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Step 9: Transistors

A transistor takes in a small electrical current at its base pin and amplifies it such that a much larger current can pass between its collector and emitter pins. The amount of current that passes between these two pins is proportional to the voltage being applied at the base pin.

There are two basic types of transistors, which are NPN and PNP. These transistors have opposite polarity between collector and emitter. For a very comprehensive intro to transistors check out this page.

NPN transistors allow electricity to pass from the collector pin to the emitter pin. They are represented in a schematic with a line for a base, a diagonal line connecting to the base, and a diagonal arrow pointing away from the base.

PNP transistors allow electricity to pass from the emitter pin to the collector pin. They are represented in a schematic with a line for a base, a diagonal line connecting to the base, and a diagonal arrow pointing towards the base.

Transistors have their part number printed on them and you can look up their datasheets online to learn about their pin layouts and their specific properties. Be sure to take note of the transistor's voltage and current rating as well.
<p>Michael U.</p><p>Thanks alot for this tutorial, it is so rich</p>
<p>Hi,<br><br>Thank you so much for this tutorial.<br><br>FYI , on step12 (ie LED) you mentioned that the flat notch indicator is on anode end , but its on cathode end of the LED. Please check it.<br><br>Thanks.</p>
<p>Thanks for this tutorial!<br><br>For all electronic fans, I made a site about basic stuctures used in analog electronic:<br><br><a href="http://shematronic.ddns.net" rel="nofollow">http://shematronic.ddns.net</a></p>
<p>I appreciate this tutorial. However, where can I go, not to find circuits, but more specifics on how circuits work. I can understand how the first circuit works , sort of understand how and why the second circuit works, and am more lost on the third one. I'd like more of an explanation on why resistors and capacitors are used in specific situations. Any suggestions?</p>
<p>For the &quot;Your second circuit&quot; section, is it 2N3906 PNP and 2N3904 NPN or should the PNP and NPN be switched? The parts list does not match the image of the circuit. </p><p>I'm a beginner, and I want to make sure I use the correct parts.</p><p>Thanks</p>
<p>Thank you for describing two different Powers - AC and DC. <a href="http://sandsphoto.co.uk/" rel="nofollow">http://sandsphoto.co.uk/</a>&quot;</p>
thanks... good for start<br>
<p>Very well documented and detailed.</p>
<p>Thanks, this was exactly what I needed. A nice improvement would have been to explain why each element was on the circuit, instead this feels like you just follow instructions without knowing what you are doing. But once again, it's a perfect introduction to ultra beginners like me.</p>
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when you say ground do you mean negative<br>
You should tell that where to put transistor, capacitor and others. Whether it will be in series or parallel and why ? Effect of adding or removing a component on the circuit And how someone can build thier own circuit?
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<p>Wow! Thanks so much for this post. I am new to circuits and am taking automotive mechanics so this has really helped me understand the fundamentals of circuits in cars and in all other technology too. I look forward to putting it all together. Thanks again and keep up the good work.</p>
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