Step 3: The design

As mentioned, using a combination of diodes, including LEDs, is a great way to begin. I've included a schematic, a wiring diagram and a photo (showing just how simple this circuit is.)

After much swapping in-and-out, I choose a combination of one germanium diode, one silicon diode and one LED.

-- a 1N4148 (D1) and a 1N60 (D2) for a combined forward voltage of ~1.05V
-- a red LED (D3) with a forward voltage of ~1.7V

The diode pairings are connected to SW1, an on-off-on double-pole switch. The center setting is "off," or no diode clipping at all. The other two settings are:

-- the diodes connected directly to the signal path.
-- the diodes connected through a pair of resistors (R1: 47K, R2: 100K)

The resistance softens the clipping, which shapes the effect. When the resistors are connected, more of the natural tube signal leaks through. There are many ways to accomplish this, and this is merely a simple example (See the "Other options" step for more info.)

To help you choose your components, here are the forward voltages for some common diodes:

~790mV -- 1N4148 (Silicon)
~265mV -- 1N60 (Germanium)
~1700mV -- LED (red)
~205mV -- Schottky 1N5819
~740mV -- 1n4001 (Silicon)

Germanium diodes tend to have softer transitions which give a non-linear, more "tubey" sound. But silicon diodes can give a sharper "square wave" metallic distortion, if that's your thing.

Before you build it:

It's important to understand that the peak signal voltages will differ greatly, amp-to-amp. No one combination of diodes will give the same effect in different amps.

And no one combination of diodes sounds good to everyone, either. Experiment! Try 2, 3, 4 or more diodes in series. Keep the sides unbalanced, or use switches to tap the signal in different ways.

(Note: on some amps, the LED(s) will actually light up--they don't in my amp, the peak voltages aren't high enough.)
<p>I have been wondering if I connected a rectifier tube in the same manner, would it have the same effect in a tube preamp circuit? Isn't a rectifier just a big ole' gassy pair of diodes in tube form?</p>
<p>Yeah, you can use the diodes in a tube rectifier for a clipping effect. I've never tried it, but you can search the web and find examples.</p>
I love the sound of overdrive. I bought a tube overdrive pedal for $20 at Guitar Center because they came out with a new version. Score!
So I have a cheap-o First Act bass amp in combination with a Peavey 126 and I want to have my first act act as a dirty channel.(since the volume is lower) Would I have to make any changes in these plans to accommodate bass freq.? This is probably a stupid question but oh well.
Btw, first act guitars are not all that too baad, i refinished one and it came out pretty nice. and im pretty sure that the bass would not have a difference with that schematic.
The most important consideration is the peak voltage of the signal--where ever you decide to install the clipping diodes. The diodes shouldn't change the frequency.<br/><br/>Find a point along the signal path <em>after</em> a coupling capacitor and <em>before</em> an amplifying component (transistor, opamp, tube, etc.)<br/><br/>Look at step five for ideas to control the amount of clipping.<br/>
I just had an idea while reading this... what if you were to have 2 pots (only using 2 lugs), one for each diode. Then you'd have constantly variable asymmetrical clipping. What do you reckon?<br><br>
Yeah, I'm sure that's one way to do it...That AMZ article notes quite a few.<br> <br> It should be reiterated that the total voltage drop for the diodes should be calculated for the peak voltage of the signal path, and not just taken verbatim from my project...
You have the basis for a circuit by tim escobedo called the &quot;Simple Square Wave Shaper made simpler.&quot;<br> http://folkurban.com/Site/SimpleSquareWaveShaperMadeSimpler-712.html. <br>Check It out
That particular example (note the capacitor, in particular, and read the description) doesn't really work like this one...<br> <br> Incidentally, diode-clipping distortion is MUCH older than any of Tim Escobedo's circuits. TONS of guitar effects use it.
I meant what eyeball226 was talking about. I use diode clipping for all sorts of circuits. I didn't mean that you where copying tim escobedo.
Ah, got it.<br><br>Tim E. made some cool (and some oddball) FX...
I'm confused at the wiring to the lugs of a pot. Which are the diodes attached to, and which goes to the signal?<br />
The &quot;wiper&quot; (the arrow) is always the center tab of any POT. Here you see that goes to the signal path.<br /> <br /> The other two tabs are identical for linear POTs, other than effecting the direction (whether resistance changes up or down, right or left.)<br /> <br /> Log or audio POTs also have a taper, so greater &quot;change&quot; is bunched up on either side. They'll have to be tested in the circuit.<br /> <br /> Check out those AMZ links (Step 5) on <em>saturatio</em>n and <em>warp</em> controls for more options...<br />
so im thinking of triing this and i always love to make things at easy access so&nbsp;wat i&nbsp;want to know is can this be embeded into&nbsp;the guitar itself?<br /> <br /> also would it matter what color the leds are and can i use leds for&nbsp;all of the designs or would it sound beter with&nbsp;real diodes&nbsp;?<br /> <br /> this does work with transistor amps right?
This can work in the guitar itself, but remember that it clips peaks, so the output of the pickups will be reduced.<br /> <br /> Each diode type--LED, silicon or germanium--has a &quot;forward voltage drop,&quot; and that determines when clipping starts. <br /> <br /> General purpose silicon diodes have the smallest voltage drop, So they will clip at a lower voltage (MORE clipping.) LEDs have a larger voltage drop (less clipping), and different color LEDs have different voltage drop.<br /> <br /> Transistors amps will work too. Just place the diodes after a coupling cap.<br />
Sheez, I mean general purpose <em>germanium</em> diodes have the smallest voltage drop...<br />
so this means i will just need to turn the amps at a higher volume right? or does this work like the volume control and grounds the signal and some of the gain<br /> <br /> silicon diodes are the plastic ones that are usually black or grey in color right?<br /> do 3mm leds have lower voltage drop than 5mm<br /> <br /> what is a coupling cap
Yes, there will be some signal attenuation. That's a &quot;feature&quot; of diode clipping--more distortion at lower volume. You can always switch it out for more (clean) volume.<br /> <br /> The color of the LED is more important than it's size. Check the diode specs., it will indicate Si or Ger.<br /> <br /> <a href="http://www.kpsec.freeuk.com/capacit.htm#coupling" rel="nofollow">Capacitive coupling</a> -- amplifier stages are separated by a coupling cap. Stages amplify DC voltages as well as the AC signal voltage. The cap blocks that additional DC.<br /> <br /> A clipping diode <em>must</em> be placed after that cap, because the clipping won't work with the DC offset voltage present. The diode would remove the AC signal entirely.<br />
<p>but it wil still sound as good right?<br /> &nbsp;</p> <p>so is this stuff sold in radio shack or do i need to buy online<br /> <br /> ok none of this matters if it is inside the guitar right?<br /> <br /> &nbsp;</p>
If you build it before the amp (in the guitar--or in a stompbox), you'll probably have to raise the signal a bit. You could do that with a simple boost circuit, then follow with the clipping diodes.<br /> <br /> But at that point, you might just start thinking about building a &quot;real&quot; stompbox from one of the many plans online. That would get you more predicable results, since it will take some experimentation with the diodes, etc., to come up with a workable sound.<br /> <br /> The diode setup I used was &quot;custom fitted&quot; to the amp. I hope that's clear from the 'ible--that every amp is a little different.<br />
aa boost circuit just makes up for the lost volume right? so is it easy to build and is it cheap ?<br /> <br /> i ve thought of bulding one but i dont have any way of powering them (no 9V or&nbsp;AC adapters) also i like to make things as easy as possible <br /> <br /> so if yours was custom how do you think i should do mine (just useing signal then wtih the booster)
Yep. And it increases the signal strength (voltage) to the point where the diodes have a more pronounced effect.<br /> <br /> Surely you can get your hands on a 9V battery or two?<br /> <br /> Customizing the effect--<br /> <br /> -- Find a likely spot in the signal path; EARLY in the signal path. Not at the very input, but definitely not in the power amp section.<br /> -- Test it for DC voltage with a voltmeter. Should be zero (it's after a coupling cap.)<br /> -- <strong>Ideally</strong>, you would then use an oscilloscope to find the AC peak voltage (help to chose the diodes.)<br /> <br /> You probably don't have a 'scope. So try this instead--<br /> <br /> -- Find a likely spot in the signal path; EARLY in the signal path. Not at the very input, but definitely not in the power amp section.<br /> -- Test it for DC voltage with a voltmeter. Should be zero (it's after a coupling cap.)<br /> -- Breadboard the diode clipper. Connect one side to the GND. Then <strong>very carefully</strong> jumper the other end to the signal path. You might have to solder a test lead in place, to prevent shorting the amp with your jumper connection.<br /> <br /> DISCLAIMER: Hey--even a running solid state amp COULD have enough voltage to kill you. YOU PROBABLY&nbsp;SHOULDN'T BE DOING THIS WITH THE AMP ON--OR OFF, FOR THAT MATTER. These instructions are for educational use only. THIS IS POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS.<br />
yes i can can get some 9V so is that all a boost is? just a 9V before the diode circuit?<br /> <br /> i dont have a voltmeter either so would i just use some diodes htat you have used here?<br /> <br /> I didnt know that solid state amps are potentially dangerous because ive disassembled my amps 4 times i think so that concerns me<br /> <br /> but doesnt the guitar have a very low (if any) stored electricity when unplugged?<br /> <br /> so could i damage my pickups by putting a 9v in its path because they are passive pickups<br /> <br /> i was also wondering what would happin if this low volume circuit was turned to a high volume?<br /> <br /> the overall question is it this possible to put this in the actual guitar with a booster curcuit with no damage to my equipment?
I&nbsp;gotta give a disclaimer--especially if the amps' internal wiring is hooked up temporary via breadboard. Even SS amps could have 24-48 volts in the PS, which is enough...<br /> <br /> There's more to it than just the battery...but a boost circuit doesn't need to be very complicated. Here's the <a href="http://runoffgroove.com/fetzervalve.html" rel="nofollow">Fetzer valve circuit</a> (which itself gives some overdrive, too.) It's just a single transistor and some discrete components. You could add diode clipping to that very easily.<br /> <br /> You could try the circuit as-is, but like I said: silicon diodes will clip the most, LEDs the least... Play with different combinations. There will be no danger if working with a low-voltage boost.<br /> <br /> Using a correctly-wired boost will not harm your guitar. But you shouldn't try wiring a battery in there <em>by itself</em>--it won't do anything, anyway. I was merely asking if you had access to batteries, since originally it seemed to be a problem...<br /> <br /> And the guitar itself poses no danger if unplugged.<br />
ok&nbsp;48V isnt enough to kill just to know you back right?<br /> <br /> i can try that<br /> <br /> and the best way is to have asymetrical on both sides<br /> <br /> i can get 1 or 2 batteries yes <br /> <br /> \i didnt think it did i just needed to double check from someone more experianced <br /> what about if it is plugged in and the amp is running
From Wiki on <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_shock" rel="nofollow">Electric shock</a>: <em>however, death has occurred below this range, with supplies as low as <strong>32</strong> volts.</em><br /> <br /> And just to drive the point home, here's Tim's 'ible on <a href="http://www.instructables.com/id/Golfcart--Welder/" rel="nofollow">DC welding using batteries</a>. It's a 36V setup. You wanna take a chance with that? Even if it doesn't kill you, it could do major damage...
thats pretty bad&nbsp; i need to be more carful&nbsp;with what i do ive been known to fix things and do lots of tests with low voltage things but now it doesnt seem so voltage now
ok so ive bulit mine&nbsp;useing 1n914&nbsp;type diodes&nbsp;but it doesnt seem to do anything i get the same sound no matter where the switch is and ive built it the same way you did only in guitar itself
Any tips on finding the part where pre amp and power amp separate?<br />
Anywhere following a coupling cap (C2, for example) should be good.<br /> <br /> The coupling cap will remove any DC bias. <br />
You mention that you chose, quote,&nbsp;&quot;a combination of two germanium diodes and one LED&quot;, yet immediately afterwards you specify a 1N4148 which is a silicon diode. Was it a typo?
Nope, just me assuming that all glass-envelope diodes are germanium...which were the most common type when I was growing up...<br /> <br /> Obviously I was confused about this myself when I wrote it--I&nbsp;list 1N4148's as either Germanium and Silicon. <br /> <br /> Definitely has a forward voltage appropriate for SI, though. <br /> <br /> I'll need to fix this soon, thanks.<br />
No problem, and thanks for the clarification.
I've Used A Zener Diode in my Diode-Clipping Circuit. It doesnt' Work really good, but that could beause I only used a LM741 as &quot;Preamp Stage&quot;, and then a 1-Watt-Amplifier-IC out of Old PC-Speakers. I&nbsp;Attached the Diodes after the 1Watt Amp and Put an 10K Resistor after that and Connected it to an Old Guitar amp (That hasnt' OD). I also tried Retifier-Diodes. That Worked a lot better.<br /> <br /> <br />
That sounds about right. Thanks for the info!<br />
No Promblem! ;)<br />
I'm still confused at here (im beginner) If guitar voltage output is beetween .1V and 1V, arent the voltage never been cut because the forward voltage is more than 1V ?
Good question. The diodes follow a preamp stage, which boosts the signal peak voltage. But yes, if the voltages don't exceed the forward voltage drop there won't be any clipping.
thanks oh yes! i almost forget that you made this effect to the amp ! :D But if i want to make guitar effect (not at the amp) i just have too buy lower(under 1V) forward voltage ? thanks again !
If you got 0.5v P-P output on your guitar, (Ultra mega hot humbuckers can produce this, or active guitars) You MIGHT be able to get away with this effect using either Signal diodes (Germanium) Or schkotty diodes
nice I've seen this done on one of the tone knobs on the guitar
You probably shouldn't be using A as a possible point in the kay 703, as this is a DC connection from the power amp, and would make a nice path to the ground for the high voltage power supply... until of course the diode dies, or a fuse, or worse, the power transformer. Most cases, what follows would be a smell that forever reminds you. Make sure the clipping diodes are after C2, as this is only AC signal. Fun project! Keep on modding.
You are absolutely right--good call!
This is one of those things where you say, "why the heck didn't I think of that?" Seriously this is a sweet mod that I'm probably going to put into my old Marshal mark IV as a temporary thing using 2 1/4 inch phono jacks. I'm going to mount them in the back of the amp so I can just swap out a short patch cord for this mod. I think with some velcro I could put a lot more different FX boxes like this together. Nothing like expanding in a great idea to brighten the day!
Hey, run with it... Lemme know how it works out.
OMG, just when I thought it was great I set it into my bass head. With an added trim pot as you suggested to adjust the effect it went from crystal clean to a guttural grunge that rivals the best stomp boxes. This is quite possibly one of the best things I've picked up on the internet. Eventually I plan to play around with a triode tube as well as some JFETs and MOSFETs in solid state. Should be fun though I don't see how this could sound much better.
What pot should I use? Linear or logarithmic?
To some extent it might depend on the diode biases--if each side is radically different, then log. But I'd bet on linear 98% of the time. You'd be well served to checkout the AMZ Warp link above....they've got more variations you should checkout.
hey! I'm thinking of putting this whole stuff into a pedal, so the input comes straight from the guitar. But how can I amplify the signal for the diodes? Do I have to use a 9V battery? You could do an instructable for a pedal version too.

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