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Laser Tag is awesome. Losing isn’t.
Hanging out with friends, running around, old arcade games in the lobby- what’s not to like?
That is, unless you’re like me, and you spend most of the game tagged.
So, besides practice… Is there a way to be better at laser tag?

Of course! We can cheat.

Why make this Instructable?
With the Arduino contest in full swing, we’ve seen an influx of Instructables exploring Ken Shirriff’s sweet Arduino IR library. What we’re lacking are some nitty-gritty applications! Sure it’s great that we can have an Arduino pick up IR signals- but what’s the point if we don’t do something cool with them?
Thus, I present to you, the BIRRD.

So what the heck is this BIRRD thing?
Pictured above, the BIRRD (or as the long winded may like to call it: Ben’s Inferred Record/Replay Device) is a pretty simple IR relay & replay device based around the Arduino mini. Using only a few common parts, Shirriff’s library, and your wits as a maker- you too can be a cheater!

Disclaimer: This project isn't very dangerous- but the immoral implications of cheating are! This device is not for the faint of heart. (More on step eight)

EDIT: I hate to self promote here, but if you liked this Instructable, please vote for it in the scientific method, and/or Arduino, and/or the Full Spectrum Laser contests that'd be so cool! Always looking for new tools to build with!

Step 1: Creating the BIRRD: a Hypothesis.

Spurred on by years of suffering from laser tag score-deficiency, I had no choice but to find someway to improve myself!

After doing some research...
I had no plausible ideas in hand; it was on this very site, while checking out a great IR guide, that I made the crucial connection for this device: laser tag guns use IR LEDs!

Just like TV remotes...
The standard (and somewhat outdated) laser tag packs transmit their code though little flashes with these LEDs, unseen by the human eye. Does that then mean we can tap into this airborne data- and use it to our advantage?


Hypothesis:
I propose we can increase our laser-kill-count, and cheat the laser tag system by using an Arduino-based IR receiver/sender to copy the user’s pack’s data and then continuously send that data.

Step 2: IR Signals, Laser Guns, Ya Know, the Usual...

What's a Gadget if you don't know how to work it?
Before we get building, lets talk about just what we're making- and how to use it in the field.

When not transmitting, the BIRRD copies IR LED pulses that are received, and stores the code sent.  Every time a code is received, the Arduino's status light (Pin 13) will light up. It will continually pick up any code received until it enters transmission mode.

When the switch is flipped, the Arduino starts sending the code last sent to it over and over and over... until the switch is flipped again! (Status light also shines every time a transmission is sent!)

So, how would we use this in combat?
Because each laser in the area has its own special code, all you need to do is copy yours into the BIRRD.

To copy your code, just shoot your gun into the receiver- you should see the Arduino blink. This confirms your code is copied and saved! Now that your code is saved, simply turn on transmission mode, and start aiming! Just make sure your BIRRD doesn't pickup any other player's gun codes while in receiving mode. If another code is received, you should see the light blink.


Step 3: Time to Build: Distraction/Construction.

Easy to Build.
As mentioned before, there's not much to this circuit! It's primarily based off the circuit Ken uses to demo his IR library.. For that we'll need...

Parts List:
- 1x Arduino ProMini (or equivalent!)
- 1x IR LED 
- 1x IR Receiver 
- 1x 100 Ω Resistor 
- 1x 1000 Ω Resistor
- 2x SPST switches*

*The switches depend mostly on your casing, in my case I used a slide and toggle, but anything SPST will work!

In my case for the case I used old parts from one of these. Sound quality isn't great, but the shell is the perfect size for a ProMini

So Ben, what do these parts even do?
Thanks for asking internet!
The IR Receiver will hijack the code our gun shoots,
The IR LED will transmit our hijacked code,
The Resistor keeps the LED from blowing out (Yes you need it!)
One switch will be our on/off
The other switch will toggle whether or not our device is transmitting code.

The schematic from Ken's website Is above, and It's pretty easy to follow, but for those interested, I've attached a Fritzing File with the completed circuit.

But Ben, what about the notification LED?
The code we'll use comes automatically set to use the built in LED on pin 13 as to notify use when we're receiving/sending code. If one was so inclined, you could add an other LED from pin 13 to ground, but with the BIRRD being a cheating device and all, I didn't want any bright lights for others to see.

Circuit break down.

Essentially, our transmitter switch will have one pin connected to Vcc (+5v), and the other connected to both Arduino pin 12, and a 1KΩ resistor that will lead to ground.

Next we have our receiver, which will have the Data pin (left most, when the bulb is facing you) connected to the Arduino's pin 11, then the ground pin of the IR receiver to ground and finally- you guessed it, the voltage pin to Vcc.

Our emitting LED will have the cathode connected to ground, while the anode runs through a 100Ω to pin 3.

Ken doesn't use an on off switch, but I wanted to add one. In this case, just set up a switch between the ground of the voltage source and the arduino's ground. This way, when flipped off the Arduino won't receive any power. 


**You could also use a push button to activate the transmitter, rather than the switch mentioned above- but you would have to hold it down continuously in order to not have other gun codes received.

 Cases

I got lucky because my case had holes for headphone ports that were just the right size for my LED//wires. For all those not using this case, I'd look into getting some sort of LED holder- like this or this. A 3/16" drill bit may also do the trick, but depending on the drill may be a bit tight.

Side notes

Above are some pics of how I fit everything into the tiny case I had. If you're recreating this project, I'd recommend finding some tiny-er toggle switches though. EBay has some awesome options, like these guys that are a good two times smaller than the ones I had on hand at the time I built this!

One of my goals in building the BIRRD was to be able to re-flash programs onto it, incase I wanted to change the software later on. To do this, I left the header on, and had it come out of the case. The foam you see was just stuck on the end to avoid a short. 
Right now I'm working on having it start with the code needed to turn off a TV! That way it'll serve as a TV Be Gone too!


Step 4: Software Time!

The hard part is over!
Seriously, once built, the software portion of this build is easy as pie!

Finding the library
I started off testing the BIRRD using Ken's code which you can find here on Github.
Later I began working on my own versions, but Ken's still takes the cake!

Installing
For those of you not familiar with adding Arduino libraries, I'd check out this tutorial on Arduino's website.

You can also check out one of the many instructables documenting installing/using the library.

Writing the Sketch
Once you've got the library installed, load up the sketch 'IRrecord' and you're good to go! 

You're done
See, I told you it'd be painless!

Step 5: Testing the BIRRD

A quick guide to testing,
Remember before how we talked about how similar laser-tag guns and TV remotes are? That comes in handy for testing.
To check if you're BIRRD works, power it on, and if it does, see if you can receive a signal! The LED should flash when you send the remote's code to the device, this confirms the code has been copied- and finally, try sending the code!



Step 6: The Sweet, Sweet Results.

More than just TVs,
Here we are, finally, the moment we've all be waiting for... Does it work!?

Yes!
Indeed it does! And pretty well too! My first attempt at using the BIRRD went without a hitch.

For games with the BIRRD I left the BIRRD on as a ran around shooting normally as well, and in the control I used no BIRRD at all.

I played a control game that same night as to have something to compare my results to, and after crunching the numbers, here's how I did.

Analyzing the data,
Score wise the BIRRD only boasts on average 18%, but this is partly my fault, as it was only in the third round i targeted the 'crystals' a major point booster!

Accuracy's a bit interesting, you'll notice in the second game I had a 0% accuracy rate, because I fired no shots. There's no way this is correct though, because i had to fire a shot to register the gun with the BIRRD. Assuming a mistake was made in the scoring, we'll leave that one out. Just looking at games 1 and 3, the BIRRD still helped in shooting my accuracy up a full 42.3%!

Using the BIRRD It was 263% more likely to hit an opponent - and 159% better at not getting hit. Thus, difference in Tag Ratio is huge too- a whopping 3.18x more per game!

Conclusion:

I've got to admit, going into this, I honestly wasn't expecting the BIRRD to work as well as it did. That being said, for my next build, I plan to make some changes... (continued on step seven)


Step 7: We Can Make It Bigger (Future Improvements)

Well surely you didn't think we'd stop there!

The BIRRD worked great, but...
My biggest complaint with the BIRRD was the angle in which it fired. 20° is a vast improvement of the standard laser gun, but still it's not enough.

Next complaint: Unless you're aiming it above you, you will be sniped! More times than I could count it was someone in the rafters above me taking me out.

And lastly, with a range of only ~35ft, people across the arena are nice and safe.

Making it better.
Okay, so lets see... We need something at covers not only the 360° around you, but also above, and it's gotta have lots of space if we want to fit more circuitry in it... Plus it needs to not be blearing obvious... 

After a bit of thinking, I found it, A Crown! (or a king hat) The King of the BIRRDs.

Although not yet created, the parts are on their way!

Featuring ~24 LEDs mounted both around and above, this hat will fire IR beams completely destroying any vest that dare stand in its way. With a similar method of use, the user will simply shoot their gun into the inside of the hat to register the code, before pressing a fabric button triggering udder destruction!

Best of all, with all the crazy people in and out of the laser tagging arena, no one will ever suspect anything for the so called 'King of Laser Tag.'

***Updates to come!***

Step 8: Dealing With the Immoral Implications of Cheating.

I've cheated laser tag.
I know it, you know it- and it's important to admit it.

The repercussions of cheating are serious. Not only will the weight of you guilt keep you from reaching greater heights, but if caught, there's no telling how the management of the establishment will react!

All jokes aside,
This was an experiment to see if cheating in laser tag is possible- and even if it is, this, and all other BIRRDs should be used only when playing with people who know what's happening! I made a special trip with my friends just to try it out and i do not intend to use it for any more than that.

Please do not use this, or any other cheating devices in live games!
Not only does this ruin the fun for everyone else, but its just generally kind a jerk move! Be respectful of others playing, and most importantly have fun! It's not all about winning!


<p>Can someone please help me? its the code mine isent working the ide is giveing me problems. can you post the code you guys go to work? thanks. </p>
<p>Can someone please help me? I don't know how to make the BIRRD</p>
<p>Hi, can anyone help me please? I have no problems with the programming, but my problem is with building the BIRRD. I have tried to build it like a trilion times, but it just doesnt do anything, except that the red led on my arduino flashes rapidly. I really dont know am i doing wrong, im just stuck here with a bunch of not working electronics. Thanks in advance</p>
My dude!<br>My apologies, I'm not in here as often as I used to be.. Send me some pics, show me what you've got going, and I'll do my best to help you debug!!
<p>You have got to be kidding me... i assembled the BIRRD again to send you some pictures, but when i tried to test it, it actualy WORKED :D. So nevermind, i dont need you help anymore. But thanks for the fast reply :). I am adding pictures of it already assembled and hidden in electrical tape </p>
That's terrific! im so glad you got it working. Im always amazed by what problems can be solved by taking a step back and trying again.<br><br>Great work!! Make sure to only use the BIRRD for good ;)
<p>Well, now i really dont know what is going on. When i test my BIRRD at home it works perfectly, but tonight i tried to use it in a lazer tag arena, but it simply didnt work. The red LED flashed, as it recorded the code, but when i flipped the switch and aimed it at somebody it didnt hit him. Maybe it is just a problem with the led, but the IR led does light up on my camera. </p><p>So, do you have any idea what the problem could be? :) thanks </p>
How can I make this work outside? There is an outdoor laser tag in my town, and certain IR codes give you super powers(one hit kills, revive) I guess the power ups wouldn't need outdoor brightness/range, but what about programming it with the one hit kill code(normally it takes ten). Thes guns have 1000 ft range. Laser, not just LED?
you could use the same code, but the diode itself you'd have to change around a bit. IR lasers could be a cool next step! I'm not positive about the hardware needed for it though!
<p>How many people have tried this? Did it work for everyone?</p>
<p>Cool!</p>
<p>Smartphones nowadays (in my case, the LG G 3) are starting to come with IR Blasters on the top of the phone. The QuickRemote app that comes standard on the G3 is able to pick up any IR signal to provide truly universal compatibility. Simply create your own virtual remote, place a button on it, then it will listen (look) for a signal for it. This is the same principle of this device. Your's may have better range and/or a more focused beam, but this, IMHO, is great. Depending on the button you bind the signal from the blaster to, you may be able to have it repeat at a rapid rate, such as a volume button that you can hold down. I will follow this theory up in a few weeks after I go laser tagging.</p>
<p>Actually, I have a Sony Clie device which is my organizer for my studies, and i can blast with it using its virtual TV remote! How cool is that?! Simultaneously a decent device plus a lazertag cheat!</p>
Sweet!<br>Just make sure to turn down you're screen's brightness! Don't wanna be found out!!
You have a point there. Next thing to do is to create an app specifically for mimicking any IR signal with a definable rate. (With a black background of course)
<p>Eagle pcb ~ <a href="https://github.com/Xyl2k/IRremote-PCB" rel="nofollow">https://github.com/Xyl2k/IRremote-PCB</a><br>not tested tough.</p>
<p>Could you not have used a normally closed push button to enter receive mode, then when it is released, it will automatically start firing?</p>
Yeah! That'd work! With a lever visible though it's more easy to tell which mode you are in- which is very important when the status lights are hidden!<br><br>I like the idea though! a simple change to the code, and a replacement of the part could easily have that set up!
Actually, wouldn't your accuracy rating be 100% if you fired no shots? If you fired one shot to program the remote then you missed one shot, thus 0% accuracy.
<p>You're totally right, but in the game I had fired a few times from the gun as well. Even if it was only once of twice, when acting on instinct :p</p><p>The sheet alway says I fired 0 times, which definitely isn't right- 'cause I had to fire at least once to set up the remote!</p><p>It's a mystery as to what really happened, but I think it was most likely a glitch!</p>
<p>Ahh, Zone Infusion, how I remember ye...Being a long time laser skirmish player I can kinda answer this one for you</p><p>This is kinda simplifying things a bit but it's not exactly a glitch, the first shot fired by a pack tells the arena that this pack is active and to keep track of what the pack is doing. It also tells the maze that this pack can be shot because it's not a pack sitting in the kit up room that someone is trying to shoot to get extra points. In regular games this also means that your first shot doesn't count, even if it hits someone. If you never fired another shot for the whole game and only used the BIRRD then the maze counts you as having never fired a shot so when it comes time to keep track of hits and misses it cant divide by 0 so your accuracy just gets set as 0. </p><p>However this is where it gets strange, depending on exactly what version of the system Ultrazone is running then it may have been calculating differently. If your pack was giving you a hit confirmation (a ping) when the BIRRD hit something then I don't exactly know how it calculated your accuracy as 0 as any shots you fired after the first should have registered. If it wasn't then the arena would have been looking for a confirmed hit (a shot being fired immediately followed by a pack saying I'm hit by you) to properly mark you as active to count any additional shots you fired after the first. It's all a little beyond my technical knowledge but 4 years playing competitive laser skirmish and about 12 years total have taught me a couple of things about how it works.</p><p>This project however seems rather handy to me as during competition games we have referees with ref boxes that can deactivate and take points from players who break rules. With a modification or 2 this could be turned into a single purpose ref box so that newer or less reliable refs cant mess things up too much. My electronics and coding knowledge is VERY limited but being able to store 2 or 3 different codes in this would be rather cool.</p>
<p>Wow! Thanks for all that info- I had no idea about the first shot- that's pretty interesting!</p><p>You could definitely have this guy hold more than one code! The script to do that is a bit beyond me (at least for now)- but I'm sure it's do-able! Ken has a few samples with multiple IR codes held at once I believe, to be able to switch between them most likely would be as easy as adding some other kind of switch too!</p><p>I never thought about using it for anti-cheating measures! That's an awesome idea! What exactly would the refs use it for out of curiosity? I know you mention deducting points- but what could you do to deserve such?</p>
<p>Well the ref box has a couple of different functions, the main one being a termination which is a 10 second deactivation with a 1000 point deduction. To earn one of these you typically have to have done something that breaks the rules of a competitive format. In leagues and national competition it can be not exiting a base area when you're deactivated, running into another player, blind-firing (shooting around a corner without looking), walking backwards or running into a wall just to name a few. The next level up is removal from game where the ref uses the box to power down your pack and remove you from the game, you have to screw up really bad or multiple times for this though. As long as you're behaving yourself in a regular/casual game you'd probably never ever see one of them, they would only ever use it to cancel out a pack of a player who has left the game for some reason or to remove someone who is causing problems.</p><p>In the newer systems the box can be used to change the colour of the packs (allowing up to 8 teams in the game) and can give power-ups to players who are not doing so well (stealth, shields, invincibility) and in competitive games a ref can use the box to reload players if a reload bay stops working for some reason so the game can continue unaffected. With Infusion (the system you guys have) I recall the ref box only having the terminate and remove from game functions but I do know a couple of the sites in the US are using a modified version of it that has some features of the newer (Nexus Pro) system built into it but I don't know what functions it has.</p>
Could this also be used as a TV remote prank? Aim the remote and save the channel up button for the in expecting TV viewer?
<p>Neat idea, have one that works for airsoft?</p>
<p>Lol!</p><p>Actually though, I've been thinking about working on a DIY airsoft minigun- if you're interested, I'll be sure to document the process!</p>
<p>That sounds pretty epic, although quite challenging. Give it a try!</p>
<p>Awesome !!</p>
good idea. though having paint ball, air soft, and laser tag all under my belt, whether you know the group or not ...... i do not promote cheating. Step up your game and actually play, get your strategy, and keep it honest. Those who actually play the game spot cheaters and let them know it.
<p>That's exactly why this should only be used with friends and/or people who are in on it! :)</p>
<p>I've been working on a custom laser tag system, and one of my ideas is an IR grenade, your record/transmit feature would be a great addition to program it for the player. Nice work.</p>
<p>Cool idea! Sounds like fun!</p>
<p>New name idea: Giving Laser tag the BIIRD!</p><p>lol</p>
Great instructable bro. You get featured?
<p>Not yet! but there's always time!</p>
Yes. I'm interested! Love this one, but a Airsoft mini-gun just sounds too cool to miss. :)
<p>I've had an idea stewing for a while! I'll put pen to paper over the summer- throw something together!</p>
<p>Awesome Instructable!! :) </p>
<p>Thanks!</p>
<p>Glad you put the morality segment in there. I've considered building a simpler version which would simply retransmit my gun's signal out an array of 1 Watt IRLEDs. My version would simply use an IR receiver, transistor, power supply and IRLEDs. Your Arduino approach is nice and clean, I like it! </p>
<p>No fowl if it's with people who know about the device, right? :)</p><p>I wanted to work with the Arduino because using it, you're able to send the code over and over and over very, very quick- not just when firing the gun (which at least at the place i go to, is only once every ~2 seconds)</p><p>Still though, sweet idea!</p>

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Bio: Although opposite of common belief, i really hate wearing hats! In all honestly though, I've not documented many of my projects- and i plan ... More »
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