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Step 10: Integrated Circuits

An integrated circuit is an entire specialized circuit that has been miniaturized and fit onto one small chip with each leg of the chip connecting to a point within the circuit. These miniaturized circuits typically consist of components such as transistors, resistors, and diodes.

For instance, the internal schematic for a 555 timer chip has over 40 components in it.

Like transistors, you can learn all about integrated circuits by looking up their datasheets. On the datasheet you will learn the functionality of each pin. It should also state the voltage and current ratings of both the chip itself and each individual pin.

Integrated circuits come in a variety of different shapes and sizes. As a beginner, you will be mainly working with DIP chips. These have pins for through-hole mounting. As you get more advanced, you may consider SMT chips which are surface mount soldered to one side of a circuit board.

The round notch on one edge of the IC chip indicates the top of the chip. The pin to the top left of the chip is considered pin 1. From pin 1, you read sequentially down the side until you reach the bottom (i.e. pin 1, pin 2, pin 3..). Once at the bottom, you move across to the opposite side of the chip and then start reading the numbers up until you reach the top again.

Keep in mind that some smaller chips have a small dot next to pin 1 instead of a notch at the top of the chip.

There is no standard way that all ICs are incorporated into circuit diagrams, but they are often represented as boxes with numbers in them (the numbers representing the pin number).

<p><strong>Why to reduce flow of current in circuit??</strong></p>
<p><strong>The rate of reversal is measured in Hertz, which is the number of reversals per second. So, when they say that the US power supply is 60 Hz, what they mean is that it is reversing 120 times per second</strong></p><p><strong>How can calculate the number of reversing per second based on frequency, could you please explain it?? </strong></p>
<p>Is there a place where you would recommend getting a job lot of equpiment on the reasonably cheap?</p>
<p>What sort?</p>
<p>When you say ike, make this ciruit, but i dont have that many components to do any of it with. Where do you rekon that i can get a job lot from.(Young student so dont have much funds)</p>
I made the circuit but it's not giving me a high and low sound just a straight toned ring. What am I doing wrong?
<p>Nothing. You have done it right. It is the relationships between high 5V and low 0V that creates the ringing tone. The high and low voltages are not related to sound, but the shape of the electrical wave being created (on, off, on, off, etc ---__---__---__--- )<br><br> A tone is then created at the frequency of the square wave (the speed at which the signal is being turned on and off). You can increase and decrease the frequency of the tone, but you will still only have a single tone because you have only created one uniform square wave. </p>
<p>what do you mean by 'Ground'?</p>
<p>Ground is another name for the - (the opposite side of the +)</p>
<p>For any soon-to-be electronic enthusiasts, &quot;Arduino&quot; is something for you to look into.</p>
<p>Nice kit, but I would recommend the new <a href="http://www.amazon.com/dp/B01EKO6FZU" rel="nofollow">Make: Electronics Component Kit 2nd Edition</a> for a beginner in the field as it will teach them all of the circuits and electronic theories they need to know before getting into Arduinos. This kit has all the components for the beginning of the new Make: Electronics 2nd ed book which is the best book for newcomers looking to learn electronics and build circuits.</p>
<p>Thank you so much! I will buy that one first. If something is explained from scratch, I can grasp it, but with missing steps I get confused and discouraged. That's why I am liking this website too. If I had gotten arduinos first, I would have probably gotten confused. I am planning to get arduinos, but after I get the kit you recommended. </p>
<p>supr</p>
I'm starting out in electronics and on a schematic when a wire seems to split off two ways on a right angle that just means it is connected to both of those components correct?
<p>Hi !</p><p>I am vinay and I want to enlighten a 12 LED by the battery of my bajaj caliber 115 motorcycle, I want to know how can I use CD 7812 voltage regulator to get a constant 12 V DC while the bike is running ( when it will produce around 14.5 V).</p>
when you say ground do you mean negative<br>
Expertman, In early Electronics, ask about anything that you feel uncertain about. Its a &quot;grey&quot; area, an important question. In response, &quot;Ground&quot; and &quot;Negative&quot; are used with the same intent.They refer to the &quot;polarity&quot; of the power supply(Battery in this case) and where the 'pin' of a component's intended destination is(These components are usually labeled with this, if necessary) if unsure, find it online-(Not in a 'Blog', use 'DIGIKEY') Great prices, too!<br>. Good luck, hope this helped!
<p>i guess in both images,, wires are connected in parallel...</p>
i've been looking for this all over the endless fields of the internet. so, just tanks a lot
<p>Value the admission you delivered.. Certainly helpful <br>perception, thanks for giving.. Loving the contribution.. best wishes I <br>appreciate you expressing your viewpoint..</p><p>http://www.huludb.com/</p>
<p>apt site for beginners</p>
<p>This was very educational and informative for me thanks</p>
<p><strong>nice site for beginners as well as professionals</strong>.</p>
<p>Michael U.</p><p>Thanks alot for this tutorial, it is so rich</p>
<p>Hi,<br><br>Thank you so much for this tutorial.<br><br>FYI , on step12 (ie LED) you mentioned that the flat notch indicator is on anode end , but its on cathode end of the LED. Please check it.<br><br>Thanks.</p>
<p>Thanks for this tutorial!<br><br>For all electronic fans, I made a site about basic stuctures used in analog electronic:<br><br><a href="http://shematronic.ddns.net" rel="nofollow">http://shematronic.ddns.net</a></p>
<p>I appreciate this tutorial. However, where can I go, not to find circuits, but more specifics on how circuits work. I can understand how the first circuit works , sort of understand how and why the second circuit works, and am more lost on the third one. I'd like more of an explanation on why resistors and capacitors are used in specific situations. Any suggestions?</p>
<p>For the &quot;Your second circuit&quot; section, is it 2N3906 PNP and 2N3904 NPN or should the PNP and NPN be switched? The parts list does not match the image of the circuit. </p><p>I'm a beginner, and I want to make sure I use the correct parts.</p><p>Thanks</p>
thanks... good for start<br>

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Bio: My name is Randy and I founded the Instructables Design Studio. I'm also the author of the books 'Simple Bots,' and '62 Projects to ... More »
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