Instructables

Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste

FeaturedContest WinnerContest Winner
Picture of Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste
011.jpg
I have been searching for some method of using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste efficiently, and came across information on producing bio-gas from organic waste.

The bio-gas produced from food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste, consisting of methane and a little amount of carbon di oxide is an alternative fuel for cooking gas (LPG). Also, the waste materials can be disposed off efficiently without any odor or flies and the digested slurry from the bio-gas unit can be used as an organic manure in the garden.

Components of the Bio-gas Plant

The major components of the bio-gas plant are a digester tank, an inlet for feeding the kitchen waste, gas holder tank, an outlet for the digested slurry and the gas delivery system for taking out and utilizing the produced gas.

This project is also useful for students to have a hands-on learning experience in constructing a Mini Bio-Gas Plant, using locally available material.

Material Required:

1. Empty PVC can 50 ltrs capacity: 1 No. (to be used as Digester Tank)
2. Empty PVC can 40 ltrs capacity: 1 no. (to be used as Gas Holder Tank) (Make sure the smaller can fits inside larger one and moves freely)
3. 64 mm dia pvc pipe: about 40 cm long (to be used for feeding waste material)
4. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 50 cm long (fixed inside gas holder tank as a guide pipe)
5. 25 mm dia pvc pipe: about 75 cm long (fixed inside the digester tank as a guide pipe)
6. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 25 cm long (fixed on digester tank to act as outlet for digested slurry)
7. M-seal or any water-proof adeshive
8. Gas outlet system: Please see Step 4 below for required materials and construction

Tools required

Do not require many tools here. A hack saw blade for cutting the cans & pipes and a sharp knife for cutting holes on the cans are all the tools we need.

Additional accessories

A single burner bio-gas stove or a Bunsen Burner used in school laboratories
 
Remove these adsRemove these ads by Signing Up

Step 1:

Picture of
002.jpg
Bought this 50 ltrs capacity PVC can, which will act as the digester unit and removed the top portion of the can, by cutting it with a hack saw blade:

Step 2:

Picture of
004.jpg
The smaller white can, which will act as the gas holder fits inside the red one. Here, again removed the top of the white can, also with the help of a hack saw blade:

Step 3:

Picture of
64 mm, 32 mm and 25 mm dia PVC pipes which  will be used for feeding the kitchen waste, guide pipe for the gas holder and guide pipe fixed with the digestion chamber respectively. A small piece of 32 mm dia pipe will be used as outlet for the slurry:

Step 4:

Picture of
  1. items required for the gas delivery system: got these items from a hardware store

1. Ball valve : one no ( to adjust the gas flow)
2. 'T' joint : one no ( to connect the gas holder and the ball valve)
3. Cap to block one end of 'T' joint : one no
4. Coupling or Adapter : one no (to connect vertical end of 'T' in to the gas collector)
5. Nipple: one no (added to the coupling in to the gas collector)
6. Gas pipe (flexible) : two meters
7. Barb : one no (fitted with the gas pipe, to join with the Ball valve)
8. Clip : one no (used for crimping the barb with the gas pipe and make it leak-proof)
9. Teflon tape : one roll (used as thread tape in all joints)

Step 5:

Picture of
009.jpg
Here I have marked the cuts to be made in the bottom of the gas collection tank. The smaller hole on the left for gas delivery system, center hole for fixing the 32 mm guide pipe and 64 mm hole for fixing the waste feeding pipe on the right side. Made these holes with the help of a sharp knife and hack saw blade.

The next image is Inside of the gas holder showing the 32 mm guide pipe (center) and the 64 mm feeding pipe fixed with M-seal

Step 6:

Picture of
Top view of the gas holder showing the feeding pipe, central guide pipe and the gas delivery system: I have closed the feeding pipe withe an old lid  (red one). This will facilitate opening the feed pipe only during feeding the system.

Step 7:

Picture of
Digestion tank fitted with the central guide pipe and the outlet pipe for the slurry:

Step 8:

Picture of
Completed unit. I have removed the gas pipe, so that the joints will get cured without any stress:

Wait for a day or two before feeding the system, allowing all joints to get cured and become leak-proof.

Initially, cow-dung mixed with water will be fed in to the system, which will start the gas formation process. Subsequently, food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste will be diluted with water and used to feed the system. The gas holder will rise along the guide pipes based on the amount of gas produced. We can add some weight on top of the gas holder to increase the gas pressure. When we feed the system, the excess digested slurry will fall out through the outlet pipe, which can be collected, diluted and used as organic manure.

Initial production of gas will consist of oxygen, methane, carbon di oxide and some other gases and will not burn. These gases can be released to the atmosphere by opening the ball valve at least three / four times.

Subsequent gas will consist of about 70 to 80 percent methane and the rest carbon di oxide, which can be used in a single bio-gas burning stove or a Bunsen burner.

Total cost of this proto-type system is about one thousand Indian Rupees (about 20 dollars)

This is a basic prototype of a Bio-gas system using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste to produce gas. An one thousand litre capacity Digestion tank will be sufficient for a small household for daily cooking purpose. The bigger commercial models provide a water seal between the digestion tank and gas holder tank.

You can get further information on kitchen waste based mini Bio-gas plant at the following links:

http://e-biogas.blogspot.in/

http://www.samuchit.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8&Itemid=10

Step 9:

Picture of
IMG_3169.JPG
Charged the digester tank with cow dung diluted with water. Placed the gas holder tank and left it for two three days. The cow dung slurry started the process of gas forming.

Gas formation started and the gas holder tank gets lifted up. I have placed two bricks on top of the gas holder to get more gas pressure.

Step 10:

Note for students who are doing this as their School Project:

1. Take guidance from your teacher while using the gas in a stove or Bunsen burner.
2. Collect surplus food and wastage during lunch, dilute and feed the system.
3. Fruit peels, extracted tea powder, waste milk and milk products  can also be used for feeding the system.
4. DO NOT USE eggshells, Onion peels or left-over bones in this system as they will affect the efficient functioning of the system
5. Plant some seedling
6. while feeding, collect the slurry from the outlet, feed the seedlings and watch them grow
1-40 of 1019Next »
sreekanthk2 hours ago

sir i want to built a similar biogas digester for using in home..i tried, but iam not abale to tab the gas properly....sir can u please send me the full details of this method...

my email id is sreekanthrlm@gmail.com

waiting for your reply

antoniraj (author)  sreekanthk1 hour ago

this one is a prototype suitable for school science projects and not for home. This system will not provide the pressure required in a biogas stove. For construction details of a medium sized biogas plant for home use, please go through my other instructables at these links below. You can build them yourself without any special tools

http://www.instructables.com/id/Constructing-a-Med...

http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-Energy-From-W...

GulnihalSS2 days ago

Could you send also to me the details, I would be greatful. Thank you.

My mail - gulnihal04@hotmail.com

antoniraj (author)  GulnihalSS2 days ago

Please go through the attached files sent to your mail for more information

AniketA13 days ago

Sir, Will you please send me the details too... It would be very grateful of you
my email-Id is :-
aniket.nitrr@gmail.com
dudeaniket.anand@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  AniketA13 days ago

please see detail sent to your mail

muhdi14 days ago

Sir, this is a great . please, can you send details of the procedure to my email -deveruchi07@gmail.com. Thank you for upload this information.

antoniraj (author)  muhdi14 days ago

Please see attached file sent to your mail

muhdi14 days ago

Sir, this is a great . please, can you send details of the procedure to my email -deveruchi07@gmail.com. Thank you for upload this information.

muhdi14 days ago

Sir, this is a great . please, can you send details of the procedure to my email -deveruchi07@gmail.com. Thank you for upload this information.

gbengith14 days ago

Sir, this is a great ideal. Thank you for upload this information. please, can you send details of the procedure to my email (snrgbenga@gmail.com). Thanks in Anticipation.

antoniraj (author)  gbengith13 days ago

please see attached file sent to your mail

I did not get the attached file. please resend it. Thanks for your effort.
antoniraj (author)  gbengith10 days ago

I have resent the file. Please check and confirm

SurvivorA14 days ago

this can be a very interesting school project. ill be very happy if you share more detailed information with me via email. my email is cangurel91@outlook.com

antoniraj (author)  SurvivorA13 days ago

Please see attached file sent to your mail for more information

priyas414 days ago

happy morning sir,iam a b.tech final year student iam doing project in biogas using food waste please help me in doing that project.

antoniraj (author)  priyas413 days ago

hi, please go through my other instructables on Biogas at the following links. If you have any doubts or need more information, please post a comment with your mail id

http://www.instructables.com/id/Constructing-a-Med...

http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-Energy-From-W...

hizzyworld13 days ago

I have a Waste Food Crusher installed which makes slurry of the left over food. I never counted how many Kg of slurry goes away. I would like to know how does the conversion work? How many Kg of Bio-gas will be produced if there is 10 Kg of slurry? Also, is there a time period when the used slurry has to be removed? Last question: Do we have to mix cow dung in the slurry?

antoniraj (author)  ranjan.konhalikar17 days ago

for more information on Biogas, please see my other instructables here...

http://www.instructables.com/id/Constructing-a-Med...

http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-Energy-From-W...

antoniraj (author)  ranjan.konhalikar17 days ago
The output from the waste food crusher is mostly water. A normal household may produce about 1 to 2 kilograms of kitchen waste. The biogas production is counted based on the solid wastes and not on the slurry. one kilogram of organic waste may produce between 150 to 200 grams of biogas, depending on the type of waste. In a biogas digester, you need not to remove the slurry manually. when you feed fresh waste, the digested slurry will be automatically drained out through the outlet pipe. It takes about 30 to 40 days for a solid waste to get fully digested. Cow dung is required only to start the anaerobic digestion process. Afterwards it is not required
cargo.ree22 days ago

Hello sir, thank you for uploading such a great plan! I wish to use
this plan for a school project so i humbly ask you please send me the details
to kagorichris@gmail.com
Thank You

antoniraj (author)  cargo.ree22 days ago
please see attached file sent to your mail...

hellow sir, i found you through google..thanks to you for information, i am planing to set LPG from sewerage or food waste for my village and for monastery too, please help me to construct a LPG for them, your advise on this will be highly valued.....thank you and please send me the procedure and things needed at my email....rigdxin.scorpio@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  rinzin taheten25 days ago
Please go through attached files sent to your mail.

You can also go through my other instructables on Biogas here...

http://www.instructables.com/id/Constructing-a-Medium-Sized-Biogas-Plant-Using-Kit/

http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-Energy-From-Weeds/

hellow sir, i found you through google..thanks to you for information, i am planing to set LPG from sewerage or food waste for my village and for monastery too, please help me to construct a LPG for them, your advise on this will be highly valued.....thank you and please send me the procedure and things needed at my email....rigdxin.scorpio@gmail.com

hellow sir, i found you through google..thanks to you for information, i am planing to set LPG from sewerage or food waste for my village and for monastery too, please help me to construct a LPG for them, your advise on this will be highly valued.....thank you and please send me the procedure and things needed at my email....rigdxin.scorpio@gmail.com

Hi! This is a very helpful instructable you have uploaded to share to others. Our schools in the Philippines would surely benefit from this. Please, can you also send me the details of how to construct this project? I know our students will appreciate this very much. Again, thank you for sharing this with us. My email address is margieoctavio@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  margie.octavio1 month ago

please see the attached file sent to your mail. methane is highly explosive, take care when experimenting with students

pednekarr made it!1 month ago
I have constructed the mini biogas unit and loaded it with the stuff. I am not interested in the gas but I am excited about it as waste disposer
temp_345010846.jpg
antoniraj (author)  pednekarr1 month ago

good construction. Where are the feed pipe and outlet pipe...?

feed pipe is on the top and the outlet on the side. covered the sides with paper.
temp_1535758607.jpg
I have covered the feed pipe with a plastic bottle and the sides with paper to prevent foul smell if any. BTW, will there be any foul smell?
antoniraj (author)  pednekarr1 month ago

it is better to keep it in the open. there will be mild smell in the slurry but not much. how do you propose to use the gas ? Methane is odorless and highly explosive. so take care

I have kept it in open. I intend to release the gas when it builds up.
antoniraj (author)  pednekarr1 month ago

ok... nice

good.! :)

Hello sir, thank you for uploading such a specific plan! I wish to use this plan for a school project so could you please send me the details to jany1235@naver.com ?Thank you!

antoniraj (author)  juyeonjaniekim1 month ago
Please see the attached file sent to your mail
1-40 of 1019Next »