Instructables

Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste

FeaturedContest WinnerContest Winner
Picture of Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste
011.jpg
I have been searching for some method of using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste efficiently, and came across information on producing bio-gas from organic waste.

The bio-gas produced from food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste, consisting of methane and a little amount of carbon di oxide is an alternative fuel for cooking gas (LPG). Also, the waste materials can be disposed off efficiently without any odor or flies and the digested slurry from the bio-gas unit can be used as an organic manure in the garden.

Components of the Bio-gas Plant

The major components of the bio-gas plant are a digester tank, an inlet for feeding the kitchen waste, gas holder tank, an outlet for the digested slurry and the gas delivery system for taking out and utilizing the produced gas.

This project is also useful for students to have a hands-on learning experience in constructing a Mini Bio-Gas Plant, using locally available material.

Material Required:

1. Empty PVC can 50 ltrs capacity: 1 No. (to be used as Digester Tank)
2. Empty PVC can 40 ltrs capacity: 1 no. (to be used as Gas Holder Tank) (Make sure the smaller can fits inside larger one and moves freely)
3. 64 mm dia pvc pipe: about 40 cm long (to be used for feeding waste material)
4. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 50 cm long (fixed inside gas holder tank as a guide pipe)
5. 25 mm dia pvc pipe: about 75 cm long (fixed inside the digester tank as a guide pipe)
6. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 25 cm long (fixed on digester tank to act as outlet for digested slurry)
7. M-seal or any water-proof adeshive
8. Gas outlet system: Please see Step 4 below for required materials and construction

Tools required

Do not require many tools here. A hack saw blade for cutting the cans & pipes and a sharp knife for cutting holes on the cans are all the tools we need.

Additional accessories

A single burner bio-gas stove or a Bunsen Burner used in school laboratories
 
Remove these adsRemove these ads by Signing Up

Step 1:

Picture of
002.jpg
Bought this 50 ltrs capacity PVC can, which will act as the digester unit and removed the top portion of the can, by cutting it with a hack saw blade:

Step 2:

Picture of
004.jpg
The smaller white can, which will act as the gas holder fits inside the red one. Here, again removed the top of the white can, also with the help of a hack saw blade:

Step 3:

Picture of
64 mm, 32 mm and 25 mm dia PVC pipes which  will be used for feeding the kitchen waste, guide pipe for the gas holder and guide pipe fixed with the digestion chamber respectively. A small piece of 32 mm dia pipe will be used as outlet for the slurry:

Step 4:

Picture of
  1. items required for the gas delivery system: got these items from a hardware store

1. Ball valve : one no ( to adjust the gas flow)
2. 'T' joint : one no ( to connect the gas holder and the ball valve)
3. Cap to block one end of 'T' joint : one no
4. Coupling or Adapter : one no (to connect vertical end of 'T' in to the gas collector)
5. Nipple: one no (added to the coupling in to the gas collector)
6. Gas pipe (flexible) : two meters
7. Barb : one no (fitted with the gas pipe, to join with the Ball valve)
8. Clip : one no (used for crimping the barb with the gas pipe and make it leak-proof)
9. Teflon tape : one roll (used as thread tape in all joints)

Step 5:

Picture of
009.jpg
Here I have marked the cuts to be made in the bottom of the gas collection tank. The smaller hole on the left for gas delivery system, center hole for fixing the 32 mm guide pipe and 64 mm hole for fixing the waste feeding pipe on the right side. Made these holes with the help of a sharp knife and hack saw blade.

The next image is Inside of the gas holder showing the 32 mm guide pipe (center) and the 64 mm feeding pipe fixed with M-seal

Step 6:

Picture of
Top view of the gas holder showing the feeding pipe, central guide pipe and the gas delivery system: I have closed the feeding pipe withe an old lid  (red one). This will facilitate opening the feed pipe only during feeding the system.

Step 7:

Picture of
Digestion tank fitted with the central guide pipe and the outlet pipe for the slurry:

Step 8:

Picture of
Completed unit. I have removed the gas pipe, so that the joints will get cured without any stress:

Wait for a day or two before feeding the system, allowing all joints to get cured and become leak-proof.

Initially, cow-dung mixed with water will be fed in to the system, which will start the gas formation process. Subsequently, food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste will be diluted with water and used to feed the system. The gas holder will rise along the guide pipes based on the amount of gas produced. We can add some weight on top of the gas holder to increase the gas pressure. When we feed the system, the excess digested slurry will fall out through the outlet pipe, which can be collected, diluted and used as organic manure.

Initial production of gas will consist of oxygen, methane, carbon di oxide and some other gases and will not burn. These gases can be released to the atmosphere by opening the ball valve at least three / four times.

Subsequent gas will consist of about 70 to 80 percent methane and the rest carbon di oxide, which can be used in a single bio-gas burning stove or a Bunsen burner.

Total cost of this proto-type system is about one thousand Indian Rupees (about 20 dollars)

This is a basic prototype of a Bio-gas system using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste to produce gas. An one thousand litre capacity Digestion tank will be sufficient for a small household for daily cooking purpose. The bigger commercial models provide a water seal between the digestion tank and gas holder tank.

You can get further information on kitchen waste based mini Bio-gas plant at the following links:

http://e-biogas.blogspot.in/

http://www.samuchit.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8&Itemid=10

Step 9:

Picture of
IMG_3169.JPG
Charged the digester tank with cow dung diluted with water. Placed the gas holder tank and left it for two three days. The cow dung slurry started the process of gas forming.

Gas formation started and the gas holder tank gets lifted up. I have placed two bricks on top of the gas holder to get more gas pressure.

Step 10:

Note for students who are doing this as their School Project:

1. Take guidance from your teacher while using the gas in a stove or Bunsen burner.
2. Collect surplus food and wastage during lunch, dilute and feed the system.
3. Fruit peels, extracted tea powder, waste milk and milk products  can also be used for feeding the system.
4. DO NOT USE eggshells, Onion peels or left-over bones in this system as they will affect the efficient functioning of the system
5. Plant some seedling
6. while feeding, collect the slurry from the outlet, feed the seedlings and watch them grow
1-40 of 565Next »

hello sir your information is easy to understand but it would be too easy for me if ican get more information about bio gas my email id is pranavpatki2@gmail.com

shafeek0704 days ago

please send the full details of this plant for my study!!

this is my mail id shafeek070@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  shafeek07010 hours ago
Please see attached files sent to you for more details
amitkham10 hours ago

I thnk its a great idea. Sir, Pls send the related files at khamesra.amit@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  amitkham10 hours ago
Please see attached files sent to you for more details
kali191 month ago

thinking of making one at my home can i get the detailed documentation thanks

antoniraj (author)  kali191 month ago
please give me your mail id

prashanth_95@yahoo.com

send me asap plzzz

antoniraj (author)  pchandran16 days ago

Please see attached files sent to you for more info on biogas

weche9 days ago
kindly send me files on the giude to elkimwa@gmail.com, great stuff
antoniraj (author)  weche6 days ago

Please see attached files sent to you for more info on biogas

whethher the outlet pipe should be closed or not

please reply to sathishindia001@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  sathishindia00116 days ago
there is no need... if you want you can close it

whethher the outlet pipe should be closed or not

please reply to sathishindia001@gmail.com

whethher the outlet pipe should be closed or not

please reply to sathishindia001@gmail.com

whethher the outlet pipe should be closed or not

please reply to sathishindia001@gmail.com

whethher the outlet pipe should be closed or not

please reply to sathishindia001@gmail.com

whethher the outlet pipe should be closed or not

please reply to sathishindia001@gmail.com

whethher the outlet pipe should be closed or not

please reply to sathishindia001@gmail.com

whethher the outlet pipe should be closed or not

please reply to sathishindia001@gmail.com

whethher the outlet pipe should be closed or not

please reply to sathishindia001@gmail.com

whethher the outlet pipe should be closed or not

please reply to sathishindia001@gmail.com

whethher the outlet pipe should be closed or not

please reply to sathishindia001@gmail.com

whethher the outlet pipe should be closed or not

please reply to sathishindia001@gmail.com

pranan21 days ago

Good work request for more details. Please mail to itissix.6@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  pranan17 days ago
please see attached files sent to you
pillachetan19 days ago

Sir, thank you for shairing the great idia .

please send me the files and ppts regarding biogas plant. my email id is sajudheen27@@gmail.com. thank You.

antoniraj (author)  pillachetan17 days ago
please see attached files sent to your mail id

Pls send all details on my Mail ID satishkhabiya2007@rediffmail.com

antoniraj (author)  satishkhabiya1 month ago
please see files sent to your mail

Hi Sir, Thank you so much for publishing GoGreen Home Made so easy.

Please do share the details ; my eamil id : rahulgpowai@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  rahulgpowai25 days ago

Please see attached files sent to you for more information

dukelife27 days ago

Hi I would also like more info sent to my email dukelife@hotmail.com

antoniraj (author)  dukelife25 days ago
Please see attached files sent to you for more information
roopak9426 days ago

sir, please provide some more detailed information. my email id : roopak94@yahoo.co.in

antoniraj (author)  roopak9425 days ago
Please see attached files sent to you for more information

Dear Sir,

I would like more information about this. If you don't mind, kindly send it to me via

johnson.hotline@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  ajitha johnson28 days ago
Please see attached files sent to your mail for more information on Bio-gas
pwaweru29 days ago

Hi, I would like more information about this. If you don't mind, kindly send it to me via pwaweru17@yahoo.com.

Tx

antoniraj (author)  pwaweru28 days ago
Please see attached files sent to your mail id
1-40 of 565Next »