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Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste

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Picture of Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste
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I have been searching for some method of using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste efficiently, and came across information on producing bio-gas from organic waste.

The bio-gas produced from food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste, consisting of methane and a little amount of carbon di oxide is an alternative fuel for cooking gas (LPG). Also, the waste materials can be disposed off efficiently without any odor or flies and the digested slurry from the bio-gas unit can be used as an organic manure in the garden.

Components of the Bio-gas Plant

The major components of the bio-gas plant are a digester tank, an inlet for feeding the kitchen waste, gas holder tank, an outlet for the digested slurry and the gas delivery system for taking out and utilizing the produced gas.

This project is also useful for students to have a hands-on learning experience in constructing a Mini Bio-Gas Plant, using locally available material.

Material Required:

1. Empty PVC can 50 ltrs capacity: 1 No. (to be used as Digester Tank)
2. Empty PVC can 40 ltrs capacity: 1 no. (to be used as Gas Holder Tank) (Make sure the smaller can fits inside larger one and moves freely)
3. 64 mm dia pvc pipe: about 40 cm long (to be used for feeding waste material)
4. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 50 cm long (fixed inside gas holder tank as a guide pipe)
5. 25 mm dia pvc pipe: about 75 cm long (fixed inside the digester tank as a guide pipe)
6. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 25 cm long (fixed on digester tank to act as outlet for digested slurry)
7. M-seal or any water-proof adeshive
8. Gas outlet system: Please see Step 4 below for required materials and construction

Tools required

Do not require many tools here. A hack saw blade for cutting the cans & pipes and a sharp knife for cutting holes on the cans are all the tools we need.

Additional accessories

A single burner bio-gas stove or a Bunsen Burner used in school laboratories
 
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Step 1:

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Bought this 50 ltrs capacity PVC can, which will act as the digester unit and removed the top portion of the can, by cutting it with a hack saw blade:

Step 2:

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The smaller white can, which will act as the gas holder fits inside the red one. Here, again removed the top of the white can, also with the help of a hack saw blade:

Step 3:

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64 mm, 32 mm and 25 mm dia PVC pipes which  will be used for feeding the kitchen waste, guide pipe for the gas holder and guide pipe fixed with the digestion chamber respectively. A small piece of 32 mm dia pipe will be used as outlet for the slurry:

Step 4:

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  1. items required for the gas delivery system: got these items from a hardware store

1. Ball valve : one no ( to adjust the gas flow)
2. 'T' joint : one no ( to connect the gas holder and the ball valve)
3. Cap to block one end of 'T' joint : one no
4. Coupling or Adapter : one no (to connect vertical end of 'T' in to the gas collector)
5. Nipple: one no (added to the coupling in to the gas collector)
6. Gas pipe (flexible) : two meters
7. Barb : one no (fitted with the gas pipe, to join with the Ball valve)
8. Clip : one no (used for crimping the barb with the gas pipe and make it leak-proof)
9. Teflon tape : one roll (used as thread tape in all joints)

Step 5:

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Here I have marked the cuts to be made in the bottom of the gas collection tank. The smaller hole on the left for gas delivery system, center hole for fixing the 32 mm guide pipe and 64 mm hole for fixing the waste feeding pipe on the right side. Made these holes with the help of a sharp knife and hack saw blade.

The next image is Inside of the gas holder showing the 32 mm guide pipe (center) and the 64 mm feeding pipe fixed with M-seal

Step 6:

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Top view of the gas holder showing the feeding pipe, central guide pipe and the gas delivery system: I have closed the feeding pipe withe an old lid  (red one). This will facilitate opening the feed pipe only during feeding the system.

Step 7:

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Digestion tank fitted with the central guide pipe and the outlet pipe for the slurry:

Step 8:

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Completed unit. I have removed the gas pipe, so that the joints will get cured without any stress:

Wait for a day or two before feeding the system, allowing all joints to get cured and become leak-proof.

Initially, cow-dung mixed with water will be fed in to the system, which will start the gas formation process. Subsequently, food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste will be diluted with water and used to feed the system. The gas holder will rise along the guide pipes based on the amount of gas produced. We can add some weight on top of the gas holder to increase the gas pressure. When we feed the system, the excess digested slurry will fall out through the outlet pipe, which can be collected, diluted and used as organic manure.

Initial production of gas will consist of oxygen, methane, carbon di oxide and some other gases and will not burn. These gases can be released to the atmosphere by opening the ball valve at least three / four times.

Subsequent gas will consist of about 70 to 80 percent methane and the rest carbon di oxide, which can be used in a single bio-gas burning stove or a Bunsen burner.

Total cost of this proto-type system is about one thousand Indian Rupees (about 20 dollars)

This is a basic prototype of a Bio-gas system using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste to produce gas. An one thousand litre capacity Digestion tank will be sufficient for a small household for daily cooking purpose. The bigger commercial models provide a water seal between the digestion tank and gas holder tank.

You can get further information on kitchen waste based mini Bio-gas plant at the following links:

http://e-biogas.blogspot.in/

http://www.samuchit.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8&Itemid=10

Step 9:

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Charged the digester tank with cow dung diluted with water. Placed the gas holder tank and left it for two three days. The cow dung slurry started the process of gas forming.

Gas formation started and the gas holder tank gets lifted up. I have placed two bricks on top of the gas holder to get more gas pressure.

Step 10:

Note for students who are doing this as their School Project:

1. Take guidance from your teacher while using the gas in a stove or Bunsen burner.
2. Collect surplus food and wastage during lunch, dilute and feed the system.
3. Fruit peels, extracted tea powder, waste milk and milk products  can also be used for feeding the system.
4. DO NOT USE eggshells, Onion peels or left-over bones in this system as they will affect the efficient functioning of the system
5. Plant some seedling
6. while feeding, collect the slurry from the outlet, feed the seedlings and watch them grow
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Could you send me more information please.

guitarfreak2637@yahoo.com

Thanks

JamesT3yesterday

I am an employee of a waste water treatment company in sharjah. could you send me details on this plant to james.thomas@environment.ae

antoniraj (author)  JamesT3yesterday
Please see files sent to your mail
ggatz1yesterday

hello.

Could you please sent me more info about this. It is really ineresting. Please provide me with the details

antoniraj (author)  ggatz1yesterday
Please give me your mail id
DHRUVSOLAR2 days ago

SIR I AM INTERESTED TO MAKE YOUR PROJECT FOR MY DAILY GAS USE. AS I LIVE IN A CITY SO COW DONG IS NOT AVAILABLE CAN I MAKE THE GAS USEING ONLY KITCHEN & FOOD WEST? IS IT POSSIBLE? AND CAN I GATE 1/2 KG LPG PER DAY IF YES THEN HOW MANY WEST I NEED PER DAY? AND WHAT CHANGES I HAVE TO MADE IN ABOVE SYSTEM

HOPING REPLY FROM YOUR END

MAIL ID - info.saiflex@gmail.com

(removed by author or community request)
antoniraj (author)  trinayan.gogoi2 days ago
Please go through the attached files sent to you for more information on biogas
KapilB3 days ago

sir iam from amritsar punjab...its a village area...i want to help myself and my village people too by making bio gas plant at home...so i need set by step guideline and instructions on call or on mail so please help me.

regards

kapil - 8968519151 - biala.kapil@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  KapilB2 days ago
Please go through the attached files sent to your mail id for more information on biogas
knyaks6 days ago

hi

can you please send me the details through keithnyaks@gmail.com. I wanna use it for a fuel technology module@my university.

Regards

antoniraj (author)  knyaks4 days ago
Please see attached sent to you for more information.

sir, can you send me the whole process of gobar gas formation and

the quantity of gas produced in 100 kg of gobar and other wastes

and the list of gas consumers at large scale around gwalior

at neerajmits16@gmail.com

thank you

Neeraj Sharma

Please see attached files sent to you for more information. You will get about 200 grams to 250 grams of Biogas from one kilogram of waste. I do not have any details with me regarding list of gas consumers around Gwalior

Sir

can you please send me the details through singh_inderpalkk@yahoo.com. I wanna use it for a science project in my school.

Regards

Inderpal Singh

please go through the files sent to your mail id and come back if you have any doubts

Sir

can you please send me the details through singh_inderpalkk@yahoo.com. I wanna use it for a science project in my school.

Regards

Inderpal Singh

Sir

can you please send me the details through singh_inderpalkk@yahoo.com. I wanna use it for a science project in my school.

Regards

Inderpal Singh

Sir

can you please send me the details through singh_inderpalkk@yahoo.com. I wanna use it for a science project in my school.

Regards

Inderpal Singh

Sir

can you please send me the details through singh_inderpalkk@yahoo.com. I wanna use it for a science project in my school.

Regards

Inderpal Singh

Sir,,

I am really interested in this system, I wish to apply it in my native place, and it can reduce the costs to LPG and will be a good step for families.

Please send me the details to my mail id so that we can plan to implement in our area for whole families. my mail id is sujis1985@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  sujiths.suresh.77 days ago
Please go through attached files sent to you for more information
dsdansan09211 days ago

may you forward details to me too please? dsdansan092@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  dsdansan09211 days ago
Please see attached files sent to you for more details

Can you pls forward me the how-to-do to my mail mangala_anand@yahoo.com. Thanks sir in advance.

antoniraj (author)  asundararajan13 days ago
Please see attached files sent to you
JohnsonA14 days ago

Sir, after going through your details of bio-gas plant I have some doubts to clear with you:

1-As the Gas Holder tank is small in dia which goes into the Gas Digester tank, will it not be loosing/escaping the gas produced from the periphery of gap between digester tank and holder tank? (thought-why to lose on even that much gas however minuscule it may be! and thinking why it should be like that, anyway we can control the filling up of the Gas Digester tank to that of half level)

2-Can't we use / make / construct an air tight container tank for Gas Digester and another one separately as Gas Holder tank? If this is possible then kindly send me your idea of constructing it, if possible along with images to my email id: janthony769@gmail.com

3-I find all models of the bio-gas Digester tanks have one in-let and one out-let and on through the out-let most of them (images & videos) have shown only a waterish liquid coming out of this but there is no mention of how the Slurry -the after product- is removed out. Could you please elaborate on this point further?

My email id: janthony769@gmail.com

Thank You.

antoniraj (author)  JohnsonA14 days ago
Hi JohnsonA,

1. Though some gas will escape through the gap between digester tank and gas holder tank, it is very minimal and will not affect the functioning of the system. If you want to trap this escaping gas also, you need to provide a water seal in which the gas holder tank will move up and down. Please refer the pic below on how to provide a water seal:

2. You can construct an air tight container with a fixed dome in which the top portion will act as gas holder and the digested slurry will drained out due to the gas pressure.

3. The liquid thing oozing out of the outlet is the digested slurry. The solid waste is digested by the microorganisms and turn them into tiny bits. The fully digested particles become lighter and rise up to the surface. When you add more waste, the digested particles at the top gets drained out along with water.

Please heck your mail for more details
Water seal.jpg
This is it!
Thank you Sir for being so fast. I really appreciate your write ups and illustrations.

Thank You once again...

yo.rj00714 days ago

I would like to prepare a prototype for my household requirement.

Could you please share me the step by step procedure of this project to my mail id

bboyrexmec11@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  yo.rj00714 days ago
Please see attached files sent to your mail
antoniraj (author)  antoniraj14 days ago
your mail id seems to be wrong.. please provide a working mail id
Nida Eman15 days ago

Dear Sir,

I am in 11th grade PCMB right now, and i'm really interested in applying this mechanism in my school - DPS Bangalore South. My and a group of my classmates are also making a paper presentation for the Indian Institute Of Science, along with a working model.

Could you please send me further details about this project on my email id : nida.eman19@yahoo.com

It would be great help if you could reply to this as soon as you receive it, because, we're on a time limit......

Thank you.

antoniraj (author)  Nida Eman14 days ago
Please see files sent to your mail id

Hi Sir,

I am very lucky in seeing the article posted by you. i am very much impressed and interested in doing the project.

Could you please share me the step by step procedure of this project to my mail id reddam.ramesh@gmail.com.

Thanking you sir...

antoniraj (author)  ramesh.reddam15 days ago
Please go through the files sent to your mail id
santu138118 days ago

Sir, Thanks for this article. I would like to try this at home. Can you please provide me the details. My id is "100santosh@gmail.com"

Thanks in advance.

antoniraj (author)  santu138117 days ago
Please see files sent to your mail id
MevittaJ18 days ago

Sir, could you please tell me the materials used for gas outlet and how to fix it?

Please reply fast.

antoniraj (author)  MevittaJ17 days ago
You can see in Step 4 items I have used for the gas outlet. The required items are as below:

1. Ball valve : one no ( to adjust the gas flow)
2. 'T' joint : one no ( to connect the gas holder and the ball valve)
3. Cap to block one end of 'T' joint : one no
4. Coupling or Adapter : one no (to connect vertical end of 'T' in to the gas collector)
5. Nipple: one no (added to the coupling in to the gas collector)
6. Gas pipe (flexible) : two meters
7. Barb : one no (fitted with the gas pipe, to join with the Ball valve)
8. Clip : one no (used for crimping the barb with the gas pipe and make it leak-proof)
9. Teflon tape : one roll (used as thread tape in all joints)

You can get them from hardware stores selling LPG related products. If you are a student and want to make for demonstration at school, you can use materials used in drip irrigation system. All of the items other than gas pipe are threaded so there is no problem fixing them. I have used teflon tape over the threads to prevent any leakage. You can use M-seal or Araldite to fix them permanently, but you have to leave the joints to cure for about 24 hours
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