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Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste

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Picture of Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste
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I have been searching for some method of using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste efficiently, and came across information on producing bio-gas from organic waste.

The bio-gas produced from food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste, consisting of methane and a little amount of carbon di oxide is an alternative fuel for cooking gas (LPG). Also, the waste materials can be disposed off efficiently without any odor or flies and the digested slurry from the bio-gas unit can be used as an organic manure in the garden.

Components of the Bio-gas Plant

The major components of the bio-gas plant are a digester tank, an inlet for feeding the kitchen waste, gas holder tank, an outlet for the digested slurry and the gas delivery system for taking out and utilizing the produced gas.

This project is also useful for students to have a hands-on learning experience in constructing a Mini Bio-Gas Plant, using locally available material.

Material Required:

1. Empty PVC can 50 ltrs capacity: 1 No. (to be used as Digester Tank)
2. Empty PVC can 40 ltrs capacity: 1 no. (to be used as Gas Holder Tank) (Make sure the smaller can fits inside larger one and moves freely)
3. 64 mm dia pvc pipe: about 40 cm long (to be used for feeding waste material)
4. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 50 cm long (fixed inside gas holder tank as a guide pipe)
5. 25 mm dia pvc pipe: about 75 cm long (fixed inside the digester tank as a guide pipe)
6. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 25 cm long (fixed on digester tank to act as outlet for digested slurry)
7. M-seal or any water-proof adeshive
8. Gas outlet system: Please see Step 4 below for required materials and construction

Tools required

Do not require many tools here. A hack saw blade for cutting the cans & pipes and a sharp knife for cutting holes on the cans are all the tools we need.

Additional accessories

A single burner bio-gas stove or a Bunsen Burner used in school laboratories
 
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Step 1:

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Bought this 50 ltrs capacity PVC can, which will act as the digester unit and removed the top portion of the can, by cutting it with a hack saw blade:

Step 2:

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The smaller white can, which will act as the gas holder fits inside the red one. Here, again removed the top of the white can, also with the help of a hack saw blade:

Step 3:

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64 mm, 32 mm and 25 mm dia PVC pipes which  will be used for feeding the kitchen waste, guide pipe for the gas holder and guide pipe fixed with the digestion chamber respectively. A small piece of 32 mm dia pipe will be used as outlet for the slurry:

Step 4:

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  1. items required for the gas delivery system: got these items from a hardware store

1. Ball valve : one no ( to adjust the gas flow)
2. 'T' joint : one no ( to connect the gas holder and the ball valve)
3. Cap to block one end of 'T' joint : one no
4. Coupling or Adapter : one no (to connect vertical end of 'T' in to the gas collector)
5. Nipple: one no (added to the coupling in to the gas collector)
6. Gas pipe (flexible) : two meters
7. Barb : one no (fitted with the gas pipe, to join with the Ball valve)
8. Clip : one no (used for crimping the barb with the gas pipe and make it leak-proof)
9. Teflon tape : one roll (used as thread tape in all joints)

Step 5:

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Here I have marked the cuts to be made in the bottom of the gas collection tank. The smaller hole on the left for gas delivery system, center hole for fixing the 32 mm guide pipe and 64 mm hole for fixing the waste feeding pipe on the right side. Made these holes with the help of a sharp knife and hack saw blade.

The next image is Inside of the gas holder showing the 32 mm guide pipe (center) and the 64 mm feeding pipe fixed with M-seal

Step 6:

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Top view of the gas holder showing the feeding pipe, central guide pipe and the gas delivery system: I have closed the feeding pipe withe an old lid  (red one). This will facilitate opening the feed pipe only during feeding the system.

Step 7:

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Digestion tank fitted with the central guide pipe and the outlet pipe for the slurry:

Step 8:

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Completed unit. I have removed the gas pipe, so that the joints will get cured without any stress:

Wait for a day or two before feeding the system, allowing all joints to get cured and become leak-proof.

Initially, cow-dung mixed with water will be fed in to the system, which will start the gas formation process. Subsequently, food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste will be diluted with water and used to feed the system. The gas holder will rise along the guide pipes based on the amount of gas produced. We can add some weight on top of the gas holder to increase the gas pressure. When we feed the system, the excess digested slurry will fall out through the outlet pipe, which can be collected, diluted and used as organic manure.

Initial production of gas will consist of oxygen, methane, carbon di oxide and some other gases and will not burn. These gases can be released to the atmosphere by opening the ball valve at least three / four times.

Subsequent gas will consist of about 70 to 80 percent methane and the rest carbon di oxide, which can be used in a single bio-gas burning stove or a Bunsen burner.

Total cost of this proto-type system is about one thousand Indian Rupees (about 20 dollars)

This is a basic prototype of a Bio-gas system using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste to produce gas. An one thousand litre capacity Digestion tank will be sufficient for a small household for daily cooking purpose. The bigger commercial models provide a water seal between the digestion tank and gas holder tank.

You can get further information on kitchen waste based mini Bio-gas plant at the following links:

http://e-biogas.blogspot.in/

http://www.samuchit.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8&Itemid=10

Step 9:

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Charged the digester tank with cow dung diluted with water. Placed the gas holder tank and left it for two three days. The cow dung slurry started the process of gas forming.

Gas formation started and the gas holder tank gets lifted up. I have placed two bricks on top of the gas holder to get more gas pressure.

Step 10:

Note for students who are doing this as their School Project:

1. Take guidance from your teacher while using the gas in a stove or Bunsen burner.
2. Collect surplus food and wastage during lunch, dilute and feed the system.
3. Fruit peels, extracted tea powder, waste milk and milk products  can also be used for feeding the system.
4. DO NOT USE eggshells, Onion peels or left-over bones in this system as they will affect the efficient functioning of the system
5. Plant some seedling
6. while feeding, collect the slurry from the outlet, feed the seedlings and watch them grow
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mkgajrajyesterday
Hello
I have made 200 ltr plastic barrel biogas mini plant in home . But its not work properly. I making its no 8/3/15 and uesd cow waste get regular some gas two time out by out value but its not burn what happen id't know, how much take time it pls helps
Tks you
Manjitgajraj66@gmail.com
antoniraj (author)  mkgajrajyesterday
Hello mkgajraj,

Good to know that you made a 200 ltr biogas plant at home. Please follow below directions :

1. Gas initially produced will not burn. Release the gas about three or four times by opening the outlet valve

2. Start feeding the biogas plant daily. One kilogram kitchen waste or weeds mixed with two ltrs of water

3. You made the plant on 8th March 2015. It will take some time for kitchen waste to produce gas. So please wait for a few more days

4. Even though you are not getting gas, do not forget to feed the plant daily.

5. Do not add more than one kilogram of waste

Hope this will help you
Hello sir
Thanks for replying & i will follow your suggestions .

Hello Sir,

Thank you very much for sharing a very valuable and knowledgeable information with demonstration. I am planning to make a prototype in my house. Hence, would like to request you to share other relevant information that you have which will help me prepare the prototype in my house. Please share the link of youtube if you have prepared the demonstration video during preparing this biogas plant.

Anticipating your positive response & your support.

Thanks & Regards,

Angel

antoniraj (author)  AngelChitrakaryesterday

I do not have any demonstration video of making the biogas plant. I am not clear what type of information you want other than given here. I can send you details if you are more specific about your requirement. However, you can go through my other instructable on constructing a medium sized biogas plant at the following link :

http://www.instructables.com/id/Constructing-a-Medium-Sized-Biogas-Plant-Using-Kit/

my email address is everest_angel@hotmail.com

UmeshK32 days ago

sir can u please send me the full details of this method...
my email id-umeshbhardwaj222@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  UmeshK32 days ago
Please see attached file sent to your mail

Hi, what an amazing project! Thanks so much for sharing this info. Open source is the revolution. Please send your file at gabriel.frappier@gmail.com.

What kind of a stove is to be attached? Natural gas? Propane?

antoniraj (author)  gabriel.frappier.53 days ago
Please go through attached file sent to your mail. For burning the gas you need to use a stove specially made for biogas. Otherwise you can use a Bunsen burner also to burn the gas.

You can also browse through my other instructable on medium sized biogas, where you can find information on biogas stove

http://www.instructables.com/id/Constructing-a-Medium-Sized-Biogas-Plant-Using-Kit/

Hi, unfortunately I don't seem to have received anything by email, I checked the junk mail as well. Are you sure that you spelled the email right? Thanks for your time.

antoniraj (author)  gabriel.frappier.53 days ago

I have sent to the mail id provided by you... gabriel.frappier@gmail.com

Ok, got it now. Thanks a lot, it's well done!

jvrparin4 days ago
hi sir im erick from philippines..im fascinated with your biogas project..please help me design a biogas plant for my pig pen of about 5 to 20 pigs using 4 pcs 200 liters plastic drums..hop to hear from u soon godbless
antoniraj (author)  jvrparin4 days ago
Please go through my other instructable on constructing a medium sized biogas plant at the following link

http://www.instructables.com/id/Constructing-a-Medium-Sized-Biogas-Plant-Using-Kit/
k.kundanp5 days ago

sir can u please send me the full details of this method...

my email id is k.kundanp@gmail.com

waiting for your reply

antoniraj (author)  k.kundanp4 days ago
Please see attached file sent to your mail
mkgajraj6 days ago
antoniraj (author)  mkgajraj6 days ago

there is nothing visible in your comments including the earlier one posted few days back.

Hi I received your
email of the whole process. Thanks you, that was really helpful. I wonder if
you can help me. We are a group of 2 students and we are doing a project about waste
and how food waste can turn into energy. Our aim is to tell people that waste
can be a source of energy. What we have in mind is to make a machine that uses
food waste to create biogas and then to turn it into electricity, just enough
to turn a light bulb on or to boil water. And we would love if you could help
us understand if this is possible and how long will the process take. By
creating this machine*, it allows users to divulge into the facts about the
process of turning food waste into bio gas and to understand how it could save
money on both food and electricity as well as how it can impact the state of
our planet in the long run.

We also intend on
showing that practicing this at home is a good way to be conscious of the
environment and that it is not as complicating as people think to build and
work a food waste storage system. this is my email address: anna_dassaro@hotmail.com

antoniraj (author)  anna.nano.508 days ago

ok, I will send you some material which you can go through. Please check your mail

mkgajraj8 days ago

We are searching for Food Waste Disposer Type mini biogas digester family sized bio-digesters for a school enterprise project to treat organic farm and food wastes to produce biogas to operate a small generator for demonstration purposes. The ambient temperature varies from about 7C in winter to about 20 C in summer.
Sunshine hours will also vary depending on where the digester is sited.

where can I get two different sizes of digester
1. 2m3 active volume and
2. 5m3 active volume

Can you suggest?

antoniraj (author)  khaled.amin.73917 days ago

Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL) also installs Biogas Plants in Bangladesh. They will also provide TK 9000 as start-up subsidy. You can access their website here.

http://www.idcol.org/

antoniraj (author)  khaled.amin.73917 days ago

Your facebook profile you have given in your page shows you are from Bangladesh. Bangladesh Biogas Development Foundation (BBDF) is carrying out research as well as installation of Biogas plants suitable for the climate and size requirement. You can browse through their website at this link for more details please. You can also find their contact details at the bottom of the homepage.

http://www.biogasfoundation.org/

sreekanthk21 days ago

sir i want to built a similar biogas digester for using in home..i tried, but iam not abale to tab the gas properly....sir can u please send me the full details of this method...

my email id is sreekanthrlm@gmail.com

waiting for your reply

antoniraj (author)  sreekanthk21 days ago

this one is a prototype suitable for school science projects and not for home. This system will not provide the pressure required in a biogas stove. For construction details of a medium sized biogas plant for home use, please go through my other instructables at these links below. You can build them yourself without any special tools

http://www.instructables.com/id/Constructing-a-Med...

http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-Energy-From-W...

GulnihalSS23 days ago

Could you send also to me the details, I would be greatful. Thank you.

My mail - gulnihal04@hotmail.com

antoniraj (author)  GulnihalSS23 days ago

Please go through the attached files sent to your mail for more information

AniketA124 days ago

Sir, Will you please send me the details too... It would be very grateful of you
my email-Id is :-
aniket.nitrr@gmail.com
dudeaniket.anand@gmail.com

antoniraj (author)  AniketA124 days ago

please see detail sent to your mail

muhdi125 days ago

Sir, this is a great . please, can you send details of the procedure to my email -deveruchi07@gmail.com. Thank you for upload this information.

antoniraj (author)  muhdi125 days ago

Please see attached file sent to your mail

muhdi125 days ago

Sir, this is a great . please, can you send details of the procedure to my email -deveruchi07@gmail.com. Thank you for upload this information.

muhdi125 days ago

Sir, this is a great . please, can you send details of the procedure to my email -deveruchi07@gmail.com. Thank you for upload this information.

gbengith1 month ago

Sir, this is a great ideal. Thank you for upload this information. please, can you send details of the procedure to my email (snrgbenga@gmail.com). Thanks in Anticipation.

antoniraj (author)  gbengith1 month ago

please see attached file sent to your mail

I did not get the attached file. please resend it. Thanks for your effort.
antoniraj (author)  gbengith1 month ago

I have resent the file. Please check and confirm

SurvivorA1 month ago

this can be a very interesting school project. ill be very happy if you share more detailed information with me via email. my email is cangurel91@outlook.com

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