Instructables
loading
loading

Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste

FeaturedContest WinnerContest Winner
Picture of Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste
011.jpg
I have been searching for some method of using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste efficiently, and came across information on producing bio-gas from organic waste.

The bio-gas produced from food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste, consisting of methane and a little amount of carbon di oxide is an alternative fuel for cooking gas (LPG). Also, the waste materials can be disposed off efficiently without any odor or flies and the digested slurry from the bio-gas unit can be used as an organic manure in the garden.

Components of the Bio-gas Plant

The major components of the bio-gas plant are a digester tank, an inlet for feeding the kitchen waste, gas holder tank, an outlet for the digested slurry and the gas delivery system for taking out and utilizing the produced gas.

This project is also useful for students to have a hands-on learning experience in constructing a Mini Bio-Gas Plant, using locally available material.

Material Required:

1. Empty PVC can 50 ltrs capacity: 1 No. (to be used as Digester Tank)
2. Empty PVC can 40 ltrs capacity: 1 no. (to be used as Gas Holder Tank) (Make sure the smaller can fits inside larger one and moves freely)
3. 64 mm dia pvc pipe: about 40 cm long (to be used for feeding waste material)
4. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 50 cm long (fixed inside gas holder tank as a guide pipe)
5. 25 mm dia pvc pipe: about 75 cm long (fixed inside the digester tank as a guide pipe)
6. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 25 cm long (fixed on digester tank to act as outlet for digested slurry)
7. M-seal or any water-proof adeshive
8. Gas outlet system: Please see Step 4 below for required materials and construction

Tools required

Do not require many tools here. A hack saw blade for cutting the cans & pipes and a sharp knife for cutting holes on the cans are all the tools we need.

Additional accessories

A single burner bio-gas stove or a Bunsen Burner used in school laboratories
 
Remove these adsRemove these ads by Signing Up

Step 1:

Picture of
002.jpg
Bought this 50 ltrs capacity PVC can, which will act as the digester unit and removed the top portion of the can, by cutting it with a hack saw blade:

Step 2:

Picture of
004.jpg
The smaller white can, which will act as the gas holder fits inside the red one. Here, again removed the top of the white can, also with the help of a hack saw blade:

Step 3:

Picture of
64 mm, 32 mm and 25 mm dia PVC pipes which  will be used for feeding the kitchen waste, guide pipe for the gas holder and guide pipe fixed with the digestion chamber respectively. A small piece of 32 mm dia pipe will be used as outlet for the slurry:

Step 4:

Picture of
  1. items required for the gas delivery system: got these items from a hardware store

1. Ball valve : one no ( to adjust the gas flow)
2. 'T' joint : one no ( to connect the gas holder and the ball valve)
3. Cap to block one end of 'T' joint : one no
4. Coupling or Adapter : one no (to connect vertical end of 'T' in to the gas collector)
5. Nipple: one no (added to the coupling in to the gas collector)
6. Gas pipe (flexible) : two meters
7. Barb : one no (fitted with the gas pipe, to join with the Ball valve)
8. Clip : one no (used for crimping the barb with the gas pipe and make it leak-proof)
9. Teflon tape : one roll (used as thread tape in all joints)

Step 5:

Picture of
009.jpg
Here I have marked the cuts to be made in the bottom of the gas collection tank. The smaller hole on the left for gas delivery system, center hole for fixing the 32 mm guide pipe and 64 mm hole for fixing the waste feeding pipe on the right side. Made these holes with the help of a sharp knife and hack saw blade.

The next image is Inside of the gas holder showing the 32 mm guide pipe (center) and the 64 mm feeding pipe fixed with M-seal

Step 6:

Picture of
Top view of the gas holder showing the feeding pipe, central guide pipe and the gas delivery system: I have closed the feeding pipe withe an old lid  (red one). This will facilitate opening the feed pipe only during feeding the system.

Step 7:

Picture of
Digestion tank fitted with the central guide pipe and the outlet pipe for the slurry:

Step 8:

Picture of
Completed unit. I have removed the gas pipe, so that the joints will get cured without any stress:

Wait for a day or two before feeding the system, allowing all joints to get cured and become leak-proof.

Initially, cow-dung mixed with water will be fed in to the system, which will start the gas formation process. Subsequently, food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste will be diluted with water and used to feed the system. The gas holder will rise along the guide pipes based on the amount of gas produced. We can add some weight on top of the gas holder to increase the gas pressure. When we feed the system, the excess digested slurry will fall out through the outlet pipe, which can be collected, diluted and used as organic manure.

Initial production of gas will consist of oxygen, methane, carbon di oxide and some other gases and will not burn. These gases can be released to the atmosphere by opening the ball valve at least three / four times.

Subsequent gas will consist of about 70 to 80 percent methane and the rest carbon di oxide, which can be used in a single bio-gas burning stove or a Bunsen burner.

Total cost of this proto-type system is about one thousand Indian Rupees (about 20 dollars)

This is a basic prototype of a Bio-gas system using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste to produce gas. An one thousand litre capacity Digestion tank will be sufficient for a small household for daily cooking purpose. The bigger commercial models provide a water seal between the digestion tank and gas holder tank.

You can get further information on kitchen waste based mini Bio-gas plant at the following links:

http://e-biogas.blogspot.in/

http://www.samuchit.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8&Itemid=10

Step 9:

Picture of
IMG_3169.JPG
Charged the digester tank with cow dung diluted with water. Placed the gas holder tank and left it for two three days. The cow dung slurry started the process of gas forming.

Gas formation started and the gas holder tank gets lifted up. I have placed two bricks on top of the gas holder to get more gas pressure.

Step 10:

Note for students who are doing this as their School Project:

1. Take guidance from your teacher while using the gas in a stove or Bunsen burner.
2. Collect surplus food and wastage during lunch, dilute and feed the system.
3. Fruit peels, extracted tea powder, waste milk and milk products  can also be used for feeding the system.
4. DO NOT USE eggshells, Onion peels or left-over bones in this system as they will affect the efficient functioning of the system
5. Plant some seedling
6. while feeding, collect the slurry from the outlet, feed the seedlings and watch them grow
1-40 of 1095Next »
SandipD22 days ago

sir i wanna do a project in biogas plant in economical expenses, if u can help me....regarding your project

my mail id is meonlysandip@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  SandipD2yesterday
Please see the attached files sent to your mail
KaitlynnM5 days ago

Hi! Could you please send me the instructions? I want to try something for a school experiment! Thank you so much.

antoniraj (author)  KaitlynnM4 days ago
please give me your mail id...

please, i want to understand how the bacteria work in it and in which temperature it should be in?

my email is naira.eldesoky14@stemmaadi.edu.eg

antoniraj (author)  ninna.eldesoky5 days ago

please see attached file sent to your mail on constructing a mini Biogas Plant. If you need further information, please mention your exact requirement like 'For school project" or "For home use"

antoniraj (author)  ninna.eldesoky5 days ago

Please go through my other instructable "Make Energy from Weeds" where I have explained how the bacteria work in Step 1. Here is the direct link...

http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-Energy-From-W...

You can also go through my another instructable on constructing a medium sized Biogas plant here...

http://www.instructables.com/id/Constructing-a-Med...

The best temperature for a biogas plant to operate is 37 deg C (+ or - 2 deg). However in my case I am getting gas in varying temperatures between 20 to 40 Deg C.

yogeshd45 days ago

thank you sir.......

Hi! I am very interested in this for a school project, could you possibly send the instructions to me on emmarturner98@gmail.com?

Thanks in advance

antoniraj (author)  emmar.turner5 days ago

Please see attached file sent to your mail

revron6 days ago

Jonathan Kalinde

Hello sir

What an awesome project would you please send me the instructions at twitter.com @mousekali@twitter.com

thanks in advance

antoniraj (author)  revron5 days ago
Please give a valid email id. Mail sent to you bounced back due to wrong mail id.
revron6 days ago

I am Jonathan

hello sir

could you please send me the instructions to make mini Bio gas using kitchen wastes

I am very interested in your project. Could you send me the details to me at riki63@smistitans.org

antoniraj (author)  riki.motoyama6 days ago
Please see attached file sent to your mail
yogeshd48 days ago

i want to make this biogas reactor for my project. sir can you send me the details in my email id dasyogesh5@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  yogeshd47 days ago
Please see attached file sent to your mail
Greeting, im very intrested on your project... Is it possible for you to send me the details. Im hoping to make this at home.
Thank you sir!
Bravo.maricris@gmail.com
antoniraj (author)  maricris.tria9 days ago
Please see attached file sent to your mail

nilesh.jakher@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  nilesh jakher10 days ago

Please see attached file sent to your mail

Hello sier

Please send me details file in my mail id : kunal@iamkunalshah.com

thanks

antoniraj (author)  iamkunalshah10 days ago

Please see attached file sent to your mail

koghulnkn12 days ago

Dear sir. I want to implement your method.

Please send the complete details to koghulnkn@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  koghulnkn10 days ago

Please see attached file sent to your mail

koghulnkn12 days ago

dear sir. I want to implement your method.

Please send the complete details to koghulnkn@gmail.com

ankitk714 days ago

Hello Sir

Could you please send me details file in my mail id : "ankitkesharwani123@gmail.com".

antoniraj (author)  ankitk714 days ago
please see attached file sent to your mail
psk jack14 days ago
Sir,

I am from Canada,my daughter is planning to do a project on Bio gas in an upcoming sciencefair.Could you please help me by sending more details?and also want to know whether it will work during winer season?
antoniraj (author)  Nazeerkandathil16 days ago
please give me your mail id and I will send more details. You need to keep the slurry warm during winter. In places where you experience severe cold, the whole plant is kept buried to keep it warm. Few people use heat pads also around the digester
Thank you sir

nazeerkoottockal@gmail.com

This is my mailid,she is trying to make a portable type plant for presentation


Sorry,
nazeerkoottickal@gmail.com
Please send to this id
thank you
antoniraj (author)  Nazeerkandathil14 days ago

mail sent to you bounced back. please check correctness or give a valid mail id

antoniraj (author)  Nazeerkandathil15 days ago

she can make the same type as I have posted here. Please see attached file sent to your mail

Could u pls send me the details

antoniraj (author)  suresh.gundoju16 days ago

please give your mail id

suresh.gundoju@gmail.com
1-40 of 1095Next »