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I have been searching for some method of using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste efficiently, and came across information on producing bio-gas from organic waste.

The bio-gas produced from food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste, consisting of methane and a little amount of carbon di oxide is an alternative fuel for cooking gas (LPG). Also, the waste materials can be disposed off efficiently without any odor or flies and the digested slurry from the bio-gas unit can be used as an organic manure in the garden.

Components of the Bio-gas Plant

The major components of the bio-gas plant are a digester tank, an inlet for feeding the kitchen waste, gas holder tank, an outlet for the digested slurry and the gas delivery system for taking out and utilizing the produced gas.

This project is also useful for students to have a hands-on learning experience in constructing a Mini Bio-Gas Plant, using locally available material.

Material Required:

1. Empty PVC can 50 ltrs capacity: 1 No. (to be used as Digester Tank)
2. Empty PVC can 40 ltrs capacity: 1 no. (to be used as Gas Holder Tank) (Make sure the smaller can fits inside larger one and moves freely)
3. 64 mm dia pvc pipe: about 40 cm long (to be used for feeding waste material)
4. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 50 cm long (fixed inside gas holder tank as a guide pipe)
5. 25 mm dia pvc pipe: about 75 cm long (fixed inside the digester tank as a guide pipe)
6. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 25 cm long (fixed on digester tank to act as outlet for digested slurry)
7. M-seal or any water-proof adeshive
8. Gas outlet system: Please see Step 4 below for required materials and construction

Tools required

Do not require many tools here. A hack saw blade for cutting the cans & pipes and a sharp knife for cutting holes on the cans are all the tools we need.

Additional accessories

A single burner bio-gas stove or a Bunsen Burner used in school laboratories

Step 1:

Bought this 50 ltrs capacity PVC can, which will act as the digester unit and removed the top portion of the can, by cutting it with a hack saw blade:

Step 2:

The smaller white can, which will act as the gas holder fits inside the red one. Here, again removed the top of the white can, also with the help of a hack saw blade:

Step 3:

64 mm, 32 mm and 25 mm dia PVC pipes which  will be used for feeding the kitchen waste, guide pipe for the gas holder and guide pipe fixed with the digestion chamber respectively. A small piece of 32 mm dia pipe will be used as outlet for the slurry:

Step 4:

  1. items required for the gas delivery system: got these items from a hardware store

1. Ball valve : one no ( to adjust the gas flow)
2. 'T' joint : one no ( to connect the gas holder and the ball valve)
3. Cap to block one end of 'T' joint : one no
4. Coupling or Adapter : one no (to connect vertical end of 'T' in to the gas collector)
5. Nipple: one no (added to the coupling in to the gas collector)
6. Gas pipe (flexible) : two meters
7. Barb : one no (fitted with the gas pipe, to join with the Ball valve)
8. Clip : one no (used for crimping the barb with the gas pipe and make it leak-proof)
9. Teflon tape : one roll (used as thread tape in all joints)

Step 5:

Here I have marked the cuts to be made in the bottom of the gas collection tank. The smaller hole on the left for gas delivery system, center hole for fixing the 32 mm guide pipe and 64 mm hole for fixing the waste feeding pipe on the right side. Made these holes with the help of a sharp knife and hack saw blade.

The next image is Inside of the gas holder showing the 32 mm guide pipe (center) and the 64 mm feeding pipe fixed with M-seal

Step 6:

Top view of the gas holder showing the feeding pipe, central guide pipe and the gas delivery system: I have closed the feeding pipe withe an old lid  (red one). This will facilitate opening the feed pipe only during feeding the system.

Step 7:

Digestion tank fitted with the central guide pipe and the outlet pipe for the slurry:

Step 8:

Completed unit. I have removed the gas pipe, so that the joints will get cured without any stress:

Wait for a day or two before feeding the system, allowing all joints to get cured and become leak-proof.

Initially, cow-dung mixed with water will be fed in to the system, which will start the gas formation process. Subsequently, food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste will be diluted with water and used to feed the system. The gas holder will rise along the guide pipes based on the amount of gas produced. We can add some weight on top of the gas holder to increase the gas pressure. When we feed the system, the excess digested slurry will fall out through the outlet pipe, which can be collected, diluted and used as organic manure.

Initial production of gas will consist of oxygen, methane, carbon di oxide and some other gases and will not burn. These gases can be released to the atmosphere by opening the ball valve at least three / four times.

Subsequent gas will consist of about 70 to 80 percent methane and the rest carbon di oxide, which can be used in a single bio-gas burning stove or a Bunsen burner.

Total cost of this proto-type system is about one thousand Indian Rupees (about 20 dollars)

This is a basic prototype of a Bio-gas system using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste to produce gas. An one thousand litre capacity Digestion tank will be sufficient for a small household for daily cooking purpose. The bigger commercial models provide a water seal between the digestion tank and gas holder tank.

You can get further information on kitchen waste based mini Bio-gas plant at the following links:

http://e-biogas.blogspot.in/

http://www.samuchit.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8&Itemid=10

Step 9:

Charged the digester tank with cow dung diluted with water. Placed the gas holder tank and left it for two three days. The cow dung slurry started the process of gas forming.

Gas formation started and the gas holder tank gets lifted up. I have placed two bricks on top of the gas holder to get more gas pressure.

Step 10:

Note for students who are doing this as their School Project:

1. Take guidance from your teacher while using the gas in a stove or Bunsen burner.
2. Collect surplus food and wastage during lunch, dilute and feed the system.
3. Fruit peels, extracted tea powder, waste milk and milk products  can also be used for feeding the system.
4. DO NOT USE eggshells, Onion peels or left-over bones in this system as they will affect the efficient functioning of the system
5. Plant some seedling
6. while feeding, collect the slurry from the outlet, feed the seedlings and watch them grow
<p>Hi, i was wondering if there was a better way to filter out the excess gases rather than quickly opening and closing the value</p>
<p>Hi,</p><p>Can you please send these steps in a pdf to the below email id: sudersonsarathy@gmail.com.</p><p>We would want to have it for our entire flats in our community</p>
Please go through the attached files sent to your mail
Hi! Is it possible for you to send the instructions for making this biogas digester plant.<br>Email:- aditya.aryan333@gmail.com<br><br>Thanks in advance and Cheers for more projects for you! :)
Please see attached files sent to your mail
<p>hi sir,</p><p>am interested to follow your protocol to do plant for algae .is it possible? please suggest me.</p>
Plant for algae is some what different from the Biogas digester. Please go through some of the instructables at this link which will give you an idea about Algae cultivation and Bioreactor<br><br>http://www.instructables.com/howto/algae/
<p>Hi! Is it possible for you to send the instructions for making this biogas digester? </p><p>Email: mat_sumalinog@yahoo.com</p><p>Thanks in advance and Cheers for more projects for you! :)</p>
Please see the attached file sent to your mail
<p>i am interested to do a project of this biogas but how can it be applied in a septic tank? and i am planning to use the excess slurry to feed the seedlings.</p>
You need some arrangement to collect the gas from normal septic tank which does not have a dome to collect gas. The inlet and outlet of the tank are also to be modified in such a way that they discharge in and out inside the slurry to prevent gas loss. You can use a large balloon type arrangement to collect the gas through the vent pipe which is part of the septic tank.<br><br>You can use the digested slurry to feed seedlings
It is so sweet, you folks are so polite and considerate, and also very eager to get involved in a good undertaking. I hope you undetstand that we Americans are sometimes amused, and sometimes frutrated with your use of English. But that is a minor matter, your hearts are so dear.
<p>thank you...</p>
<p>dear sir, </p><p>can u send me all these pictures and more details to my mail id </p><p>cleanyog@gmail.com</p><p>waste of 4 people family is sufficient for this plant and how much gas is expected to generate?</p><p>regards</p><p>sudhakar shelke</p>
<p>Please see attached files sent to your mail for more information</p>
<p>Hi,</p><p>I am interested to use this in a school project.</p><p>could you please send me more detailed instructions to my email: noah.emery@yahoo.com.</p><p>I will really appreciate this </p><p>thanks</p>
<p>Please see attached files sent to your mail</p>
You are amazing, i understood this project easily by ur clear steps and appropriate pics. I was finding this system with easy techniques.
thank you...
<p>Hi, </p><p>I am highly <br>interested to try it for domestic use. I live in Colombia. Can you<br> send me more detailed instruction through my email. The email is 20.mauricio@gmail.com. I will really appreciate this. thanks</p>
Please see attached files sent to your mail
Please could you make a video on how it is done step by step.<br>My email is olaidemogaji@gmail.com<br>I am a physics student of the University of Lagos and the University is close to a slum which generates very large amount of waste but no one to tap into such abundance. We complain about lack of power supply but fail to tap into such golden oppourtunity.<br>It would be my utmost pleasure to have this video and carry such ingenious idea to the slum and bring them out of darkness.
I did not make any video. As I work alone in most of my projects, I prefer to take pictures. For taking pictures and videos also I need some assistance, otherwise it may not be possible.
<p>I'm still skeptic about how functioning of slurry outlet. It seems to be fixed a bit too high, does the slurry actually rise up that high, and does a single hole actually help in pushing out all of the waste? </p><p>And second, what's the use of the 64&quot; feeder pvc, when organic waste is being/can be directly poured into the digester tank(which is also easier and hassle free)??? </p>
it is very simple. You can fix the slurry outlet at any height, but the slurry can not be stored more than that height. Digested material float up to the top.and when you add more organic waste, the digested slurry at the top portion of the tank falls out through the outlet pipe.<br><br>Secondly, how can you pour the waste directly in to the digester tank when Gas holder is floating in it ? Do to that you have to remove the gas holder tank and loss all stored gas. You can not pour the waste through the sides
<p>hi mr antoniraj. Very nice instructions. Have a question - how do you feed kitchen waste into this system..what dilution with water do you use to make the feed slurry.</p>
<p>the kitchen waste needs to be pulverized using a blender and diluted with 4 to five times water. The diluted waste is fed through the feed pipe fitted at the center</p>
<p>Good day sir. I came across this project online and I am highly interested to try it for my domestic use. I live in Nigeria. sir can you send me more detailed instruction through my email. the email add is <a href="mailto:akinnat@gmail.com" rel="nofollow">akinnat@gmail.com</a> . I will really appreciate this. thanks</p>
<p>Please go through attached files sent to your mail</p>
Sir,<br>I like u for patiently answering every question sir<br><br>Sir can i do extract the energy ( bio-gas) from sewage.<br>I am more interested in creating a project related to this <br>Can u please ,Send the information related to my mail sir?<br>(sama.jeevan.98@gmail.com)
<p>Please go through the articles at the following links. I hope these links will be helpful to you for the project you are interested in...</p><p><a href="https://www.dbfz.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Vortraege/BiogasWorld2014/10C_Anlin_Xu_End-Engl..pdf">https://www.dbfz.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Vortraeg...</a></p><p><a href="http://www.rfkl.se/Documents/MOMENT/Newsletter/Newsletter_December.pdf">http://www.rfkl.se/Documents/MOMENT/Newsletter/New...</a></p>
<p>Dear antoniraj</p><p>I'm currently working on a university project regarding home made biogas plants and I'd like to include pictures from this article in my report as an additional example. Would you be so kind to allow me to use your publication and pictures from this website in the report?</p><p>Kind regards,</p><p>Anna </p>
<p>Yes, you can use the picture from this Project</p>
Well done work.GOD bless you always
<p>thank you...</p>
So the tank is just slightly larger than the bottomless &quot;gas holder&quot;. And the open bottom gas holder, more properly called a collector or trap, floats, bottom edges submerged, in the slurry. The guide tube and the close proximity of the sidewalls of the two &quot;cans&quot; (plastic buckets), one within the other, keep the collector/ holder upright and oriented so as to maintain the bottom edges in the fluid, trapping the gas as it rises from the slurry, not escaping under the bottom edges of the collector (floating dome made from a plastic bucket), and out the top of the collector, through the couplers and up the gas &quot;pipe&quot; (i.e. hose, a pipe is ridgid, a hose is flexible, in all technologies). From there it can flow to a burner, or be compressed into a storage cylinder for later use. Noam Chomsky is my hero, as are the people here.
<p>Yes, you are absolutely right. This is a prototype working model constructed for demo purpose only.</p>
It is so sweet, you folks are so polite and considerate, and also very eager to get involved in a good undertaking. I hope you undetstand that we Americans are sometimes amused, and sometimes frutrated with your use of English. But that is a minor matter, your hearts are so dear.
I made a comment about lack of detail and the source for the digester tank. I now found the second previous link to your plastic &quot;can&quot; design/version/small digester. In the US this is referred to as a &quot;bucket, and is one of the most common containers in America. Typically, this detailed, well illustrated guide would ne the first link, and then the more general description of the larger dark colored digester unit eould make sense. Seeing the larger description first, I assumed that one was supposed to be the the primer (first, more detailed so as to clarify more brief, later descriptions of altetnative or final/ scaled up versions. I now see the entire picture, thank you. Robert Bowen, Master of Space and Time.<br>bowen5400@yahoo.com
Sir,<br>I like u for patiently answering every question sir<br><br>Sir can i do extract the energy ( gas) from drainage.<br>I am more interested in taking up a project related to this <br>Can u please <br>Send the information related to it sir (sama.jeevan.98@gmail.com)<br><br>Sir,<br> can i please have u contact details too
Sir, can u pls elaborate abt step 4, ie what must be the diameter of gas pipe and the dimensions of T-valve and other items required...
The diameters and sizes of gas pipe and other items are same as being used in normal LPG gas stove. You can get these items from hardware vendors selling gas items or from Drip Irrigation accessory shops. They also have crimping tool for attaching items to the gas pipe.
<p>Gud day sir, this is very interesting project. Currently i am working on biogas production using fruits and vegetable waste, please how can you be of help to me in terms of materials and method to use. You can send any useful materials and procedure to my email. ogadom4rill@gmail.com thank you very much. </p>
<p>please see attached files sent to your mail</p>
<p>sir i need complete details like time taking for bio gas production and is it feasible for small scale anganwadi schools and is there any chance to produce electricity by produced gas ?</p>
<p>Please see my instructable on building a medium sized Biogas plant for home use here...</p><p><br><a href="http://www.instructables.com/id/Constructing-a-Medium-Sized-Biogas-Plant-Using-Kit/">http://www.instructables.com/id/Constructing-a-Med...</a><br><br>You can also use weeds in addition to kitchen and food waste for feeding the Biogas digester. Please see my other instructable at the following link...<br><br><a href="http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-Energy-From-Weeds/">http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-Energy-From-W...</a></p><p>You can produce electricity by using Biogas to run electric generators specially made for this</p>
<p>sir i need complete details like time taking for bio gas production and is it feasible for small scale anganwadi schools and is there any chance to produce electricity by produced gas ?</p>
<p>Hello Sir,</p><p>I am plannig to set up a small biogas plant at my home.If it is successful would like to setup for the society.</p><p>Pl. guide.</p>
Please see my instructable on building a medium sized Biogas plant for home use here...<br><br>http://www.instructables.com/id/Constructing-a-Medium-Sized-Biogas-Plant-Using-Kit/<br><br>You can also use weeds in addition to kitchen and food waste for feeding the Biogas digester. Please see my other instructable at the following link...<br><br>http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-Energy-From-Weeds/<br>
<p>Hello Sir,</p><p>Its glad to see such a beneficial idea. I am planning to make a feasibility report on how can we produce biogas for a colony of 100 houses using the kitchen waste in an urban area. Can you please help me out if it would work for a colony ?</p><p>Thanks </p>

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