same thing as these tvs ones?
nickroche1 year ago
Hey Richard,
This type of project is always going to draw comment from 'concerned people' and I have to admit doing a little data sheet checking myself when I first read it. Of course, people will come up with dozens of ways in which you should have made it safer or with more isolation etc, but I reckon this design is a good balance between isolation, function, safety and cost - there will always be tradeoffs and other ways to achieve the same thing or make improvements. UL, CE, EN standards, isolation transformers, circuit breakers.....hey, what about some thermal fuses in case things run away, or some fuses for the fuses, just in case they don't work?! There is always a 'whats reasonable' line and I'm sure you're well within it, especially for a non commercial, DIY project.
Anyway - good instructible, well made and I like it. Nick
i made this and i found a relay that was 40 amps i think but witch way do you install the diodes silver or black side facing + or -
this is pretty cool but where can you get a relay that is 30 amps
toymotorhead (author)  crazy-blender1 year ago
You can find solid state relays that will switch 30A with ease. The one chosen was selected for its low cost, and small size You can look up the OPTO22 120D45 http://www.opto22.com/site/pr_details.aspx?cid=3&item=120D4

Its a larger form factor part, and is rated up to 45A. At those levels of power you are definitely going to need a heatsink, and you should do a little experimenting to make sure its large enough to handle the heat dissipation, or check with the manufacturer of the device you are using to make sure you have a large enough heatsink, or what they recommend. If you don't, if you are lucky, you will just make your device fail prematurely, if you are unlucky, you could cause a fire.
do you need the heat sink and what would happen if you didn't use it ?
jlongton2 years ago
I just gathered all the components to build a similar device when i realized that the +5vdc delivered to the USB port remains on when in standby mode. I have an HTPC that I connect to my TV. I rarely turn it off. Instead I use a wireless mouse and keyboard to put it in and out of standby. I would like to be able to turn off the peripherals when in standby. It seems like I might have to connect to a 5v power supply plug inside the PC instead. anyone know of a better solution?
toymotorhead (author)  jlongton2 years ago
I can think a few possible fairly simple workarounds to try.

1) Check read up on the motherboard in your HTPC. On some motherboards the USB power can be selected either with jumpers on the Mainboard, or in BIOS as to weather they have power when shutdown or in standby.

2) If you have the room you can install a cheepo PCI USB interface, that should power down when you go to standby, you don't need anything fancy, I would suggest eBay.

3) Check if your power supply powers down the +5v supply to the diskdrives when it goes into standby, the red wire is +5V and the Black is ground. There are usually a couple of extra connectors available.
thanks for the suggestions.

1) I need to have at least 1 port powered while on standby to wake it with my wireless keyboard. so this likely won't work, unless there is a separate jumper for front and rear ports.

2) This is a possibility. If i can find a cheap one, and nothing else works, I might do this.

3) This is another possibility, but requires a bit more work and makes it more permanent to this PC.

It would be nice to have an outlet on the box you made where the PC could be plugged in. Then when the PC was turned on or woken up it would trigger the relay to turn on the strip. I'm not sure how the relay would be triggered though. it would have to detect the current or something,
abishur2 years ago
Wow so you made this a pretty long time ago, but I used this as a basis for my own USB activate power outlet. I needed a single outlet rather than full strip (and I don't really have room for a full strip), but it's still a really great instructable! I did forgo the extra isolation as optical isolation is pretty "fool-proof" so there's (practically) no risk of it jumping back down the USB line and my deal plugs into a surge protector so there's the AC line is also protected from surge back.

Thanks again! Without this guide I definitely wouldn't have had the courage to set up my own system and would have ended up shelling out $30+ bucks for a pre-made "smart" power strip
nickboy983 years ago
pretty good, a good use for this would be in a caravan, buy one of those usb smoke lighter thingy's and you could power a whole caravan with 5 volts of power, even one of those usb solar thingys power an entire caravan with tiny solar power
no mate this just turns on whatever you have plugged into the strip when you turn your pc on like an automatic switch
it dosent make the power from the usb
usb is is only 500ma so you would get virtually nothing if you converted it to mains (you might be able to power a tinny tinny light bulb)
and if you plugged a tiny solar cell into an inverter (a box that makes mains ac from a dc supply ) nothing would happen because its tinny.
you can convert a 9v battery to give you 100,000v but you wouldn't be able to replace a power station with a 9v battery because the output is very small
krisumsnz3 years ago
Hey Rich
Far to much negative comment above! I built this device. Now my HTPC client running mediaportal has a single "on" button - the amp, TV, subwoofer and remote controller power up. Wife and kids happy.
To finish up the whole shebang shuts down with no activity detected with "amp WinOff" and so when a song, DVD etc ends the whole lots switches off again.....(or the off button is used....)
It is fantastic and was simple enough to make

Thanks so much for the idea!
regards
Neville
BigD1455 years ago
Nice instructable, but your computer IS a vampiric wall wart. I just put my computer and peripherals on a single control strip.
Nicer computers and most power supplies (like the Thermaltake Toughpower I used) in DIY computers have a switch on the back of the PSU that's connected into the line voltage. When that switch is off, there truly is no power draw. Therefore, there is no power draw anywhere in the computer or power strip.
Now you're talking about a rocker switch, exactly like what's on a power strip. We're back to just using a single power strip and one switch to do the job.
You're right, but I was thinking more of convenience - the computer is more likely to be closer to you than the power strip than the USB it's plugged into. Also, it would be safer to use multiple USB controlled power strips form one computer power switch, than plug multiple strips into one main strip. You are likely to overload the main strip whereas multiple strips can be plugged into different outlets, and still be controlled by the computer.
This entire project involves a single power strip, so let's stick to that. If you can overload a power strip, you're not really interested in saving power.
It would usually take something like a small welder to blow a power strip
I have blown them before... its a bit easier than you would think. I was running 7 computers (300w x3, 600w x2, 450w x2) and it completely fried the unit. Luckily I had others around. I do computer repair and I have had up to 18 computers running in my workshop at once lol (obviously not all on one strip!).
There's a small amount of power that gets supplied to the mobo to do things like network booting. You can actually boot a room full of computers by sending a special packet to an off computer. All in all this has saved the world gobs of energy because backup computers can be booted remotely, and they don't have to run 24/7 just in case the primary breaks. in this case one little parasitic load can switch off a few wall warts
just checked and the PC seems to be pulling 2 watts. that works out, at 15 cents per KWH as:

(2 * 24 * 365 * .15) / 1000 = $2.63/year

17.52 KWH/year (four loads of laundry in an electric dryer)

I believe that is quite a few wall warts worth of idle juice. Still, it's a pain to shutdown your PC and then flip a switch on a power strip
If you're using tons of USB peripherals, you're probably not going to need them from a remote location. That USB scanner won't do you much good from across the country. Network booting won't even enter into this. Rooms full of computers tend to be either full on or in standby mode. There aren't too many businesses that do a full overnight shutdown or that use a single power strip. Employees rarely even turn monitors off. I can't even tell you how many offices I've walked into that had the same screensaver on every monitor. They stay on all night long and waste vast amounts of power. This entire project is tailored for single user, private home usage. Unless you're a paraplegic, I'd say it's not that difficult to flip a switch. You'd put more effort into building this particular project than you'd put into flipping a switch twice a day for a few months, assuming your nearest hardware store is inside your living room.
what if your computer is tucked in a corner, and the power strip is behind it? then for some people you have to crawl under a counter, pull out your PC, flip theswitch, and push back your PC.
You could not make it so inaccessible. Mine is under my desk, but that doesn't stop me from getting on my knees twice a day.
True, the network boot feature isn't too useful for the average person. It is, however, very useful to someone running a Beowulf cluster. I use the feature to reboot my firewall remotely if for some reason a power outage lasts longer that the UPS, and it's built into every modern PC. No one even asked me first, they just put that in the standard. On my PC, it goes like this. I tell the PC to shut down, I wait about 45 seconds, and then I flip the toggle switch. I'm afraid to kill the power strip first because I have storage mounted over the network (NAT and a router) I could leave the router on 24/7 but I'll bet that would take more power than the PC's net boot usage. I'll check that next. Something like this would make my life easier. I like it. Oh and just a note, the test PC that I'm measuring happens to have 2 network cards in it. It use to be my old firewall. I'll see what it draws when I take one of those cards out too.
i've tried a few times to remotely start up and shut down my pc's from my laptop so that i do not have to go down stairs and turn it then on and off! however i have never managed it! my software was s**t!!! please can you tell me the software that works for you! i run on a windows enviroment and if you know how to shut down and boot up using ms-dos/cmd i would be happy to know
this feature is implemented in the hardware, not the OS, so a computer running (really not running, because it's off) anything should boot ok if it gets the magic "packet"

There are plenty of sites on the internet that can send that magic packet for you, try looking http://www.google.com/search?q=%22Wake+on+LAN%22

Here's one: http://www.dslreports.com/wakeup

also, check this wikipedia page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wake-on-LAN , perhaps you need a cable to your network card?
THANKS, i was aware that it is hardware based and usally you can disable/enable in the bios i just needed the software/program to send the 'magic' packet anyway thanks for the links should solve my problem...
saadmanna3 years ago
i have worked on similar Project with Parallel port and serial port.
i am searching some thing like this but much more advance...so that i can control  at-least 8 switches with USB.
cboy2us5 years ago
This provides isolation?!?!?!?!, first lightning strike, you will pay for.
nforge cboy2us3 years ago

Isolated ground can mean a few different things depending on who you ask.  But typically the requirements for an isolated ground are that it's wired directly back to an electrical panel, not relying on conduit or other metal items to link it back to a panel.  But when it's in a residential application, this is as good as an isolated ground, it would be a straight run back to a panel, and as long as the box is grounded it's as safe as you'll get.  http://www.mikeholt.com/technical.php?id=grounding/unformatted/ig1&type=u&title=Isolated%20Ground%20Reference%20One

I love the retro Pentium 2. I tend to forget that we all owned one of those at one point. Great Instructional keep up the good work.
Arbitror4 years ago
So what's the Pentium II for?
toymotorhead (author)  Arbitror4 years ago
I just used the heatsink off the back of the Pentium II to give me a little better cooling. It was in the junk drawer, and about the right size.
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