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Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste

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Picture of Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste
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I have been searching for some method of using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste efficiently, and came across information on producing bio-gas from organic waste.

The bio-gas produced from food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste, consisting of methane and a little amount of carbon di oxide is an alternative fuel for cooking gas (LPG). Also, the waste materials can be disposed off efficiently without any odor or flies and the digested slurry from the bio-gas unit can be used as an organic manure in the garden.

Components of the Bio-gas Plant

The major components of the bio-gas plant are a digester tank, an inlet for feeding the kitchen waste, gas holder tank, an outlet for the digested slurry and the gas delivery system for taking out and utilizing the produced gas.

This project is also useful for students to have a hands-on learning experience in constructing a Mini Bio-Gas Plant, using locally available material.

Material Required:

1. Empty PVC can 50 ltrs capacity: 1 No. (to be used as Digester Tank)
2. Empty PVC can 40 ltrs capacity: 1 no. (to be used as Gas Holder Tank) (Make sure the smaller can fits inside larger one and moves freely)
3. 64 mm dia pvc pipe: about 40 cm long (to be used for feeding waste material)
4. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 50 cm long (fixed inside gas holder tank as a guide pipe)
5. 25 mm dia pvc pipe: about 75 cm long (fixed inside the digester tank as a guide pipe)
6. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 25 cm long (fixed on digester tank to act as outlet for digested slurry)
7. M-seal or any water-proof adeshive
8. Gas outlet system: Please see Step 4 below for required materials and construction

Tools required

Do not require many tools here. A hack saw blade for cutting the cans & pipes and a sharp knife for cutting holes on the cans are all the tools we need.

Additional accessories

A single burner bio-gas stove or a Bunsen Burner used in school laboratories

Step 1:

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Bought this 50 ltrs capacity PVC can, which will act as the digester unit and removed the top portion of the can, by cutting it with a hack saw blade:

Step 2:

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The smaller white can, which will act as the gas holder fits inside the red one. Here, again removed the top of the white can, also with the help of a hack saw blade:

Step 3:

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64 mm, 32 mm and 25 mm dia PVC pipes which  will be used for feeding the kitchen waste, guide pipe for the gas holder and guide pipe fixed with the digestion chamber respectively. A small piece of 32 mm dia pipe will be used as outlet for the slurry:

Step 4:

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  1. items required for the gas delivery system: got these items from a hardware store

1. Ball valve : one no ( to adjust the gas flow)
2. 'T' joint : one no ( to connect the gas holder and the ball valve)
3. Cap to block one end of 'T' joint : one no
4. Coupling or Adapter : one no (to connect vertical end of 'T' in to the gas collector)
5. Nipple: one no (added to the coupling in to the gas collector)
6. Gas pipe (flexible) : two meters
7. Barb : one no (fitted with the gas pipe, to join with the Ball valve)
8. Clip : one no (used for crimping the barb with the gas pipe and make it leak-proof)
9. Teflon tape : one roll (used as thread tape in all joints)

Step 5:

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Here I have marked the cuts to be made in the bottom of the gas collection tank. The smaller hole on the left for gas delivery system, center hole for fixing the 32 mm guide pipe and 64 mm hole for fixing the waste feeding pipe on the right side. Made these holes with the help of a sharp knife and hack saw blade.

The next image is Inside of the gas holder showing the 32 mm guide pipe (center) and the 64 mm feeding pipe fixed with M-seal

Step 6:

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Top view of the gas holder showing the feeding pipe, central guide pipe and the gas delivery system: I have closed the feeding pipe withe an old lid  (red one). This will facilitate opening the feed pipe only during feeding the system.

Step 7:

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Digestion tank fitted with the central guide pipe and the outlet pipe for the slurry:

Step 8:

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Completed unit. I have removed the gas pipe, so that the joints will get cured without any stress:

Wait for a day or two before feeding the system, allowing all joints to get cured and become leak-proof.

Initially, cow-dung mixed with water will be fed in to the system, which will start the gas formation process. Subsequently, food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste will be diluted with water and used to feed the system. The gas holder will rise along the guide pipes based on the amount of gas produced. We can add some weight on top of the gas holder to increase the gas pressure. When we feed the system, the excess digested slurry will fall out through the outlet pipe, which can be collected, diluted and used as organic manure.

Initial production of gas will consist of oxygen, methane, carbon di oxide and some other gases and will not burn. These gases can be released to the atmosphere by opening the ball valve at least three / four times.

Subsequent gas will consist of about 70 to 80 percent methane and the rest carbon di oxide, which can be used in a single bio-gas burning stove or a Bunsen burner.

Total cost of this proto-type system is about one thousand Indian Rupees (about 20 dollars)

This is a basic prototype of a Bio-gas system using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste to produce gas. An one thousand litre capacity Digestion tank will be sufficient for a small household for daily cooking purpose. The bigger commercial models provide a water seal between the digestion tank and gas holder tank.

You can get further information on kitchen waste based mini Bio-gas plant at the following links:

http://e-biogas.blogspot.in/

http://www.samuchit.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8&Itemid=10

Step 9:

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Charged the digester tank with cow dung diluted with water. Placed the gas holder tank and left it for two three days. The cow dung slurry started the process of gas forming.

Gas formation started and the gas holder tank gets lifted up. I have placed two bricks on top of the gas holder to get more gas pressure.

Step 10:

Note for students who are doing this as their School Project:

1. Take guidance from your teacher while using the gas in a stove or Bunsen burner.
2. Collect surplus food and wastage during lunch, dilute and feed the system.
3. Fruit peels, extracted tea powder, waste milk and milk products  can also be used for feeding the system.
4. DO NOT USE eggshells, Onion peels or left-over bones in this system as they will affect the efficient functioning of the system
5. Plant some seedling
6. while feeding, collect the slurry from the outlet, feed the seedlings and watch them grow
 
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ShubhamG142 hours ago

hello friend,

please send me details on my email address shubham18396@gmail.com
I am very interested in your project

hello friend,
please send me details on my email address Shakirusmaniansari @gmail.com
I am very interested in your project
antoniraj (author)  susmani ansari2 days ago

please see attached file sent to your mail

VinayK215 days ago

please send me the project details for bio-gas, plant. vinayr007@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  VinayK215 days ago

please see attached files sent to your mail

Sir can u Please send me the details of the project on
Saranvaen@gmail.com
Thank you
Saravanan
antoniraj (author)  saranvaen2 days ago

please see attached file sent to your mail

Ylad5 days ago
Please send me the detail to yrymbai@gmail.com
im very interest about your project
antoniraj (author)  Ylad4 days ago
please see attached file sent to your mail
Hello sir,
Please sent full information about it to mail -
gopalsuthar.786@gmail.com
antoniraj (author)  gopal suthar7 days ago

please see the attached file sent to your mail

naresh-1237 days ago
Sir we r doing biogas project as u say.but our project is school level.ur attached files are more than our level.could u plz complete information about the project! Plz.....sir!
antoniraj (author)  naresh-1237 days ago

ok, please see the attached file sent to your mail

naresh-1237 days ago
Which biomaterials do we feed ?and in which state of them?plz tell me clearly.
naresh-12312 days ago
I did nt under stand what is the use of guide pipe.and how the external small pipe release slurry.plz......explain.
antoniraj (author)  naresh-12311 days ago

you can make without the guide pipe also, but this will make the gas holder to tilt to one side when it raises up. Guide pipe helps the gas holder to stay straight.

When you add more waste mixed with water, the slurry level tend to raise inside digester. As there is a opening and an outlet pipe, the slurry will fall through the outlet pipe. The slurry will be almost like water

naresh-12312 days ago
Hai I really satisfied with ur project.plz send other related files about this project.to this mail. nareshwithmaths@gmail.com plz sir!
antoniraj (author)  naresh-12311 days ago
Please see attached files sent to your mail
naresh-12312 days ago
I did nt under stand what is the use of guide pipe.and how the external small pipe release slurry.plz......explain.
Great work Sir.....
Please keep it up.....
I made one small bio-digester using your instructable. It is working....
Thank you very much sir...
antoniraj (author)  love_u_science14 days ago
good to know that... please post a picture if possible. you can also make an instructable and post in "Remix contest". You can find the contest details here...

http://www.instructables.com/contest/remix2015/
Please send me the details of the project on cosmicblessing@gmail.com
Thank you
antoniraj (author)  Cosmos blessed15 days ago
please see files sent to your mail
chaitu00118 days ago

please sent me the details for my gmailid chaitanya21mech@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  chaitu00118 days ago
please see attached files sent to your mail
RameshK1818 days ago
MikelT122 days ago

Please send me the detail to kagmicma@gmail.com
im very interest about your project

antoniraj (author)  MikelT121 days ago
Please see attached files sent to your mail
KartikA122 days ago

please send details to kartik1234carolx@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  KartikA121 days ago
Please see attached files sent to your mail
anupkp22 days ago

Can u pls send me the details at anupkp007@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  anupkp21 days ago
Please see attached files sent to your mail
MikelT122 days ago
ChandraK224 days ago
Please send me the detail to chandrakurniasetiawan@gmail.com
im very interest about your project
antoniraj (author)  ChandraK223 days ago
Please refer to attached files sent to your mail
SourajitM24 days ago

what is the use of the guide pipe fitted with the gas holder tank? as the diameters of the guide pipes fitted with gas holder tank and digester tank are the same, how can the pipes be interlocked?

my email id is sourajitm8@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  SourajitM24 days ago
the diameters of the guide pipes fitted with gas holder and digester tank are not same. please see step 3 for diameters of each pipe
ShevaH25 days ago

Thanks for first sir!, i very interested about your project.

Can you give me more detail?

via email : shevarion@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  ShevaH24 days ago
please see files sent to your mail
Murnicole26 days ago

This is a brilliant idea would you send me the attached files to go through them at stnicolem@gmail.com.

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