Introduction: Adhesive Tape Zoo

Adhesive tapes are an integral part of our lives nowadays. Every now and then we all use some. For any purpose you can think of, there probably is a corresponding tape because there is a plethora of different kinds of adhesive tape on the market. Some are well known to the general public, some not so. The features may vary.

Glue Type

The type of adhesive used by the tape is important. The main categories are rubber, acrylic and silicone. The rubber is usually natural and offers greater strength but leaves residues when you remove it. Also it doesn't have high heat resistance. The acrylic has better heat resistance from the rubber and does not leave residues. The silicone has the greatest resistance of all from heat but doesn't have the strength of the rubber.

Temperature and Flame Resistance

There are types of tapes for a wide range of temperatures. If they do not have any specific indication, most of them are for normal circumstances. That is from 0 °C up to 80 °C. There are also tapes that can withstand down to -100 °C and others that can withstand up to +500 °C. If your project involves unusual temperature ranges it is wise to search for the right kind of tape because even between the same species (e.g. masking tape, aluminium tape, glass tape etc) there are large variations in temperature resistance depending on the quality of the material used. Notice that there is a difference between the resistance temperature and the working temperature range. The working temperature range is the range at which we can use the tape and stick it successfully. The resistance temperature refers to the maximum temperature the tape can withstand without damaging it, after it has successfully sticked to a surface. Some special tapes offer flame resistance as well.

Resistance to UV (ultraviolet) Radiation

UV radiation damages many exposed materials. It is the reason why the white masking tape spoils when you leave it in the sun. If we want to use tape in a place with enough natural light exposure, we should get one that can withstand UV radiation. Usually, if it is suitable for outdoor use this means that it is UV resistant as well.

Electrically Conductive or Insulating

The tape can be an electric conductor or an electric insulator. The insulating kind is for electrical and electronic installations. The conducting kind (e.g. copper tape or aluminium tape) is used for the minimum electrical resistance they have.

Flexibility / Elongation

Another important attribute of tapes is the flexibility they have. Elastic tapes are harder to cut and are more malleable but they are not suitable for accurate fixations, since they expand lengthwise or widthways. Such tapes are the electrician's tape, the rubber tapes and others. Those with little elasticity are more dysplastic, cut easily and the length and width remain constant. Such tapes are the fabric tape, metallic tape, aluminium tape etc.

Strength / Bonding

In the tape specifications you will see two different numbers. The bonding strength (or adhesion strength or adhesive power) to the surfaces and the tensile strength. The adhesion strength is the load that can withstand a piece of tape without being detached from the surface that we have applied it. Sometimes the measuring surface changes but it is usually of metallic nature. Tapes with rubber base tend to provide greater bonding strength. The tensile strength (or impact strength or resistance force), is how much force can a piece of tape withstand without breaking. The tensile strength is temperature dependent.

Special features

Some tapes may offer special characteristics and usually they are advertised as such. If there is no specific indication on the tape then don't expect your tape to have any of them. The most common characteristics are as follows :

  • Anti-fungal
  • Anti-bacterial
  • Anti-corrosive
  • Reflective
  • Self-luminous
  • Self-vulcanizing
  • Analgesic
  • Anti-vibration
  • Airtight
  • Noiseless
  • Transparent
  • Printable / Writeable

Step 1: Paper Tape (or Masking Tape)

One of the most common types of tape. It comes in different sizes and colours with the most common being white or yellow (Universal use) and blue (used in painting) but it can be found in many other colours as well. It has different grades with different characteristics each. Some withstand up to +150 °C, some are resistant to weather conditions, some in chemicals. There are two major differences between white and blue paper tape ; blue tape has a greater resistance to UV radiation and thus may be exposed for longer in the sun, without being destroyed. Another difference is that the blue tape peels off more easily if it is used only for a brief period of time. This attribute makes the blue paper tape perfect for painting, as it doesn't destroy the underlying paint.

Characteristics

  • It doesn't leave residues on most materials. The blue is easier to detach if left on a surface for a short time.
  • Low cost
  • Various widths and colours
  • Easy cutting
  • Usually resistant up to +80 °C, but there are special ones resistant up to +150°C.
  • The blue paper tape is resistant to UV radiation.

Usage

Wall, glass, paper, cardboard. It is commonly used in painting (especially the blue one) to cover the surfaces we do not want to be painted, as well as on packaging.

Price

Very affordable. It starts from 0.5 and goes up to 5 Euros for the big ones.

Step 2: Office Tape (or Sellotape)

Available in various sizes from very small to very large. There are noisy and quiet ones. It leaves little residue during removal.

Characteristics

  • Low cost
  • Transparent
  • Good use on paper
  • Plethora of sizes

Usage

Mainly in office work, on paper surfaces or glass.

Price

Economic. It starts from 0.1 Euros and reaches up to 3 Euros maximum.

Step 3: Magic Tape (or Ice Tape)

It is a special kind of office tape having the property of being practically invisible when used on paper.
It has the same uses as an ordinary office tape. Some have the capability to write on them.

Characteristics

  • Practically invisible on paper
  • Transparent
  • Good use on paper
  • In some you can write on them

Usage

Mainly in office work, on paper surfaces or glass.

Price

Economic.

Step 4: Double Sided Carpet Tape

It is one of two main types of double-sided tapes. It is thin and resistant to moisture. Suitable for fixing carpets or paper. Does not leave residues after detachment and comes in several types and colours. It cannot withstand enough weight. In the market one can find double sided carpet tape which is reinforced with fabric as well.

Characteristics

  • Adhesive on both sides
  • Does not leave residues
  • Very thin

Usage

For posters on the wall, carpets on the floor, paper or cardboard constructions.

Price

Economic. Up to 5 Euros at most.

Step 5: Double Sided Montage Tape

This kind of tape is more powerful than the carpet type and can better withstand the weather conditions. It is foamy and there are several qualities for different uses. Their main use is the fixation of objects on the wall. Apart from the individual characteristics there are two basic categories. For interior and exterior use. These labelled for exterior use, have greater resistance to the elements.

Characteristics

  • Great strength
  • Plasticity
  • Leaves no marks

Usage

Mounting heavy objects on vertical surfaces. Depending on the quality and characteristics, it can be used for picture frames, mirrors, signs and generally securing heavier objects.

Price

Economic

Step 6: Duct Tape

Very strong tape that takes its name from the braided construction it has. Usually available in white, grey or black. It is waterproof and quite sticky. The glue is of rubber and therefore leaves residue after the removal, especially if left long enough. The television series Mythbusters had devoted an entire episode to duct tape and its endless uses.

Characteristics

  • Low cost
  • Excellent durability
  • Pretty sticky
  • Waterproof
  • Resistant up to +100 °C

Usage

General usage, book binding, decorating, piping, outdoor repairs etc.

Price

Economic. Less than 5 Euros.

Step 7: Gaffer Tape

Although it looks like the duct tape (as it contains fabric as well), it has a big difference. The adhesive in gaffer tape is from synthetic material instead of rubber as in duct tape. So it can be removed easily without leaving a sticky residue behind. It is traditionally black, but comes in other colours as well. Also comes in glossy, textured or matte surface. It withstands medium temperatures and is waterproof.

Characteristics

  • Low cost
  • Easy detachment
  • Waterproof
  • Comes in matte / textured / gloss
  • Resistant up to +100 °C

Usage

General usage. Mainly used for temporary fixes when we do not want to leave residues behind when removing it.

Price

Economic. Up to 4 Euros maximum.

Step 8: Polyethylene Tape

It is a general usage tape that has various applications. Main features of this tape is its the elasticity and its strength at low temperatures.

Characteristics

  • Non-corrosive
  • Resistant to abrasion
  • Ductility
  • Elastic (can withstand stretches up to 250-300% of its length)
  • Wear resistance
  • Clean removal without residues
  • Keeps its colour for a long time
  • Easy to implement and flexible
  • Resistant to moisture
  • Comes in many colours
  • It remains pliable down to -20 °C

Usage

General.

Price

Economic

Step 9: Gorilla Tape

The gorilla tape also contains fabric, but has much greater strength than duct tape and gaffer tape. It is produced by the same company that manufactures the famous Gorilla Glue, perhaps the most powerful glue in the market. It has almost the same uses as the aforementioned tapes, but it is preferred when maximum strength is our primary goal. It comes in white, camouflage and transparent.

Characteristics

  • Maximum strength
  • Waterproof
  • For all surfaces and for all conditions
  • Dual sticky coating

Usage

General usage in cases where strength is important.

Price

Medium

Step 10: Bituminous Tape (or Asphalt Tape)

It is an insulating tape with asphalt, used for internal and external insulations. It is self-vulcanizing and has the capability of pliability using heat. High resistance to frost and high temperatures. Fully waterproof.

Characteristics

  • Bitumen is mostly produced from crude oil and is not regarded as a sustainable building product
  • Combustible
  • Exposure to UV radiation drastically decreases the lifespan
  • The fumes that are produced during hot application can cause dermal and respiratory problems
  • Fully waterproof
  • Self-vulcanizing
  • High resistance to frost and high temperatures

Usage

All kinds of indoors and outdoors insulations.

Price

Moderate. Less than 10 Euros per 10 - 15 meters.

Step 11: Transparent Repair Tape (or Greenhouse Tape)

It is a high strength tape suitable for outdoor repairs, used to repair or restraint surfaces. Usually it can withstand high temperatures without coming off or tearing. It is indispensable in greenhouses to cover holes or tears in the plastic tent. Available in widths typically greater than 5 cm. Extremely tacky.

Characteristics

  • Comes in bigger widths
  • Highly resistant to external conditions
  • Extremely tacky

Usage

Outdoors, greenhouse repairs, car, glass, plastics.

Price

Expensive. It is much more expensive than the simple transparent tapes. Depending on the quality and the width it can reach up to 20 Euros.

Step 12: Fiberglass Tape

It is a reinforced kind of tape with fiberglass. It has excellent durability and several applications. In the market there are mainly two categories according to temperature resistance (for medium and for very high temperatures).
Those that can withstand high temperatures are commonly used for insulating mufflers and exhaust pipes. They may have an aluminium, asphalt or rubber coating. The medium type ones, as in the photo, are usually used in home repairs (especially to repair cracks in walls).

Characteristics

  • Excellent durability
  • Resistance to medium and high temperatures (up to +650 °C)
  • Robust

Usage

Insulation, repair cracks, tubing repairs. It can also be used to join objects together.

Price

Average. Up to 15 Euros for the very high temperature resistance type.

Step 13: Paper Tape With Nylon

It is a tape that consists of two elements. The first element in place is a classic paper tape and the other has a nylon film which comes in various sizes. It is used for easy and fast protection of surfaces which we do not want to mess.

Characteristics

  • Various sizes
  • Very practical at painting

Usage

Protection of surfaces from paint, dust, water, detergent etc.

Price

Economic

Step 14: Electrolysis Tape

It is a tape which is resistant to electrolysis and corrosion from chemical reactions.

Characteristics

  • Suitable for electrolysis
  • Extremely durable

Usage

Where electrolysis is taking place.

Price

Average

Step 15: Heavy Duty Self Adhesive Velcro Tape

This tape is similar to the known Velcro used in fabrics and shoes, except this is more sticky and has greater strength. Usually it is not made of fabric but from plastic and comes with a better and more sophisticated type of Velcro mechanism. It has excellent strength and can withstand large weights.

Characteristics

  • Excellent durability
  • Heavy weights
  • Sticks on most materials
  • Self adhesive

Usage

Industry, constructions.

Price

Average

Step 16: Sandblasting Tape

Sandblasting tape is a heavy duty vinyl tape coated with a specially formulated, acrylic adhesive which is pressure sensitive. Specifically designed to hold during sandblasting operations and remove cleanly with no adhesive transfer or residue. It is ideal for use as a sandblast stencil for glass, wood, granite and other materials. It can be used in engraving, as well.

Characteristics

  • Suitable for sandblasting and engraving
  • Heavy duty
  • Can be applied on glass, wood, granite and other materials
  • Conformable material applies easily and removes cleanly after sandblasting operations
  • Easily cut
  • The thin material allows for sharp sandblasting profiles
  • Performs well over a wide range of environmental conditions
  • Resistant to moisture, acids, alkalis, oils, and other chemicals

Usage

Industry, sandblasting, engraving.

Price

Average

Step 17: PVC Electric Tape

PVC electric tapes come in different colours. They usually match the wire colours (blue, black, grey, yellow-green etc). Used mainly to insulate electrical cables.

Characteristics

  • Electrical insulator
  • Colours corresponding to the power cables

Usage

Electrical insulation, labelling, temporarily attaching objects to one another.

Price

Economic. Ranges from 0.5 Euro to 3 - 4 Euros maximum.

Step 18: Aluminium Tape

This tape consists of an aluminium foil with an industrial strength adhesive, protected by a release liner until use. It bonds even in cold or highly humid conditions and has high thermal conductivity along with high resistance to changes in temperature. It is resistant to water and oils and has several variations and thicknesses. It comes in silver, black or brown and quite often can have different substrates, such as fiberglass.

Characteristics

  • Resistance to high temperatures and flames
  • Resistance to high humidity
  • Resistance to UV rays
  • Resistance to most chemicals
  • Airtight
  • High thermal conductivity and high resistance to changes in temperature
  • Heat and light reflective
  • Tear and puncture resistant
  • Several variations and thicknesses
  • Resistant to water and oils
  • Black, silver or brown colours
  • Can have different substrates, such as fiberglass
  • Industrial strength adhesive

Usage

Insulation in radiators and in air conditioners. Used mainly on metal surfaces. One classical use is in the flue of wood stoves.

Price

Economic. Less than 5 Euros.

Step 19: Self-Vulcanizing Elastic Tape (or Self-Amalgamating Tape or Self-Fusing Tape)

This tape is also known as self-amalgamating tape or self-fusing tape. It has many common features with the asphalt tape. It is self-vulcanizing, meaning that it binds to itself using little pressure becoming like a single sheet. It is used in electrical or hydraulic insulations. It doesn't have adhesives.

Characteristics

  • Non-sticky, clear and easy application
  • Direct self-vulcanizing when applied with pressure
  • Continuous, homogeneous insulation without the need for heating
  • Clean removal from most surfaces, as in the case of temporary protection or repair
  • Does not harden so does not make cracks and remains waterproof
  • It has high durability
  • It has excellent physical and electrical properties with a high degree of stability
  • Excellent resistance to ozone and high strength when submerged in water

Usage

Electrical or hydraulic insulations.

Price

Average

Step 20: Caulk Strip Tape

This tape is made from anti-fungal material. It is used for covering and sealing joints in the bath and in the kitchen. It is quite elegant and is available in several colours.

Characteristics

  • Insulation
  • Anti-fungal
  • Several colours

Usage

Sealing joints.

Price

Average

Step 21: Anti-Vibration Tape

This tape is fairly elastic and is used in vibration damping applications. It is usually thick and is available in several widths and grades depending on the use.

Characteristics

  • Shockproof
  • Reduces noise
  • Reduces metal fatigue
  • Flame resistant
  • Resistant to moisture
  • Resistant to weather conditions
  • Resistant to UV radiation
  • Resistant to chemicals
  • Elongation of about 15%
  • Temperature resistance range from -60 °C up to +20 °C
  • Several widths and grades

Usage

Sound insulation and vibration damping.

Price

Expensive

Step 22: Expanding Foam Tape

This type of tape is an expanding foam tape manufactured using an open cell polyurethane foam which is heavily impregnated with acrylics thus creating flame retardant properties. Under high compression the tape will create a weather-proof foam seal and under low compression it is suitable for draught sealing. It is also recommended for use in more extreme weather applications and is fully resistant to UV. This expanding foam tape is supplied in rolls, pre-compressed to approximately 85% and expands when unwrapped.

Characteristics

  • Ideal for airtight closure of small slits
  • Resistance to air pressure
  • Quick installation
  • Easy application
  • Improves energy efficiency of buildings
  • Expands to find its own level
  • Seals against uneven surfaces
  • Pure product (compared to silicones and mastics)
  • Allows ventilation of joint
  • Minimal wastage
  • Can be painted after installation
  • Can be made watertight easily using proper insulation paint
  • Sound insulation
  • Accommodates joint movement
  • Easy to quantify usage
  • Flame retardant
  • Fully resistant to UV
  • Weather-proof

Usage

Filling cracks and crevices, perimeter seals for windows and doors, expansion joints, Side/end laps on
roofing sheets, joints for portable or sectional buildings, Abutment seals for conservatories, acoustic seal, timber buildings, ductwork, sealing roof lights, installation of solar panels, caravan and mobile home manufacture, ceiling seal.

Price

Expensive

Step 23: Packaging Tape

It is usually a brown or transparent tape that its main use is in packaging. It is pretty sticky to paper and plastic. When it detaches, it almost always leaves residue behind. Can be noisy or silent. There are several grades and types that offer extra resistance (chemical, heat or weather conditions).

Characteristics

  • Low cost
  • Pretty tacky
  • Easy to cut
  • Noisy or quiet
  • Leaves residue behind
  • Several grades and types

Usage

Packaging, baling.

Price

Economic. Less than 2 Euros.

Step 24: Indication Tape (or Logo Tape)

In the market one can find tapes with various indications and logos such as "FRAGILE" for sensitive materials or an arrow "^" stating which side is the base and which side is the top of a package.

Characteristics

  • Comes imprinted with various logos and indications

Usage

Packaging, baling.

Price

Economic

Step 25: Strap Tape

This is an extremely durable tape with no elasticity. It replaces plastic straps (commonly used in baling, look the photos).

Characteristics

  • Zero elasticity
  • Excellent durability

Usage

Packaging, Baling.

Price

Economic. Less than 5 Euros.

Step 26: Security Seal Tape

This tape has two characteristics. Indication and sealing. It is quite sticky and is imprinted with "Safety Tape" logo and other messages. It is used to indicate whether a package or device has been opened or tampered.

Characteristics

  • Indication
  • Sealing

Usage

As an indication on boxes, jars, food, electronics etc.

Price

Economic. Less than 5 Euros.

Step 27: Cornstarch Tape (or Water Activated Tape)

This is an ecologically friendly tape with plant based mucilage (corn starch) which gets sticky when wet. Ideal for sealing food or materials that must not come into contact with chemicals.

Characteristics

  • Ecologically friendly
  • Ideal for food

Usage

Boxes, Packing food.

Price

Economical. Less than 5 Euros.

Step 28: Magnetic Tape

This is a tape which adheres magnetically to ferrous materials. The force of magnetism depends on the thickness and width of the tape. It has many applications and is quite practical. Unfortunately it is not so easy to find in stores.

Characteristics

  • Adheres to ferrous materials

Usage

Construction, Crafting.

Price

Expensive

Step 29: Label Protection Tape

It is a special tape which is mainly used in printing industry and offers protection to labels from everyday use or from external conditions. But it can also be used for home as well. It is printable and one can write on it.

Characteristics

  • Protects tags and labels from moisture and wear
  • One can write on it
  • Printable

Usage

Industry, mail, office.

Price

Economic

Step 30: Washi Tape

The Washi tape is a kind of special paper tape for decoration and crafts. It comes from Japan and is made from plants. Usually it is semi-transparent and comes in many colours and designs. It can be reused after detachment.

Characteristics

  • Many patterns and colours
  • Semi-transparent
  • Durable
  • Plant based material

Usage

Crafts, Decoration.

Price

Economic

Step 31: Decorative Metallized Tape

This tape comes mainly in gold, silver and bronze colour. Its main use is in decoration and art.

Characteristics

  • Imitation of gold, silver and bronze

Usage

Decorating, Crafting.

Price

Expensive

Step 32: Non-Slip Floor Tape (Harsh)

This tape has rugged non-slip surface to provide greater traction and is very easy to install. It comes in different colours (black, yellow, red), with the most common being black. It withstands weather conditions and has good wear resistance. It is also extremely tacky.

Characteristics

  • Rough hard surface for maximum abrasion resistance
  • Resistant to continuous use
  • Non-slip
  • Extremely tacky

Usage

Stairs, marble surfaces and generally anything we want to gain extra grip.

Price

Average. Less than 5 Euros per 20 meters.

Step 33: Non-Slip Floor Tape (Soft)

There are also non-slip tapes which are soft. These are usually reserved for places where contact is made with bare feet or hands, such as in the bathroom. They come in several designs and shapes.

Characteristics

  • Soft surface
  • Transparent or white
  • Antibacterial
  • Several designs and shapes
  • Doesn't loose its properties when wet

Usage

Bathroom, shower room.

Price

Medium

Step 34: Handlebar Tape (or Bike Tape)

This skin friendly tape is used mainly on bike handlebars but it can suit other applications in gyms and sports as well. It provides extra traction to the object to be glued on because it has special texture for elevated traction. It has excellent durability. There is a plethora of materials to choose from including polymer, cloth, plastic, gel or polyurethane embedded with cork. Also there are tapes with adhesive or non adhesive backings.

Characteristics

  • Excellent durability
  • Weatherproof
  • Very good grip
  • Skin friendly
  • Many materials to choose from
  • Adhesive or non-adhesive backings

Usage

Sports, gyms, handles for bikes.

Price

Average

Step 35: Friction Tape

Friction tape is a type of adhesive tape made from cloth impregnated with a rubber-based adhesive (and sometimes an abrasive substance) mainly used to increase grip or friction. Because the adhesive is impregnated in the cloth, friction tape is sticky on both sides. The rubber-based adhesive makes it an electrical insulator and provides a degree of protection from liquids and corrosion. In the past, friction tape was widely used by electricians, but PVC electrical tape has replaced it in most applications today. The frictional properties of the tape come from the cloth material which is often made from cotton. One common use is to wrap it around the blade of a hockey stick to improve puck control. Another use is to wrap it around the handle of a softball or baseball bat to give oneself a better grip. It is also useful as a base when wrapping a bicycle handlebar with handlebar tape.

Characteristics

  • Good abrasion resistance
  • Very good grip
  • Excellent durability
  • Liquids resistance
  • Corrosion resistance

Usage

Abrasion protection for splices and connections, wire bundling, electrical applications (in the past), around hockey stick blades to improve puck control, around baseball or softball bats to improve grip.

Price

Average

Step 36: Bicycle Rim Tape

The purpose of rim tape is to protect the inner tube of a bicycle wheel from spoke holes, which will puncture the tube if exposed inside the rim. Rim tape is available in a variety of materials (usually rubber, adhesive cloth or tough plastic) and it comes in various widths and diameters to fit different wheel sizes.

Characteristics

  • Long lasting (lasts for the wheel’s lifetime, if installed correctly)
  • Excellent durability
  • Variety of materials
  • Variety of sizes

Usage

Inner tube protection from spoke holes.

Price

Economic. About 2 - 6 Euros per wheel.

Step 37: Spike Tape

It is a kind of fabric gaffer tape with easy detachment. The difference here is that it typically has smaller width and comes in many colours. Some tapes can be phosphorescent as well.

Characteristics

  • Many colours
  • Various sizes
  • Cloth substrate
  • Doesn't leave residues

Usage

Theaters, cultural events.

Price

Average

Step 38: Reflective Tape

It has the ability to glow and reflect light. Ideal for marking and for road safety.

Characteristics

  • Glowing
  • Reflective
  • Many colours
  • Waterproof

Usage

Marking, car, road safety.

Price

Relatively expensive

Step 39: Self-Luminous Tape (or Phosphorescent Tape)

This vinyl tape has the ability to emit light in the dark or in low light conditions. Used for marking dangerous points in the dark.

Characteristics

  • Self-luminous

Usage

Stairs, balconies, doors, theaters, garage etc.

Price

Expensive

Step 40: Barricade Tape (or Construction Tape or Barrier Tape or Notice Tape or Caution Tape or Warning Tape or Danger Tape or Hazard Tape or Police Tape or Fire-Fighter Tape or Traffic Control Device Tape)

Barricade tape is a brightly coloured tape that is used to warn (or catch the attention of passers-by) of an area or situation containing a possible hazard. It acts as a minor impediment to prevent accidental entrance to that area or situation and as a result enhances general safety. Barricade tape is also known as construction tape or barrier tape or in reference to the safety hazard involved as notice tape, caution tape, warning tape, danger tape or hazard tape. In case the tape is used by an organization it is named police tape, fire-fighter tape or traffic control device tape. It comes in different colours (usually white / red, black / yellow) or designs and doesn't contain adhesives.

Characteristics

  • Special markings
  • Several designs and colours
  • Doesn't contain adhesives

Usage

Marking places or objects, barricade an area to prevent accidental entry.

Price

Economic

Step 41: Gecko Tape

It is a novelty tape that mimics the feet of the Gecko lizard. It has very strong adhesion and can withstand high pressures. Its main use is in medicine, as a replacement for stitches, but it may find other uses in the future as well.

Characteristics

  • Excellent adhesion
  • Non toxic
  • It is biodegradable
  • Skin friendly

Usage

Mainly in medicine for wound healing.

Price

Expensive

Step 42: Steri-Strip Tape

The Steri-Strip tape is another product which intends to replace stitches. It has great strength and durability. It is resistant to movement but not to water.

Characteristics

  • Replaces the stitches in a wound
  • Fewer scars after healing

Usage

Medicine in wound healing.

Price

Average

Step 43: Kinesiology Tape

This tape is applied by physical therapists and sports medicine physicians to athletes to restore muscle injuries and for muscle retention. It has excellent longevity and water resistivity. Allows the skin to breathe. Comes in several colours and sizes.

Characteristics

  • Helps in muscle injuries
  • Allows the skin to breathe
  • Is resistant to water and sweat
  • Several colours and sizes

Usage

Epidermal use for restoring muscle injuries.

Price

Expensive

Step 44: Fashion Tape

It is a skin friendly, double-sided tape used for holding objects in our body. Its main use is for wigs, toupees or women's dresses in the chest area.

Characteristics

  • Skin-friendly
  • Does not leave residues
  • Strong enough

Usage

Wigs, toupees, underwear, dresses.

Price

Economic

Step 45: No-Sew Hemming Tape

Although not quite widespread, this is a clothes gluing tape. It replaces the seams and is perfect for jeans or for clothes where the stitch is difficult due to elasticity. There are several types and qualities suitable for jeans, lace, rubber clothes etc.

Characteristics

  • Replaces sewing
  • Resistant to wash
  • Various sizes
  • Various colours
  • Various qualities

Usage

For permanent bonding of fabrics together.

Price

Economic

Step 46: Velcro Tape

The Velcro tape imitates the function of a plant called "Galium Aparine", which was the inspiration for its creation. It has two sides, one that is velvet-like and another that grips on the velvet-like side by using tiny hooks. It comes in many colours with the most common colour being black or white. It contains no adhesives.

Characteristics

  • Can be reused practically indefinitely
  • Strong retention between velvet-like and hook-like side
  • Many colours
  • Many sizes and shapes
  • No adhesives

Usage

For temporary fastening on clothes, shoes, furniture etc. Also in cable management.

Price

Average

Step 47: Autoclave Tape

Autoclave tape is an adhesive tape used in autoclaving (heating under high pressure with steam to sterilise) to indicate whether a specific temperature has been reached. Autoclave tape works by changing colour after exposure to temperatures commonly used in sterilization processes, typically 121 °C, in a steam autoclave. The tape is similar to masking tape but slightly more adhesive, to allow it to adhere under the hot, moist conditions of the autoclave. One such tape has diagonal markings containing an ink which changes colour (usually beige to black) upon heating. The colour-changing indicator of tape is usually lead carbonate based, which decomposes to lead(II) oxide. To protect users from lead (and because this decomposition can occur at moderate temperatures), manufacturers may protect the lead carbonate layer with a resin or polymer that is degraded under steam at high temperatures.

Characteristics

  • Easy monitoring of sterilization process without special and expensive equipment
  • Easy to apply
  • Potentially toxic due to the presence of lead

Usage

In autoclaving.

Price

Relatively cheap. About 4 - 5 Euros.

Step 48: Cable Path Tape

Cable path tape is a great solution for quickly and efficiently organizing cables. This tape consists of a vinyl coated cloth (for superior durability and strength) that is coated on both edges with a cured rubber adhesive, while the tape's center has no adhesive at all. The smooth center portion is ideal for pulling cables and wires through and makes it easy to reposition cables as needed. The adhesive will hold firmly for extended periods of time on most surfaces and will remove without residue. The tape comes in the following colours : yellow, black, yellow / black, yellow safety stripes.

Characteristics

  • Available in colours for any application
  • Low light reflectivity
  • Non-sticky center channel to route cables through
  • Firm hold for extended periods of time
  • Doesn't leave a sticky residue behind
  • Hand tearable

Usage

Entertainment industry, warehouses, trade shows, manufacturing facilities, temporary set-ups, offices, stores retail spaces and theaters.

Price

Expensive

Step 49: Thread Seal Tape (or PTFE Tape or Plumber's Tape or Teflon Tape)

Thread seal tape is a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film for use in sealing pipe threads. The tape is sold cut to specific widths and wound on a spool, making it easy to wind around pipe threads. Thread seal tape also lubricates, which allows for a deeper seating of the threads and it helps prevent the threads from seizing when being unscrewed. The tape also works as a deformable filler and thread lubricant, helping to seal the joint without hardening or making it more difficult to tighten.

Characteristics

  • Low coefficient of friction
  • Excellent dielectric properties
  • High melting temperature
  • High corrosion resistance

Usage

Pressurized water systems, central heating systems, air compression equipment, industrial gases equipment, stretching of body piercings (taping).

Price

Economic

Step 50: Self Adhesive PTFE Tape

This is a special kind of PTFE tape used as a film interface patch for sports and medical applications. It features a pressure-sensitive adhesive backing, which is installed in strategic high friction areas of footwear (e.g. insoles) in order to prevent and relieve friction-induced blisters, calluses and foot ulceration.

Characteristics

  • Pressure sensitive adhesive backing
  • Reduces friction

Usage

Sports and medical applications.

Price

Average

Step 51: Copper Tape

The copper tape shares many common features with the aluminium tape. It has high thermal and electrical conductivity, high resistance to changes in temperature, water and oils resistivity. It comes in several widths and thicknesses and in the market, usually, it is found in two forms ; conductive adhesive and non-conductive adhesive (which is more common).

Characteristics

  • High thermal and electrical conductivity
  • High resistance to changes in temperature
  • Resistant to water and oils
  • Several widths and thicknesses
  • Conductive adhesive and non-conductive adhesive

Usage
create low-profile traces for electrical components, RF-shielding, antenna-making, join things together using solder (e.g. the stained glass on Tiffany lamps), slug and snail deterrent.

Price

Average

Step 52: Armaflex Tape

Armaflex tape is a highly flexible elastomer material which is quick and easy to install and available in both tube and sheet form. It has a closed cell structure which has a built in vapour barrier with a high resistance to water vapour transmission enabling the insulation material to maintain a higher level of energy conservation efficiency. Armaflex tape is the ideal choice for insulating tanks, ductwork, large pipes or irregular shapes. Also this tape has an excellent fire safety performance which means low fire propagation, producing minimal contribution to the overall heat release and zero surface spread of flame. The low thermal conductivity, 0.034 W/(m.k) at 0 °C and good acoustic performance provide double benefits with one insulation system. Comes in several dimensions.

Characteristics

  • Excellent resistance to the effects of ozone, oils and chemicals
  • Wear and tear resistant
  • Extreme weather conditions resistant
  • Dust, fibre and CFC free
  • Low toxicity
  • Closed cell structure provides a built in vapour barrier
  • Low thermal conductivity (0.034 W / (m · k) at 0 °C)
  • Good acoustic performance
  • Low fire propagation
  • High resistance to water vapour transmission
  • Mold resistant
  • Clean, smooth appearance
  • Several dimensions

Usage

Insulation of pipes, valves, joints and fittings.

Price

Average

Step 53: Grape Tape (or Vegetable Tape)

This tape is made from thin polyethylene (PE) and is extensively used in agriculture and particularly in vine plantations to secure the stems of the plants because it doesn't hurt them like other hemp-like fasteners. It has no adhesive and requires a special tool with enough staples in order to use it. It is also suitable for tomatoes, beans, cucumber etc, making it a good investment for a farmer. Also it is ideal and easy at fixing branches and plants in nurseries, greenhouses, horticultural crops, fields and at tying bales of branches (or flowers) of small and large diameter. It can be found in a variety of widths and thicknesses.

Characteristics

  • Doesn't hurt the plants
  • Low labour and high efficiency
  • Requires a special tool with enough staples
  • Doesn't use adhesives
  • Red, orange, green or blue colour

Usage

Securing the branches of plants (tomato, cucumber, grape, capsicum, beans etc).

Price

Economic. About 0.3 Euros per piece.

Step 54: Seed Tape

Seed tape is a strip of biodegradable paper embedded with seeds for precision planting which is sold at many nurseries. Seed tapes make it easy to plant straight rows of perfectly spaced seeds. One simply has to unroll it in a furrow and cover it with soil. It offers high germination rates and little or no thinning is needed. Seed Tapes are the perfect, no-waste way to plant and are also ideal for mid-season succession planting between rows.

Characteristics

  • Biodegradable material
  • Efficient
  • Exact spacing of seeds
  • Virtually no thinning is needed
  • Better control of planting depth
  • High germination rates
  • Protection from the elements and insects

Usage

Agriculture, planting, greenhouses.

Price

Economic

Step 55: Aero-Stop Tape

This tape consists of a white polyurethane foam strip, coated with an aggressive rubber adhesive on one side. The sticky side is protected with a release liner until use. It is used mainly on windows and doors as insulation for air breezes, cold, heat loss, dust and noise. It comes in many sizes and widths to fit any application.

Characteristics

  • Self adhesive
  • Aggressive rubber adhesive
  • Comes in many sizes
  • Easy installation
  • Open cell foam material

Usage

Insulation for doors and windows, freezer doors.

Price

Economic

Step 56: Rubber Seal Tape

This tape is very similar to the Aero-Stop tape but it consists of rubber instead of a foam strip. It is also coated with an aggressive rubber adhesive on one side and the sticky side is protected with a release liner until use. It's main use is on windows and doors as insulation for air breezes, cold, heat loss, dust and noise. It comes in many sizes and widths to fit any application.

Characteristics

  • Self adhesive
  • Aggressive rubber adhesive
  • Comes in many sizes
  • Easy installation
  • Rubber material
  • Weather resistant
  • UV resistant

Usage

Insulation for doors and windows.

Price

Economic

Step 57: Perforated Strap Tape

This tape consists of a perforated galvanized strap. It is used by plumbers to secure pipes or water tanks but it can also be used whenever something needs to be fastened securely. It is practically indestructible and can withstand the weather conditions well. It comes in several sizes.

Characteristics

  • High tensile strength
  • Galvanized to resist corrosion
  • Several sizes
  • Contains no adhesives

Usage

Securing heavy objects (pipes, tanks, cables etc)

Price

Economic

Step 58: Bondage Tape

Bondage tape is made from a thin strip of plastic material (PVC or latex in most cases) that adheres only to itself, without any adhesive needed. It is typically intended to be used in erotic bondage. It does not stick to hair or skin and leaves no residue behind when the tape is removed. Some tape is thick enough that it can be unwound, unwrinkled and rewound for reuse, but usually it is simply and quickly removed by cutting it with blunt-tipped scissors. This kind of tape is also commonly used for stretching a body piercing.

Characteristics

  • Adheres without glue
  • Skin and hair friendly
  • Easy application
  • Painless removal
  • Comes in many colours
  • Reusable

Usage

Club wear (skirts, dresses, bras, pants etc), fetish parties, pornographic industry, body piercing.

Price

Average

Step 59: Filament Tape (or Strapping Tape)

Filament tape or strapping tape is a pressure-sensitive tape used for several packaging applications such as closing corrugated fiberboard boxes, reinforcing packages, bundling items, pallet unitizing etc. It consists of a pressure-sensitive adhesive coated onto a backing material which is usually a polypropylene or polyester film with fiberglass filaments embedded to add high tensile strength. A variety of grades of filament tape are available. Some have as much as 100 Kg of tensile strength per cm of width. Different types and grades of adhesive are also available. Most often, the tape is 12 - 24 mm wide, but it is also used in other widths.

Characteristics

  • High tensile strength
  • Comes in many sizes
  • Plethora of types and grades of adhesive

Usage

Closure for corrugated fiberboard boxes (such as a full overlap, five panel folder, full telescope), reinforcing packages, bundling items, pallet unitizing etc.

Price

Expensive

Step 60: Surgical Tape (or Medical Tape)

Surgical tape or medical tape is a type of pressure-sensitive adhesive tape used in medicine and first aid to hold a bandage or other dressing onto a wound. These tapes usually have a hypo-allergenic adhesive which is designed to hold firmly onto skin, dressing materials and underlying layers of tape but to remove easily without damaging the skin. The air-permeable backing prevents moisture build-up, thus improving patient comfort and hygiene. Surgical tape is often white because it contains zinc oxide, which is added to help prevent infections.

Characteristics

  • Hypo-allergenic
  • Doesn't leave residue behind
  • Breathable
  • Anti-microbial
  • Firm grip
  • Skin friendly
  • Durable backing
  • Latex free
  • Multi purpose
  • Writeable
  • Follows contours of the body well

Usage

Wound treatments, support strapping (e.g. "neighbour" strapping), securing bulky dressings, securing tubing, fixing heavy medical devices, adding a non-slip wrapping to things which must be gripped (tennis racquets,hockey and lacrosse sticks etc), date and name labelling.

Price

Economic

Step 61: Speed Tape

Speed tape is an aluminized pressure-sensitive tape used to do minor repairs on aircraft and racing cars. It is used as a temporary repair material until a more permanent repair can be carried out. It has an appearance similar to duct tape, for which it is sometimes mistaken, but its adhesive is capable of sticking on an aeroplane fuselage or wing at high speeds, hence the name.

Characteristics

  • Water resistant
  • Solvent resistant
  • Flame resistant
  • Reflects heat and UV light
  • Able to expand and contract
  • Weather conditions resistivity

Usage

Sealant protection while curing, patch non-critical components of a plane, patch bullet damage in combat aircraft.

Price

Expensive

Step 62: Hockey Stick Tape

This is the tape used on the blades of ice hockey sticks. It is made from a non-elastic cloth from synthetic fibers which is self-adhesive. Depending on the level of play, this tape may only last one or two games on the blade of a hockey stick.

Characteristics

  • Non-elastic
  • Hand tearable
  • Excellent tensile strength
  • Many colours and designs
  • Self-adhesive
  • Water resistant

Usage

    Taping the stick handle to allow for a better grip, taping the stick blade to protect it from wearing and provide a grip on the puck, taping the lower part of the stick shaft to prevent damage from another player hacking at the stick, taping the blade proceeding from heel to toe which allows for a player to impart more spin on a puck thus adding to a shot or pass' accuracy, in field hockey and lacrosse.

    Price

    Inexpensive

    Step 63: Hockey Shin Tape

    Shin tape is a medical-type tape, used on shin pads or on socks over the shin pads to help keep them in position. The pressure-sensitive tape is self-adhesive and water resistant and is elastic so that there is no risk of cutting off circulation to the legs. Shin tape is available in a variety of colours, with clear tape being the most popular. Shin pad tape is discarded after use. It is also used by people called benders (people who can't skate properly so their ankles bend in) to tape their ankles to prevent them from getting injured.

    Characteristics

    • Elastic
    • Self-adhesive
    • Water resistant
    • Many colours (transparent is the most common)
    • Once removed it is discarded
    • Aggressive adhesive system
    • Thick and durable elasticized polyethylene backing

    Usage

    Keeps socks and shin pads in place, keeps ankles in place to prevent injuries.

    Price

    Inexpensive

    Step 64: Fire Tape

    The fire tape is a self-adhesive, fiberglass reinforced, drywall paper tape used in fire walls. It is 48 mm wide and comes in rolls of 76.2 m long. It is applied directly to vertical or horizontal joints of gypsum wallboard panels. The tape must be wiped down with a plastic blade provided by the manufacturer or with an equivalent instrument to apply sufficient pressure to establish full contact between the tape and drywall. The surface of the fire tape is treated with silicone and mud or paint will not adhere to it. If it is desired to disguise the colour of the fire tape on exposed walls, it is recommended using a primer to coat over it. Once the primer dries, a latex paint or mud can be applied. Also, the silicone on the surface of the tape will not allow it to adhere to itself, so only one coating with this material is allowed.

    Characteristics

    • Permanent adhesion to drywall
    • Self adhesive
    • Fiberglass reinforced
    • Easy mud-less application with no clean-up or additional preparation
    • Saves up to 60% of installation time over conventional taping methods
    • Works with both wood and steel beam construction
    • Rated for use in fire wall construction
    • Can't overlap (doesn't stick to itself)
    • Mud or paint will not adhere to it
    • Rated for 1 and 2 hours of fire protection

    Usage

    Mud-less gypsum drywall board finish in fire walls.

    Price

    Expensive

    Step 65: Thermo-Shield Tape

    Thermo-Shield tape is an adhesive fiberglass-aluminium backed composite tape that can be used to wrap hoses or wires to protect them from heat and extend their lifetime. Radiant and conductive heat can melt, dry out or crack the rubber and plastic components in hoses and wiring, causing them to leak or short out. Parts are protected from over 90% of radiant heat up to 1000 °C. Thermo-Shield tape can be used in applications where it is not practical or convenient to disconnect one end of the hose or wire.

    Characteristics

    • Reflects up to 90% of radiant heat
    • Withstands temperatures up to 1000 °C
    • Adhesive backing for secure application

    Usage

    Hoses and wiring protection from radiant heat, ideal for splicing heat shield tubing ends.

    Price

    Relatively expensive

    Step 66: Tear Tape (or Tearstrip or Tear-Off Ribbon)

    Tear tape, also known as tearstrip or tear-off ribbon is a narrow adhesive tape used to open packaging. The backing is often a narrow oriented polymer such as polypropylene but other polymers, yarns, and filaments are also used. Many tear tapes use a pressure sensitive adhesive but others have a heat-activated adhesive system.
    Tear tape is attached to the inner surface of packaging: paper, paperboard, corrugated fiberboard or plastic film. It is used on common non-durable fast-moving consumer goods such as soft drinks, groceries or toiletries, as well as tobacco products such as cigarettes and cigars, to aid the opening of the packaging. It is also used in courier envelopes and corrugated boxes. Irrespective of the medium it is used on, tear tape serves as an easy opening device for the consumer, where it prevents the need for additional opening tools such as scissors or knives, or the use of excessive force. Tear tape provides a guide on the tear area, thereby allowing for more precise opening which minimises product spillage.

    Characteristics

    • Synthetic rubber adhesive
    • Good shear strength
    • Good tensile strength
    • Usually red in colour

    Usage

    Packaging consumer goods and tobacco products.

    Price

    Economic

    Step 67: Double-Sided Thermal Adhesive Tape

    Double-sided thermal adhesive tape is a highly effective thermal interface designed for bonding heatsinks to chipsets or other components requiring strong fixing in a hot environment. It provides semi-permanent bonding and is not designed for quick removal. It consists of a PET layer sandwiched between two layers of thermal conductive acrylic adhesive. The sticky parts are protected by a release liner until use.

    Characteristics

    • Low thermal resistance and superior thermal conductivity
    • Powerful adhesion for remarkable strength and reliability
    • Features excellent workability and processability
    • Halogen free
    • Flame retardant

    Usage

    LED base board and housing, CPU and heat sink or radiation fin, attach various types of semiconductor and electronic parts to heat sinks.

    Price

    Economic

    Step 68: Heat Shrinkable Tape

    Heat shrinkable tape is an environmentally friendly heat-melted adhesive-lined polyolefin tape. This tape is primarily used for repair of electrical cabling and insulation, particularly when they can't be disconnected, but has many other uses as well. It is very conformable, tough, waterproof tape with special adhesive coating which bonds well to most surfaces over a wide range of temperatures. The shrinking action achieves exceptional conformation to contours, squeezing the adhesive into all surface irregularities, forming an effective seal.

    Characteristics

    • Protects against accidental flash-over
    • Halogen free
    • Waterproof material and adhesive create watertight seals
    • Permanent imprint
    • Solvent resistant
    • Easy to apply
    • Withstands low (-55 °C) and high temperatures (+105 °C)
    • Creates custom splicing on damaged cables
    • Very conformable
    • Tough

    Usage

    Insulating, anti-corrosive and mending purposes, cable repairs, tool handles.

    Price

    Expensive

    Step 69: Preformed Polymer Tape (or Pavement Marking Tape)

    This tape consists of heavy-grade material with reflective beads embedded in the plastic. It is commonly used to mark cross-walks, stop bars and traffic guidance such as turn lanes, HOV lanes, train crossings, pedestrian crossings, taxi lanes, bus lanes and bike lanes. There are two ways to apply tape, overlay and inlay.

    Overlay

    The application being laid over the surface of the pavement. Using industrial-grade rubber cement, once the tape is combined with the pavement, it should last three years. Major obstacles to estimated life are snow-ploughs, salt and misapplication.

    Inlay

    The tape physically becomes part of the asphalt. Using the heat generated in the paving process, road workers lay special tape on the asphalt in the hardening process, and rollers compress the two together. The life of the preformed polymer tapes can vary based on the applications. If applied correctly, they can last between 4 to 8 years.

    Characteristics

    • No special preparation is needed, just a clean, dry surface
    • Highly weather and traffic resistant
    • Reflective white and yellow
    • Symbols and legend formats
    • Fast and easy installation

    Usage

    Re-routing or shifting of traffic flow.

    Price

    Expensive

    Step 70: Polyester Fabric Tape

    This thin tape consists of woven polyester fibres and contains no adhesive. It is used for the mechanical strengthening of various waterproofing layers along cracks, joints and floor-walls junctions. It is white and usually comes in the following dimensions : 1m x 200m, 1m x 100m, 10cm x 50m.

    Characteristics

    • Contains no adhesive
    • Absorbs paint and waterproofing insulation well
    • Non-elastic
    • Requires two or three hands of paint to create a smooth finish

    Usage

    Insulation, waterproofing, strengthening unstable substrates, masonry.

    Price

    Average

    Step 71: Neoprene Tape

    Neoprene tape is a popular synthetic elastomer tape that offers good resistance to some chemicals and weathering. It is made from a blend of neoprene as well as SBR and nitrile. It is a closed cell, flexible, black tape which has excellent ozone and oxidation resistance, well suited for outdoor applications and is cost effective for HVAC. Neoprene tape is available in a variety of popular gauges to better suit the needs of individual projects.

    Characteristics

    • Acid and oils resistance
    • Ozone resistance
    • Oxidation resistance
    • Dust-proof
    • Ageing and weathering resistance
    • Self-adhesive
    • Closed cell
    • Well suited for outdoor applications
    • Operational from -30 °C up to +100 °C

    Usage

    Roof curb, door gasketing, window frames, general industrial use, dust seal, light seal, store fixtures, noise insulation, padding, expansion joints of pre-cast concrete and steel, HVAC and refrigeration, bumpers.

    Price

    Expensive

    Step 72: Transfer Tape (or Application Tape or Pre-Mask)

    Transfer tape, also known as application tape or "pre-mask", is a staple of digital graphics. Application tape is so called because it transfers cut vinyl graphics from the release liner to the substrate. For most vinyl graphics jobs, transfer tape is essential. There is a plethora of types of application tape for indoor, outdoor, digital print and heat transfer applications. There are two different kinds of transfer tapes ; paper tape and clear or transparent tape.

    Paper transfer tape

    It is composed of a paper based face film coated with adhesive. It’s essentially industrial strength masking tape. Like masking tape, it’s generally somewhat translucent but not transparent. It tends to be softer and more flexible than clear tape. Its primary advantage is the wide range of tack levels. Paper tape can be purchased in low, medium or high tack variants. It also tends to be less expensive than clear tape. The other major advantage of paper tape is the porous nature of the face film. This makes it ideal for use with application fluids. Because of its paper face film, it’s not as useful for building multi-coloured vinyl graphics that require precise registration of one layer upon another. Even for single colour graphics, it can be hard to see exactly where the vinyl is going to end up. The need for more transparency or better presentation quality leads many people to choose clear tape.

    Clear Transfer Tape

    Clear tapes are so transparent because they’re made from plastic face films instead of paper. The clear plastic construction provides the transparency some sign makers need because the underlying vinyl design is clearly visible, making installation easier because the installer can see exactly where the letters will be in relation to the substrate or other design elements. The plastic face film that makes clear tape so appealing also makes it a bit less practical and versatile. It doesn’t work as well for wet applications because the fluid can’t pass through the face film. Clear tapes also tend to have lower tack adhesives and are therefore not as effective in transferring certain kinds of vinyl. Another drawback to clear tapes is static. The plastic face film tends to generate a static charge, especially in arid environments. This can attract dust and debris, which makes clean bubble-free transfers more difficult. The final limitation of clear tape involves limited versatility. Unlike paper tape, clear tapes made for vinyl graphics cannot be used for heat press T-shirt transfers. The plastic face film tends to melt at the temperatures required for successful thermal transfers. There are heat resistant clear tapes used for T-shirt transfers, but they’re special products not well suited to standard vinyl graphics applications.

    Characteristics

    • Easy to handle
    • Works great in either wet or dry applications
    • Tears easily
    • No stringy adhesive
    • Smooth and trouble-free

    Usage

    Transfer cut vinyl graphics from the release liner to the substrate.

    Price

    Expensive

    Comments

    About This Instructable

    1,622views

    35favorites

    License:

    More by taloskriti:Adhesive Tape ZooLeaky Faucet Quick FixSimple Gourd Birdhouse With a Branch
    Add instructable to: