Instructables

Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste

FeaturedContest WinnerContest Winner
Picture of Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste
011.jpg
I have been searching for some method of using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste efficiently, and came across information on producing bio-gas from organic waste.

The bio-gas produced from food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste, consisting of methane and a little amount of carbon di oxide is an alternative fuel for cooking gas (LPG). Also, the waste materials can be disposed off efficiently without any odor or flies and the digested slurry from the bio-gas unit can be used as an organic manure in the garden.

Components of the Bio-gas Plant

The major components of the bio-gas plant are a digester tank, an inlet for feeding the kitchen waste, gas holder tank, an outlet for the digested slurry and the gas delivery system for taking out and utilizing the produced gas.

This project is also useful for students to have a hands-on learning experience in constructing a Mini Bio-Gas Plant, using locally available material.

Material Required:

1. Empty PVC can 50 ltrs capacity: 1 No. (to be used as Digester Tank)
2. Empty PVC can 40 ltrs capacity: 1 no. (to be used as Gas Holder Tank) (Make sure the smaller can fits inside larger one and moves freely)
3. 64 mm dia pvc pipe: about 40 cm long (to be used for feeding waste material)
4. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 50 cm long (fixed inside gas holder tank as a guide pipe)
5. 25 mm dia pvc pipe: about 75 cm long (fixed inside the digester tank as a guide pipe)
6. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 25 cm long (fixed on digester tank to act as outlet for digested slurry)
7. M-seal or any water-proof adeshive
8. Gas outlet system: Please see Step 4 below for required materials and construction

Tools required

Do not require many tools here. A hack saw blade for cutting the cans & pipes and a sharp knife for cutting holes on the cans are all the tools we need.

Additional accessories

A single burner bio-gas stove or a Bunsen Burner used in school laboratories
 
Remove these adsRemove these ads by Signing Up

Step 1:

Picture of
002.jpg
Bought this 50 ltrs capacity PVC can, which will act as the digester unit and removed the top portion of the can, by cutting it with a hack saw blade:

Step 2:

Picture of
004.jpg
The smaller white can, which will act as the gas holder fits inside the red one. Here, again removed the top of the white can, also with the help of a hack saw blade:

Step 3:

Picture of
64 mm, 32 mm and 25 mm dia PVC pipes which  will be used for feeding the kitchen waste, guide pipe for the gas holder and guide pipe fixed with the digestion chamber respectively. A small piece of 32 mm dia pipe will be used as outlet for the slurry:

Step 4:

Picture of
  1. items required for the gas delivery system: got these items from a hardware store

1. Ball valve : one no ( to adjust the gas flow)
2. 'T' joint : one no ( to connect the gas holder and the ball valve)
3. Cap to block one end of 'T' joint : one no
4. Coupling or Adapter : one no (to connect vertical end of 'T' in to the gas collector)
5. Nipple: one no (added to the coupling in to the gas collector)
6. Gas pipe (flexible) : two meters
7. Barb : one no (fitted with the gas pipe, to join with the Ball valve)
8. Clip : one no (used for crimping the barb with the gas pipe and make it leak-proof)
9. Teflon tape : one roll (used as thread tape in all joints)

Step 5:

Picture of
009.jpg
Here I have marked the cuts to be made in the bottom of the gas collection tank. The smaller hole on the left for gas delivery system, center hole for fixing the 32 mm guide pipe and 64 mm hole for fixing the waste feeding pipe on the right side. Made these holes with the help of a sharp knife and hack saw blade.

The next image is Inside of the gas holder showing the 32 mm guide pipe (center) and the 64 mm feeding pipe fixed with M-seal

Step 6:

Picture of
Top view of the gas holder showing the feeding pipe, central guide pipe and the gas delivery system: I have closed the feeding pipe withe an old lid  (red one). This will facilitate opening the feed pipe only during feeding the system.

Step 7:

Picture of
Digestion tank fitted with the central guide pipe and the outlet pipe for the slurry:

Step 8:

Picture of
Completed unit. I have removed the gas pipe, so that the joints will get cured without any stress:

Wait for a day or two before feeding the system, allowing all joints to get cured and become leak-proof.

Initially, cow-dung mixed with water will be fed in to the system, which will start the gas formation process. Subsequently, food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste will be diluted with water and used to feed the system. The gas holder will rise along the guide pipes based on the amount of gas produced. We can add some weight on top of the gas holder to increase the gas pressure. When we feed the system, the excess digested slurry will fall out through the outlet pipe, which can be collected, diluted and used as organic manure.

Initial production of gas will consist of oxygen, methane, carbon di oxide and some other gases and will not burn. These gases can be released to the atmosphere by opening the ball valve at least three / four times.

Subsequent gas will consist of about 70 to 80 percent methane and the rest carbon di oxide, which can be used in a single bio-gas burning stove or a Bunsen burner.

Total cost of this proto-type system is about one thousand Indian Rupees (about 20 dollars)

This is a basic prototype of a Bio-gas system using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste to produce gas. An one thousand litre capacity Digestion tank will be sufficient for a small household for daily cooking purpose. The bigger commercial models provide a water seal between the digestion tank and gas holder tank.

You can get further information on kitchen waste based mini Bio-gas plant at the following links:

http://e-biogas.blogspot.in/

http://www.samuchit.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8&Itemid=10

Step 9:

Picture of
IMG_3169.JPG
Charged the digester tank with cow dung diluted with water. Placed the gas holder tank and left it for two three days. The cow dung slurry started the process of gas forming.

Gas formation started and the gas holder tank gets lifted up. I have placed two bricks on top of the gas holder to get more gas pressure.

Step 10:

Note for students who are doing this as their School Project:

1. Take guidance from your teacher while using the gas in a stove or Bunsen burner.
2. Collect surplus food and wastage during lunch, dilute and feed the system.
3. Fruit peels, extracted tea powder, waste milk and milk products  can also be used for feeding the system.
4. DO NOT USE eggshells, Onion peels or left-over bones in this system as they will affect the efficient functioning of the system
5. Plant some seedling
6. while feeding, collect the slurry from the outlet, feed the seedlings and watch them grow
1-40 of 779Next »
Mark LesterQ5 minutes ago

Nice project sir! Can you send me the detailed of the project. I would like also to make this.

This is my email account, lesterquigao@yahoo.com

Thank you and GOD bless

sir i shall be very thankful to you if you send me the pdf file of this my email address is zeeshanumer@ymail.com

antoniraj (author)  zeeshan.umer.98yesterday
Please see attached file sent to your mail

Sir,,

I am really interested in
this system, I wish to apply it in my native place, and it can reduce
the costs to LPG and will be a good step for families.

Please
send me the details to my mail id so that we can plan to implement in
our area for whole families. my mail id is kwakuaggrey@yahoo.com

please see file sent to your mail
Sir plz tell me how can I fix the centre guide pipe with digestion tank and what is the use of centre guide pipe in gas holder tank
Nafish1902@gmail.com
antoniraj (author)  rohil.malik.35yesterday
you can use any adhesives like M-Seal or Araldite to fix the guide pipe with both digester and gas tank. The guide pipe helps in proper up-and-down movement of gas tank inside the digester

sir please am very interested in the mini bio-gas plant so please can you send a detailed procedure of how it can be constructed. My email: twyze_@hotmail.com. will be very grateful to hear from you. thank you. Kobby.

antoniraj (author)  kobby.hwireeyesterday
please see attached file sent to your mail

sir please am very interested in the mini bio-gas plant so please can you send a detailed procedure of how it can be constructed. My email: twyze_@hotmail.com. will be very grateful to hear from you. thank you. Kobby.

attahmike20 days ago

Dear sir, Please send me the full details how to make a domestic unit for 4 members house.

Looking forward your assistanse.

Attah mike

atl62003@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  attahmike19 days ago
please see attached files sent to your mail

please sir can you send me the pdf file through my male.owunak@yahoo.com

antoniraj (author)  owunak3 days ago

please see attached file sent to your mail

sk288 days ago

sir your idea and concept is very good it will be very helpful for me if could get the pdf format of this whole concept so that i can impliment this idea too

kindly send me pdf at my id which is sknicky28@gmail.com

sir, how can collect the gas after producing ( via tube or any other way)

what materila can use for gase ? can i use plastic covers like that ? or any wate material can you

give brief

antoniraj (author)  p.s.joe.arul9 days ago
the gas is automatically stored in the gas collector tank. please post a pic of what you made, which will make it clear for me to comment

sir, how can collect the gas after producing ( via tube or any other way)

what materila can use for gase ? can i use plastic covers like that ? or any wate material can you

give brief

orphanp14 days ago

Dear Sir,

A very unique technique. But I don't understand the purpose of guide pipe for the gas holder and how does it work. You have already fitted a guide pipe with the digestion chamber and I understand the guide pipe for the digestion chamber goes through the guide pipe for gas holder. Am I right? so what is the purpose of this guide pipe? I want to make this for my Class VI student for his science exhibition. Is it risky in any manner? Also please share more details to make the same at shibumathew1@gmail.com. Thanks...Shibu Mathew

antoniraj (author)  orphanp14 days ago
when gas is produced, it is collected in the white tank (gas holder tank) and it will start to raise inside the digester. When you consume the gas, the gas holder slowly moves down, also inside the digester. The guide pipe helps the holder to be straight in position during its up-and-down movement. You can do without the guide pipe, it will still work, but gas holder will tilt to one side. When it is full of gas, there are chances of gas escaping through the bottom of gas holder when it tilts.

Methane is an odorless, colorless and a non-poisonous gas, but it is highly flammable. When it is mixed with air and exposed to open flame, it will explode. So, take care with your science fair project. Use only a Bunsen burner or a biogas stove to test the flame

Please also refer to the files sent to your mail
Many thanks for your clarification...
I, in any case, have made a prototype for my son's science exhibition without any material in the digester chamber. The idea has been received well by the teachers, but I don't know the final outcome! Keeping my fingers crossed...!

Hi Sir! Good day! It would be very helpful If I could get a pdf of this concept. Thanks! My email is kissesh10@yahoo.com

antoniraj (author)  John HamletB13 days ago
Please see attached file sent to your mail
UditK14 days ago

Hi Sir,

The concept looks awesome. It would be great if I could get a pdf of the concept. My mail id is uditk2@gmail.com.

antoniraj (author)  UditK13 days ago
please see file sent to your mail
UditK antoniraj13 days ago

Thanks sir! :)

Hello! I'm farmer from italy, can i have a pdf file on my mail, pls?
I hope u write my soon on :
barraque@hotmail.it
p.s.
I see the other project on middle size, but i'm interested in a small project like this.

antoniraj (author)  peppe.bruno.3115 days ago
Please see attached file sent to your mail for more information
Thank u. I'll show u my project.
kennizworld16 days ago

Hello Sir. I will be grateful if the PDF can be sent to my email also on kehindefash01@gmail.com I will also appreciate pictorial guide of the apparatuses used in biogas project. Thanks

antoniraj (author)  kennizworld16 days ago
Please see attached files sent to your mail
haimailmein21 days ago

Please mail me both PDF on BioGas Construction. my email id is "haimailmein@gmail.com"

Hello haimailmein, i will really appreciate if you could forward the PDF to my mail as well. Though i have made a request for it on the wall. thanks kehindefash01@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  haimailmein19 days ago
please see attached files sent to your mail
wagbz17 days ago

Please antoniraj could you mail the PDF of your guide

kelvinwagbaranta@yahoo.com

orkbote19 days ago

please antoniraj mail me the PDF of this your wonderful guide. orkbote@gmail.com

regards.

Thanks

orkbote19 days ago

Please mail me PDF version of this instructable I love it....orkbote@gmail.com

regards ork

attahmike20 days ago

Please mail me both PDF on BioGas Construction. my email id is atl62003@gmail.com

AbhijitK22 days ago

My mail Id is abhijitjecrc@yahoo.com

AbhijitK22 days ago

It is wonderful. Can you mail me the instructions. regards

1-40 of 779Next »