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Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste

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Picture of Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste
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I have been searching for some method of using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste efficiently, and came across information on producing bio-gas from organic waste.

The bio-gas produced from food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste, consisting of methane and a little amount of carbon di oxide is an alternative fuel for cooking gas (LPG). Also, the waste materials can be disposed off efficiently without any odor or flies and the digested slurry from the bio-gas unit can be used as an organic manure in the garden.

Components of the Bio-gas Plant

The major components of the bio-gas plant are a digester tank, an inlet for feeding the kitchen waste, gas holder tank, an outlet for the digested slurry and the gas delivery system for taking out and utilizing the produced gas.

This project is also useful for students to have a hands-on learning experience in constructing a Mini Bio-Gas Plant, using locally available material.

Material Required:

1. Empty PVC can 50 ltrs capacity: 1 No. (to be used as Digester Tank)
2. Empty PVC can 40 ltrs capacity: 1 no. (to be used as Gas Holder Tank) (Make sure the smaller can fits inside larger one and moves freely)
3. 64 mm dia pvc pipe: about 40 cm long (to be used for feeding waste material)
4. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 50 cm long (fixed inside gas holder tank as a guide pipe)
5. 25 mm dia pvc pipe: about 75 cm long (fixed inside the digester tank as a guide pipe)
6. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 25 cm long (fixed on digester tank to act as outlet for digested slurry)
7. M-seal or any water-proof adeshive
8. Gas outlet system: Please see Step 4 below for required materials and construction

Tools required

Do not require many tools here. A hack saw blade for cutting the cans & pipes and a sharp knife for cutting holes on the cans are all the tools we need.

Additional accessories

A single burner bio-gas stove or a Bunsen Burner used in school laboratories
 
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Step 1:

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Bought this 50 ltrs capacity PVC can, which will act as the digester unit and removed the top portion of the can, by cutting it with a hack saw blade:

Step 2:

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The smaller white can, which will act as the gas holder fits inside the red one. Here, again removed the top of the white can, also with the help of a hack saw blade:

Step 3:

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64 mm, 32 mm and 25 mm dia PVC pipes which  will be used for feeding the kitchen waste, guide pipe for the gas holder and guide pipe fixed with the digestion chamber respectively. A small piece of 32 mm dia pipe will be used as outlet for the slurry:

Step 4:

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  1. items required for the gas delivery system: got these items from a hardware store

1. Ball valve : one no ( to adjust the gas flow)
2. 'T' joint : one no ( to connect the gas holder and the ball valve)
3. Cap to block one end of 'T' joint : one no
4. Coupling or Adapter : one no (to connect vertical end of 'T' in to the gas collector)
5. Nipple: one no (added to the coupling in to the gas collector)
6. Gas pipe (flexible) : two meters
7. Barb : one no (fitted with the gas pipe, to join with the Ball valve)
8. Clip : one no (used for crimping the barb with the gas pipe and make it leak-proof)
9. Teflon tape : one roll (used as thread tape in all joints)

Step 5:

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Here I have marked the cuts to be made in the bottom of the gas collection tank. The smaller hole on the left for gas delivery system, center hole for fixing the 32 mm guide pipe and 64 mm hole for fixing the waste feeding pipe on the right side. Made these holes with the help of a sharp knife and hack saw blade.

The next image is Inside of the gas holder showing the 32 mm guide pipe (center) and the 64 mm feeding pipe fixed with M-seal

Step 6:

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Top view of the gas holder showing the feeding pipe, central guide pipe and the gas delivery system: I have closed the feeding pipe withe an old lid  (red one). This will facilitate opening the feed pipe only during feeding the system.

Step 7:

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Digestion tank fitted with the central guide pipe and the outlet pipe for the slurry:

Step 8:

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Completed unit. I have removed the gas pipe, so that the joints will get cured without any stress:

Wait for a day or two before feeding the system, allowing all joints to get cured and become leak-proof.

Initially, cow-dung mixed with water will be fed in to the system, which will start the gas formation process. Subsequently, food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste will be diluted with water and used to feed the system. The gas holder will rise along the guide pipes based on the amount of gas produced. We can add some weight on top of the gas holder to increase the gas pressure. When we feed the system, the excess digested slurry will fall out through the outlet pipe, which can be collected, diluted and used as organic manure.

Initial production of gas will consist of oxygen, methane, carbon di oxide and some other gases and will not burn. These gases can be released to the atmosphere by opening the ball valve at least three / four times.

Subsequent gas will consist of about 70 to 80 percent methane and the rest carbon di oxide, which can be used in a single bio-gas burning stove or a Bunsen burner.

Total cost of this proto-type system is about one thousand Indian Rupees (about 20 dollars)

This is a basic prototype of a Bio-gas system using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste to produce gas. An one thousand litre capacity Digestion tank will be sufficient for a small household for daily cooking purpose. The bigger commercial models provide a water seal between the digestion tank and gas holder tank.

You can get further information on kitchen waste based mini Bio-gas plant at the following links:

http://e-biogas.blogspot.in/

http://www.samuchit.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8&Itemid=10

Step 9:

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Charged the digester tank with cow dung diluted with water. Placed the gas holder tank and left it for two three days. The cow dung slurry started the process of gas forming.

Gas formation started and the gas holder tank gets lifted up. I have placed two bricks on top of the gas holder to get more gas pressure.

Step 10:

Note for students who are doing this as their School Project:

1. Take guidance from your teacher while using the gas in a stove or Bunsen burner.
2. Collect surplus food and wastage during lunch, dilute and feed the system.
3. Fruit peels, extracted tea powder, waste milk and milk products  can also be used for feeding the system.
4. DO NOT USE eggshells, Onion peels or left-over bones in this system as they will affect the efficient functioning of the system
5. Plant some seedling
6. while feeding, collect the slurry from the outlet, feed the seedlings and watch them grow
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SyedI3yesterday

can i fix outlet in bottom so that slurry get out fast and where solid goes

can you explain scientific facts behind it please

antoniraj (author)  SyedI322 hours ago
If you fix your outlet at the bottom, you will drain out the entire tank. Moreover the digested slurry gets lighter and raises up to the surface whereas the undigested particles stay at the bottom
teshnat2 days ago
Sir I am very happy to say that my biogas is a burnabol but they have one reason after a few second fire is stopped sir tell me what can I do more
antoniraj (author)  teshnat22 hours ago
Add more weight on the tubes to get some pressure. Also make sure no outside air is getting mixed while filling the tubes
teshnatyesterday
sir I am very happy to say that biogas burnabol now but I have one problem after few second fire is stopped
teshnatyesterday
Sir I am very happy to say that my biogas plant now is burnable but I have small kind of problem after a few second a fire is stopped tell me sir what can do more
beruchan7 days ago

Hi Sir I would like to make a mini biogas plant for home use but there is little cow dung available. Can I use little cow dung and feed the system vegetables or do I need to feed the system cow dung again? Thank you sir.

antoniraj (author)  beruchan4 days ago
You need to feed cow dung during starting only. Afterwards you can use kitchen waste and all types of garden weeds. No need to feed cow dung afterwards. If it is available you can use cow dung along with other wastes
Thank you for the help sir.
ShwetaK27 days ago
antoniraj (author)  ShwetaK25 days ago
I could not see any comments here, it is blank
leohood5 days ago

ok sir, but will slurry be able to come out from this small space?

leohood6 days ago

sir, i have two containers, and the difference in there dia is 1cm only so they fit accurately leaving 5mm space on both side. so is it ok to use them?

antoniraj (author)  leohood6 days ago
The difference is very small. You can use them but make sure the gas tank does not get strangled with the digester tank, mostly during using the gas. The gas tank may raise up when the gas is produced but has problem when utilizing the gas to get down. You can try with about 40 to 50 kg of weight on top of gas tank to get more pressure. If you find the gas is not burning properly then add more weight
NripendraS7 days ago
ShwetaK27 days ago
teshnat10 days ago
Sir I have put it some weight on tube but biogas is not burnable I check the biogas from the direct valve see this picture and i put in some kitchen waste I don't know that what can I do
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antoniraj (author)  teshnat10 days ago
Don't try like this... there are chances of the gas exploding and causing injury.

How do you drain out the slurry from the drum..? Is there any chance of outside air getting mixed with biogas through the inlet or outlet ? Check them first
teshnat11 days ago
Sir you have bio gas stove pictures please send me pz
IMG_20150620_000559.jpgIMG_20150620_000613.jpg
antoniraj (author)  teshnat11 days ago
Put some weight on the tubes to get more pressure. Here are the pictures of Biogas stove. Do not worry, your biogas will burn
001.JPG002.JPG003.JPG005.JPG006.JPG
teshnat11 days ago
Sir you have bio gas stove pictures please send me pz
teshnat11 days ago
this is my biogas plant it'not a burnabol what can I do for this help me it's a be flammable
IMG_20150620_000559.jpgIMG_20150620_000613.jpg
teshnat12 days ago
sir I will disappointed becaus After a week gas tube filled with biogas, but this gas not burnable please tell me in detail what can I fo for this.the biogas will be flammable
antoniraj (author)  teshnat12 days ago

Don't worry, your biogas will burn. Keep some weight on the tube to get more pressure and use a Biogas stove

teshnat12 days ago
release from the ball valveI 4or5 time but biogas is not flammable
antoniraj (author)  teshnat12 days ago

what type of burner or stove you are using ? Biogas will not burn in normal stove used for LPG. You have to use a special stove made for burning Biogas or a Bunsen burner used in laboratories.

teshnat12 days ago
release from the ball valveI 4or5 time but biogas is not flammable
teshnat13 days ago
actually sir I will store the gas in car tyres tube its can be worked how many time oxygen gas carbon dioxide gaso open from ball valveb a day and how many cow waste to put in the drum 220 leaders please tell me in details
antoniraj (author)  teshnat12 days ago
Use about 1 to 1.5 kilogram of waste in your 220 liter drum per day. You can store the gas in car tyre tubes with proper arrangement for connecting the gas pipe line from the plant
teshnat14 days ago
sir I will make biogas in drum there's not a burning why please reply me
antoniraj (author)  teshnat14 days ago
the gas initially produced will not burn as it is mixed with lot of impurities. Release the gas three to four times from the gas holder then you will get burnable gas.

Also put some weight on top of the gas holder. Methane is lighter than air. Putting some weight on top will increase the gas pressure
Hi I want to make this plant at my home daily usage so please give me to produce more biogas formula for big size tank and how to tilt center pip line in this red tank you mentioned by the picture

Please send the information for my mail I'd n.victorharish@gmail.com
antoniraj (author)  victorharish15 days ago
please go through the attached files sent to your mail
Hi I want to make this plant at my home daily usage so please give me to produce more biogas formula for big size tank and how to tilt center pip line in this red tank you mentioned by the picture

Please send the information for my mail I'd n.victorharish@gmail.com
Hi I want to make this plant at my home daily usage so please give me to produce more biogas formula for big size tank and how to tilt center pip line in this red tank you mentioned by the picture
Dear sir
I want to try to see if i can make at home. Can you please send files to my email kuchibhotla.ramakrishna@gmail.com
Thanks
Ramakrishna
antoniraj (author)  RamakrishnaK16 days ago
please see attached file sent to your mail
DiomedesS21 days ago

por favor enviame el archivo de diseño para una feria de ciencias en mi colegio

Diomix29@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  DiomedesS21 days ago
Please see attached file send to your mail

Por favor, ver archivo adjunto enviar a su correo
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