Here is an introduction to the few main parts of a speaker:
This includes the woofer and tweeter. The woofer vibrates at a low frequency to create bass while the tweeter vibrates at high frequencies to create treble. more on how speakers work
This is a specially designed piece of circuitry that separates incoming audio signals into high and low frequency pass. All the low frequencies are sent to the woofer and the high frequencies are sent to the tweeter.
This is the box that holds the woofer, tweeter and crossover unit. It will take up the majority of the instructable.
This is my first instructable! Please leave comments. I am not an expert on this topic but I'll try my best to answer questions.
To get started, we need to decide which speaker drivers and crossover unit to use.
Step 1: Choosing the Drivers
- where you intend to use the speakers
- what you intend to power the speakers with
- how much space you have or how big you want them to be
- how much money you have to spend
In my case, i will be using them in a relatively small college student room and power them with a 100 watt per channel receiver that i found in someones driveway (they were throwing it out and yes i did ask if i could have it). I have about 200 dollars to spend on the whole project.
I need something not too big but will produce a good amount of sound and came up with the following drivers:
WOOFER: Dayton DC250-8 10" Classic Woofer $26.20 x2 (one for each speaker) more
This woofer can handle 70 watts RMS and 105 watts max which is good enough for my needs. Its Frequency Response is: 25-2,500 Hz and with an Xmax of 4mm and SPL of 89 decibels should produce a good about of bass. Remember, the larger the woofer, the larger the enclosure will need to be.
TWEETER: Goldwood GT-525 1" Soft Dome Tweeter $9.50 x2 (one for each speaker) more
This tweeter can handle 50 watts RMS and 100 watts max which matches the woofer. Its frequency response is: 2,000 - 20,000 Hz and has an SPL of 92 decibels.
CROSSOVER: Dayton XO2W-2.5K 2-Way 2,500 Hz $23.07 x2 (one for each speaker) more
This 2-way crossover unit separates incoming frequencies at the 2500 Hz mark. So any sound with frequency less than 2500 Hz will be sent to the woofer and vice versa for the tweeter. This means you need to chose a woofer and tweeter with overlapping frequency responses so no frequencies will be lost while in operation. It is also possible to make your own crossover but i will not go into that.
The total cost of the woofers, tweeters and crossovers came to be $137.06 which is relatively cheap considering how expensive they get. I bought my drivers and crossover from partsexpress. They are very reliable as i've used them numerous times in the past.
Hopefully this step will help you chose the best driver for your needs. The next step will describe how to design your speaker enclosure (the box).