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Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste

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Picture of Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste
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I have been searching for some method of using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste efficiently, and came across information on producing bio-gas from organic waste.

The bio-gas produced from food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste, consisting of methane and a little amount of carbon di oxide is an alternative fuel for cooking gas (LPG). Also, the waste materials can be disposed off efficiently without any odor or flies and the digested slurry from the bio-gas unit can be used as an organic manure in the garden.

Components of the Bio-gas Plant

The major components of the bio-gas plant are a digester tank, an inlet for feeding the kitchen waste, gas holder tank, an outlet for the digested slurry and the gas delivery system for taking out and utilizing the produced gas.

This project is also useful for students to have a hands-on learning experience in constructing a Mini Bio-Gas Plant, using locally available material.

Material Required:

1. Empty PVC can 50 ltrs capacity: 1 No. (to be used as Digester Tank)
2. Empty PVC can 40 ltrs capacity: 1 no. (to be used as Gas Holder Tank) (Make sure the smaller can fits inside larger one and moves freely)
3. 64 mm dia pvc pipe: about 40 cm long (to be used for feeding waste material)
4. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 50 cm long (fixed inside gas holder tank as a guide pipe)
5. 25 mm dia pvc pipe: about 75 cm long (fixed inside the digester tank as a guide pipe)
6. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 25 cm long (fixed on digester tank to act as outlet for digested slurry)
7. M-seal or any water-proof adeshive
8. Gas outlet system: Please see Step 4 below for required materials and construction

Tools required

Do not require many tools here. A hack saw blade for cutting the cans & pipes and a sharp knife for cutting holes on the cans are all the tools we need.

Additional accessories

A single burner bio-gas stove or a Bunsen Burner used in school laboratories
 
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Step 1:

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Bought this 50 ltrs capacity PVC can, which will act as the digester unit and removed the top portion of the can, by cutting it with a hack saw blade:

Step 2:

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The smaller white can, which will act as the gas holder fits inside the red one. Here, again removed the top of the white can, also with the help of a hack saw blade:

Step 3:

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64 mm, 32 mm and 25 mm dia PVC pipes which  will be used for feeding the kitchen waste, guide pipe for the gas holder and guide pipe fixed with the digestion chamber respectively. A small piece of 32 mm dia pipe will be used as outlet for the slurry:

Step 4:

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  1. items required for the gas delivery system: got these items from a hardware store

1. Ball valve : one no ( to adjust the gas flow)
2. 'T' joint : one no ( to connect the gas holder and the ball valve)
3. Cap to block one end of 'T' joint : one no
4. Coupling or Adapter : one no (to connect vertical end of 'T' in to the gas collector)
5. Nipple: one no (added to the coupling in to the gas collector)
6. Gas pipe (flexible) : two meters
7. Barb : one no (fitted with the gas pipe, to join with the Ball valve)
8. Clip : one no (used for crimping the barb with the gas pipe and make it leak-proof)
9. Teflon tape : one roll (used as thread tape in all joints)

Step 5:

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Here I have marked the cuts to be made in the bottom of the gas collection tank. The smaller hole on the left for gas delivery system, center hole for fixing the 32 mm guide pipe and 64 mm hole for fixing the waste feeding pipe on the right side. Made these holes with the help of a sharp knife and hack saw blade.

The next image is Inside of the gas holder showing the 32 mm guide pipe (center) and the 64 mm feeding pipe fixed with M-seal

Step 6:

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Top view of the gas holder showing the feeding pipe, central guide pipe and the gas delivery system: I have closed the feeding pipe withe an old lid  (red one). This will facilitate opening the feed pipe only during feeding the system.

Step 7:

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Digestion tank fitted with the central guide pipe and the outlet pipe for the slurry:

Step 8:

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Completed unit. I have removed the gas pipe, so that the joints will get cured without any stress:

Wait for a day or two before feeding the system, allowing all joints to get cured and become leak-proof.

Initially, cow-dung mixed with water will be fed in to the system, which will start the gas formation process. Subsequently, food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste will be diluted with water and used to feed the system. The gas holder will rise along the guide pipes based on the amount of gas produced. We can add some weight on top of the gas holder to increase the gas pressure. When we feed the system, the excess digested slurry will fall out through the outlet pipe, which can be collected, diluted and used as organic manure.

Initial production of gas will consist of oxygen, methane, carbon di oxide and some other gases and will not burn. These gases can be released to the atmosphere by opening the ball valve at least three / four times.

Subsequent gas will consist of about 70 to 80 percent methane and the rest carbon di oxide, which can be used in a single bio-gas burning stove or a Bunsen burner.

Total cost of this proto-type system is about one thousand Indian Rupees (about 20 dollars)

This is a basic prototype of a Bio-gas system using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste to produce gas. An one thousand litre capacity Digestion tank will be sufficient for a small household for daily cooking purpose. The bigger commercial models provide a water seal between the digestion tank and gas holder tank.

You can get further information on kitchen waste based mini Bio-gas plant at the following links:

http://e-biogas.blogspot.in/

http://www.samuchit.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8&Itemid=10

Step 9:

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Charged the digester tank with cow dung diluted with water. Placed the gas holder tank and left it for two three days. The cow dung slurry started the process of gas forming.

Gas formation started and the gas holder tank gets lifted up. I have placed two bricks on top of the gas holder to get more gas pressure.

Step 10:

Note for students who are doing this as their School Project:

1. Take guidance from your teacher while using the gas in a stove or Bunsen burner.
2. Collect surplus food and wastage during lunch, dilute and feed the system.
3. Fruit peels, extracted tea powder, waste milk and milk products  can also be used for feeding the system.
4. DO NOT USE eggshells, Onion peels or left-over bones in this system as they will affect the efficient functioning of the system
5. Plant some seedling
6. while feeding, collect the slurry from the outlet, feed the seedlings and watch them grow
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hello sir,I gone through your biogas plant using by waste food.i have a hotel in Nashik. I want to set up biogas plant for my hotel.so pls send me details of your project,any consultation. My email ID is:-pradiprohane5@gmail.com.

dear sir, hi how r u can u send me the detail of this project.... i want to made it my email id dauna21@gmail.com

please and i would like detaild of project on my mail thank you p.lonjak@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  philip.lonjak4 days ago
Please go through attached file sent to your mail
kbbajpai4 days ago

Please share complete details for Bio gas plant for approx 20 Cow .. kulbhushanbajpai@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  kbbajpai4 days ago
Please go through attached files sent to your mail. They are construction plans for larger size biogas plant

Sir.. can you send complete details of the project work at prasathkumar88@gmail.com thank u

antoniraj (author)  prasathkumar885 days ago
please see attached file sent to your mail
GAMEH26 days ago

Sir, Pls. mail me the Project details to gamehouse.blr@gmail.com.

antoniraj (author)  GAMEH25 days ago
Please see attached file sent to your mail
Sir.. can you send complete details of the project at todoshieliya@gmail.com
tq.
antoniraj (author)  todoshi.eliya7 days ago
Please see attached file sent to your mail
RkG28 days ago

plzz mail me step by step procedure to set up a plant of bio gas having capacity of approx 50-60 cow or buffs dung.

and also the utilization of bio gas to serve the public easily.

antoniraj (author)  RkG28 days ago
Please see attached files sent to you for more information
RkG28 days ago

mail me at rk.gupta.1331@gmail.com

RkG28 days ago

plzz mail me step by step procedure to set up a plant of bio gas having capacity of approx 50-60 cow or buffs dung.

and also the utilization of bio gas to serve the public easily.

bhuimbar9 days ago

hello sir,

am working project on biogas generation from food and market waste please send me how to increase rate of reaction and also which type of vegetable waste and fruit waste should not be added to digester

my email id is bhuimbar@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  bhuimbar9 days ago
you can use all type of food and vegetable waste. Avoid using onion skin, garlic skin, egg shells, seeds of fruits, wastes containing lots of fiber and bones. You can not just increase the rate of reaction but can achieve constant rate of gas production by proper feeding with respect to the capacity of the plant
arjun6211 days ago

i hav a bio gas plant in my hom for the last 2 , 3 years but now gas is not coming or filling in it can i pls know wat is the prblm and how i can solve it

antoniraj (author)  arjun6211 days ago
Please mention the capacity of Biogas plant and the type & quantity of feed material used per day
pednekarr115 days ago

Hi Antoni,

1.) How much dung needs to be added to start with?

2.) How much dilution is needed?

3.) Should we add dung at regular interval or only to start with?

Rahul

antoniraj (author)  pednekarr115 days ago
To start with you need to fill the digester with diluted cow dung to about one third of its depth. If you can get hold of more cow dung it is good.
Dilute per kilogram (Approximately) with 4 to 5 liters of water. More water no harm.
It is not necessary to add cow dung at regular intervals, but if it is available you can add it.

Thank you, Antoni.

KenB214 days ago

hi antoni, may have a complete details of the project? can you send it to me via email? my email is kenbuenafe@gmail.com , your work is AWESOME. thank you.

antoniraj (author)  KenB213 days ago
please see attached file sent to your mail
KenB2 antoniraj13 days ago

Thank you sir!

Hi, here m sinding d pics...plz let me knw if smthing is wrong with it...thanks
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antoniraj (author)  anjali.yadav.5209015 days ago

you can also go through my other instructable on a medium sized biogas plant for home use here:

http://www.instructables.com/id/Constructing-a-Medium-Sized-Biogas-Plant-Using-Kit/

antoniraj (author)  anjali.yadav.5209015 days ago
good construction for a prototype. you should have fixed the outlet pipe somewhat higher than present position. this would have increased the digester capacity. did the feed pipe (larger one on top) go all the way down ? otherwise gas will escape through that. Also check all the joints with soap water to find any leakage. Methane is lighter than air and it will escape from the container even if there is a small leakage. I hope you have not used chlorinated water for diluting cow dung.

Secondly, this type of small models are for demonstration purpose only. You will not get much gas from this and the pressure from this is insufficient to be used in a biogas stove. This is suitable for a bunsen burner for a few minutes burning only
khaliunb18 days ago

Please send me the building instructions to khaliun83@yahoo.com. Thank you very much

antoniraj (author)  khaliunb17 days ago
please see attached file sent to you

Please can you send me the full details of how you made it. This is my e-mail adarshvaidy96@hotmail.com

antoniraj (author)  vaidyanathan.adarsh19 days ago
Please see attached file sent to you
I hv made it as instructed....but after 15 days...no output....
antoniraj (author)  anjali.yadav.5209020 days ago
If the climate is cold then it may take few more days to produce gas. Check that there is no leakage and also you have not used any chlorinated water. Post a picture if possible
NagaS124 days ago

Please can you send me the full details of how you made it. This is my e-mail dsbeee@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  NagaS124 days ago
Please see attached file sent to your mail
NagaS124 days ago

Please can you send me the full details of how you made it. This is my e-mail dsbeee@gmail.com

NagaS124 days ago

Please can you send me the full details of how you made it. This is my e-mail dsbeee@gmail.com

Please can you send me the full details of how you made it. This is my e-mail kennysonubi@yahoo.com

1-40 of 881Next »