This instructable adds to any of the Arduino on a Breadboard instructables. I wrote my own breadboard-Arduino tutorial, and then I found that I was struggling to program some of the boards I made. A lot of research and dead-ends got me understanding that:
1. You either need a microcontroller with a pre-loaded Bootloader, or must load your own
2. Not all ATmega328’s are equal
(A bootloader, very simply, is a programme that sits on the chip and manages the upload of your sketches onto the chip)
There are plenty of bootloading resources, but I couldn’t find a single one that pulled everything together in a way that made sense to me.
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