Picture of Arduino Line Following Robot for Beginners
* Updated 08/24/2013 to include more pricing, source information, and top/bottom/wheel templates

Mostly functional for general public, use at own risk!

Hey hey! This is a Programmable Line Following Robot for Beginners. This project is designed to work in tandem with our Arduino Traffic Light for Beginners instructable. However it will work just fine without!

We estimate this can take approximately 10 to 15 hours of work for someone who hasn't done any electronics or programming. If that's a bit much, we recommend checking out this instructable! Depending on how you source your parts, the average cost for this project will probably be between $40 and $60.

This project was designed for a summer camp at a Hackerspace in Ann Arbor, MI. If you aren't already familiar with what a Hackerspace/Makerspace is, we highly recommend you check one out! They can be a wonderful resource for both tools and information. Things like access to a LASER cutter can make this project look significantly better with minimal effort. Find one near you!

Suggested Tools
- Soldering Iron
- Wire Snips
- Pliers (Needle Nose Preferred)
- Wire Strippers (22 AWG)
- Utility Knife
- Phillips Head Screwdriver (No. 1)
- Pencil
- Arduino UNO
- Breadboard
- 9V Battery Holder with 2.1mm Barrel Connector
- LASER Cutter
- Heat Gun

Suggested Materials
- 1 x ($1.50) - Photocell (Sparkfun)
- 2 x ($2.26) - QRD1114 - IR Emitter/Sensor (Sparkfun)
- 3 x ($1.00) - 100 Ohm Resistors - Brown Black Brown (Sparkfun)
- 2 x ($1.00) - 220 Ohm Resistors - Red Red Brown (Sparkfun)
- 2 x ($1.00) - 270 Ohm Resistors -Red Purple Brown (Sparkfun)
- 2 x ($1.00) - 5.6k Ohm Resistors -Green Blue Red) (Sparkfun)
- 2 x ($1.00) - Yellow LEDs -Indicators Lights on Car) (Sparkfun)
- 2 x ($1.00) - Red LEDs -Brake Lights on Car (Sparkfun)
- 1 x ($17.00) - 22 AWG Solid Core Wire in Red, Black, Yellow, Blue, and White colors (Sparkfun)
- 1 x ($2.00) -  Solarbotics Plastic Caster (Solarbotics)
- 2 x ($11.50) - DC Gear Motor (GM2) (Solarbotics)
- 2 x ($2.00) - NPN Transistors (Adafruit)
- 2 x ($1.50) - Diode 1N2001 (Adafruit)
- 1 x 9v Battery (Local Hardware Store)

- 1 x LASER Cut Acrylic Top Plate *
- 1 x LASER Cut Acrylic Bottom Plate *
- 2 x LASER Cut Acrylic Wheels *

- 2 x Thick Rubber Bands - 3.5cm diameter x 1cm width (Local Hardware/Craft Store)
- 1 x 8" Zip Tie (Local Hardware Store)
- 2 x ($0.50) - Machine Nuts - #3 1/2" Micro (Local Hardware Store)
- 2 x ($0.50) - Machine Screws - #3 1/2" Micro (Local Hardware Store)
- 2 x ($0.50) - Machine Screws - #2 1/4"  (Local Hardware Store)
- 4 x ($0.50) - Machine Screws - (~1/8" Diameter, ~1.5" Length ) (Local Hardware Store)
- 12 x ($1.00) - ?? Nuts for Machine Screws(Local Hardware Store)
- 1 x ($2.00) - Double Sided Sticky Foam Tape ~10cm length x ~1cm wide) (Local Hardware Store)
- 1 x ($2.00) - White Electrical Tape Roll (Local Hardware Store)
- 1 x ($3.00) - Foam Core Board24x36" 1/4" thick 
- 1 x ($3.00) - Heat Shrink Tube: 25cm of 3/32" (~2.4mm) diameter.

Highly Recommended
- Clean workspace
- Good lighting
- Someone awesome to work with

Short on resources?
- Find out if there's a local hackerspace near by!
- Need it today? Radioshack. Can you wait a few days? Adafruit, and Sparkfun are excellent resources.

Who made this?
- This instructable was brought to you by Khevna Shah and Josh Williams, and much help from the World's Friendliest Hackerspace: All Hands Active

* Don't have a LASER Cutter?
- See the PDF files! They contain a printable version of the Top and Bottom car plates, along with wheels. Print them out and purchase a sheet of 1/8" Baltic Birch. Along with a drill, a good assortment of bits and an appropriate saw will make for a classy wooden version!
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bob303012 months ago
Excellent job, from station setup forward. I think a novice could use these instructions to build. You got my vote for weekend project.
Khevna (author)  bob303012 months ago
Thank you!
shmx22 days ago
grt job I appreciate.
Dietrick K.2 months ago

so I built a line follower out of a book called Beginning Arduino. and when I made it and coding the robot with the exactly same code it didn't work. well to e exact half my wheels didn't run. they got information but no power. I ran a test program and the robot worked. still half my robot dosent work. I really need some help if you can please reply or email me at

umbra_victus2 months ago

Hey first I wanna start by saying that this is amazing and really helped me do what I want. I have looked over there a few times and I still have some problems with my code. I can't figure it out :(

Could I get an email with the final code? I would really love to see where I messed up. Please and thank you.

romanbasnet2 months ago

could you please send me the final code at

hulu_hili3 months ago

Could you please email me the final code. Thanks in advance. My email:

favouredbilly3 months ago

please , email me the final code

gsingh374 months ago

Please email me the final code at:

shirleykwok5 months ago

Great tutorial! Could you send me your full code? Thanks! My email is

pu_k985 months ago

please send me your full code , I need this for mechatronic actuator project.

烽志5 months ago

i am a beginner and i wish to build this robot but i don't know to create the code.

If you have the full code please sent it me to

thank you

Daniel_Pontes5 months ago

Excellent, i will use this to a disciplin Project.

Thank vou for the Great job.

If you have the full code please sent me to:

Hashim laith 5 months ago
hai, what is the kind this black ribbon

Thank you!! I'm about to try to do this project. Do you already have the final code? It may be such a big help because I'm just starting to learn programming. Thank You. I'll let you know when I finish it haha.

areevkumar6 months ago

Great helps a lot to persons like me who are new to arduino

I've only two days to submit my project.

When will the final code be ready?

abrownlee27 months ago

When will the final code be ready?

pissu kolla8 months ago
hurry up !! I can't wait for this project.....
I searched for a project like this for weeks and thank you for make things easier to beginners just like me.
tonmoy15188 months ago
This project theme is excellent....
but it will be more helpful if we can get the whole circuit diagram....
Thanks in Advance..:)
kodagames8 months ago
(removed by author or community request)
Hello Khevna, Greatly Appreciate the Tutorial! Im new to Arduino and just purchased my first arduino (microcontroller) kit and can't wait to get started on this project.

Hopefully, by the time I get the rest of the parts needed to follow along and get caught up (where it is now), the final code (step 27) will be ready? When are camps over?

I also noticed you are a Unity fan as well (good stuff!). Amazing Amazing Community over there as well!
j135799 months ago
How do you got this photos??
Is this from some stimulation software??
If yes can you please name it.
Khevna (author)  j135798 months ago
fsanduby10 months ago
when will the code be up please answer asap
santhoshnaik10 months ago
Hi Khevna,
This is one of the most complete and beautifully done Instructables I've ever seen.
It is very detail that a beginner like me can also built it.
Hey when are you going to have a complete code for this project ?
if completed,please mail me that code.
my email
thanks in advance
kiranrokkam11 months ago
Hi Khevna, This is one of the best instructables I ever saw. It is very detail that a beginner like me can also built it.

Hey any idea when are you going to have a complete code for this project ?
paramourstudio11 months ago
This is one of the most complete and beautifully done Instructables I've ever seen. Khevna! What a pleasure to see this. Thanks so much and Great Job!
chickenparmi12 months ago
Wow! This is a great Instructable. Very easy to understand and fantastic photography, great job.
Khevna (author)  chickenparmi12 months ago
Thank you!
billbillbill12 months ago
Great Instructable! Nice job Khevna (& Josh)!
Khevna (author)  billbillbill12 months ago
Thank you!