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Are you tired of those old black speakers that only just make sounds? Maybe sound reactive lights are just not enough to impress you? How about a Plasma Speaker?

A plasma speaker is a device that generates an high voltage electrical arc that makes purple light and music! Without any speakers or any moving parts! Sounds too good to be true? Well, you're wrong, the high voltage arc really does 'sing' by vibrating in the air. (Of course, you will need to give the device musical audio for it to work.) And just leave this instructable if you still don't believe me...

And this is something I always wanted to build - I have been dreaming to build one for about 6 months, until Kiteman has greatly boosted my encouragement to build one. (Thanks Kiteman!)

The video of my plasma speaker - early prototype.

 
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Step 1: The dangers you must know...

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A plasma speaker is no toy...

Health Hazard
Unlike the ordinary speakers, the plasma speaker are dangerous high voltage device, do NOT attempt to build this device unless you know what you are doing... And do NOT even attempt to build one if you have heart problems or weak heart or wearing a pacemaker, because one little shock from this thing can put you out...
I am not responsible for any injuries or deaths caused by this device.

Why should you know all of this? it is because you can ONLY live once, and no more...
If you don't think that you shouldn't build one, just watch movies of it working instead, much better than risking your life to build and operate one.
If you think you are okay to build one without killing your self, then move on to the next step.

Hazard to Electronics
Since the plasma speaker generates high voltages, there is a chance there will be high voltage spikes on the low voltage side of the device, which can get onto the audio line and damage (or destroy) the player. They are some safety features to prevent the spikes damaging the player, but they can fail... So I am not responsible if your player gets damaged, and use cheap players like CD players, if you're rich, you can use expensive players if you want. :-)

Step 2: Schematics

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I got the idea from scopeboy's website on his flyback driver section, but the schematic was quite complex and buying four MOSFET's is a little too expensive for me...

So I simplified the design to using one MOSFET.

I get a lot of complainants of this project is not working very well or at all. This new design WORKs, however, for most people it may not work. This is due to the MOSFET (and some other components) is poor quality.

I just recently found out that manufacture who makes the components sell the best quality ones to other manufactures and sell the poorer quality ones to the whole sellers and retailers. For this project, the best grade MOSFET's is critical, and it can only be gotten by salvaging old electronic devices, unless you are willing to pay for thousands of components for the manufacture... :-)

Step 3: So, how does it actually work!?!?!?

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Okay, you must be very curious how the plasma speaker works...

Note: This information is technical, skip this step if you don't understand...

The TL494 acts like an oscillator and a modulator, it generates a high frequency (5KHz to 45KHz) to drive the flyback transformer to make high voltage arcs. Then when you give it audio, the TL494 modulates the audio frequency into the main high frequency. Now the flyback transformer is being driven by the high frequency and the audio frequency, and when the arc is produced, the arc vibrates the air with both the audio and high frequency creating sounds.
If you tune up the 22K potentiometer, the high frequency increases, when it goes higher than 20KHz, we cannot hear it, but only the audio frequency...

I hope you can kinda understand this..

Step 4: What you will need...

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You will need quite a lot of stuff to make the plasma speaker...

Parts:
  • TL494 chip (Datasheet for TL494)
  • 200uF (or 220uF) - 50v electrolytic capacitor
  • 47nF - 250v (or similar voltage ratings) capacitor
  • 100nF - 50v capacitor
  • 10nF - 50v capacitor
  • 2.2K - 1/4W resistor
  • 10 ohm - 1/4W resistor
  • UF4007 diode (or other fast diode that is rated 1A (or more) and 500v (or more)
  • 10K - 1/4W potentiometer (same thing as a variable resistor)
  • 22K - 1/4W potentiometer (same thing as a variable resistor)
  • Audio jack
  • Wires
  • IRF540 MOSFET (other MOSFET's with similar ratings should work)
  • Large heatsink
  • Flyback transformer (can be found from old CRT.)
  • 12v power source (for TL494 oscillator / I used a 9v battery)
  • 12v to 40v power source (for the flyback transformer)
  • Breadboard (for testing)
  • Veroboard

I bought most of my electronic parts from Farnell.

Tools:
  • Soldering iron
  • Wire strippers
  • Wire cutters
  • Pliers
  • Helping hands
  • Hot glue gun

Abilities:
  • Good with a soldering iron.
  • Can read schematics.
  • Know what you are doing when you are dealing with high voltage.

Step 5: Build the prototype on the bread board

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Do what the title says... Build the circuit on the bread board!

Why on a bread board and not build it directly onto the veroboard?

Well, it is a very good idea to build the prototype on the bread board before you solder the components onto the veroboard because...
  • You will get a better idea on how to build a 'real' one on the veroboard.
  • You can make sure all the components are working fine, if not, you can replace it easily.
  • You can modify or tweet the circuit a bit to give the plasma speaker a better performance.

I built my circuit using my simplified schematic on the bread board that is connected to the "Electronic Lab" kit that I got a long time ago.

To connect the flyback transformer to the circuit, wind 5 or more turns of thick solid-core wire on the ferrite core. That will be your primary coil.

Step 6: Test the prototype

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After you had built it, go ahead and test it!
If it does not work, don't get all frustrated or anything like that, go back and check your circuit closely, make sure there are no missing connections, and check the components are properly connected to the circuit...

Mine works quite well, unfortunately, the MOSFET is wasting large amounts of energy into heat, so it is blazing hot... I have to make the heat sink bigger to try keep it cool longer. But it still goes blazing hot after three minutes of continuous operation.
Oh well, that is my efficient design so far...

If yours working well with out very much problem, thats great!

Step 7: Build the circuit

After you have tested to make sure everything is working, start building the prototype onto the veroboard.

If you notice in the pictures, I use an 16 pin socket for the TL494, it is really good idea to use sockets for the IC' s because you won't risk heat damage from soldering, and if the IC fails, you can easily replace it instead of desoldering it and solder another one in..
I also added an LED indicator, that is a good idea to add that on too, so you know whether the circuit is on or off. The LED indicator is connected to the TL494's power supply line.

After you had done soldering, make sure you made nice shiny solder joints and they are no solder bridges. If you think it is all good enough, add some dab of hot glue onto the loose components and wires for strain relief.

Step 8: Final test

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Okay, you are very close...
Test your plasma speaker to make sure if it is working or not.

If its working, let out a sigh of relive that you did it!

If its not working, don't overreact of frustrated, (I know it is very frustrating when something does not work).
A few things can go wrong with this circuit, here is a list of some problems...
  • Solder bridge - That is the most common problem in soldering.
  • Some connections missed out - Also another common problem...
  • Damaged components
Try find and fix the problem, there is no point giving up - unless you are really lazy to do so...

After you got your plasma speaker working, it is a good idea to the circuit into a project box. I will protect the electronics from being damaged from foreign objects and protects people from an electrical shock.

Step 9: Enjoy and impress your friends!

Well, there is the instructions to make your own Plasma Speaker! Go ahead and pump in your favorite music then listen and watch the arc dance with the music and admire what you had built...

Then show it to your friends and family, I can guarantee you they will be greatly impressed.

When my Dad first saw my plasma speaker in operation, his first words about it are: "What the f... Tha... Thats impossible." He is wrong, nothing is impossible... Nothing.

Step 10: How to use the plasma speaker

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Here is how you can control the plasma speaker with the two potentiometers.

The 10K potentiometer is used to change the TL494's internal oscillator frequency - from 5KHz to 50KHz. If you want to play music on the arc, tune the frequency up until you don't hear it and play the music. Note: The 10K potentiometer does NOT affect the input audio (music).

I am not too sure what the 22K potentiometer's job is, but it seems to change the volume of the audio, fiddle with the 22K potentiometer until you can hear the music loudly. Note: Making the music louder will shorten the length of the arc.

Step 11: Interesting discharges...

Just a little story I like to tell you about...

While I was testing (well, playing) my plasma speaker, the 12v battery is going flat and the arcs are becoming unimpressively short. So I replaced the battery with my lab PSU I modified from an ATX PSU and put an 22,000uF capacitor in parallel with its 12v output and ground.
The 22,000uF capacitor is used to adsorb any high voltage spikes that may appear on the line.

When I connect the PSU's power to the plasma speaker and turned it on...

The arc are very different, instead of a sting of purple light, the arc flaps furiously and it makes very interesting light display. But this is not suitable for a plasma speaker, because the arcs flaps so much it just simply drowned out the music...

Here is a video of the arcs.



Well, I hoped you enjoyed this instructable!
If you have any questions, or need help, or found an error, or anything, make a comment! I like comments! :-)
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hey what about if a 5 watt amp is placed before the flyback
wrecklesst2 years ago
THe way this works is exactly like how we get fm radio or any radio. The actual audio signal is too weak for you to pick up fromany distance in comparison the audio here is too weak to power the plasma generation. So we need a carrier and that is the high frequency. High enough to power the plasma generation and as stated above when you set it too a vibration above what the human ear can pick up it is in essence silent (your dog will disagree) same with radio a carrier signal with enough power to transmit over a great distance is used and the actuall audio signal you pick up with your radio is mixed into this carrier and your reciever picks it out..

AMAZING STUFF I freakin love that you did this. I made a little prototype much like your original one. I was going to make a final one and was excited then I put the project down and it has been forgotten. That was almost ten years ago. I am once again excited about thi and am starting my build again. Thanks,

Nice job
Ohh and to anyone else reading the warning given for this build is no joke and it isnt just a warning like be careful itll shock you It is very seriously do not do unless you are 100 percent sure you kow about the fundamentals of electricity. You must understand how electricity works and how to protect your self from its power. This can kill. If you have even a little doubt then you are not ready to do this. Go and read up on electricity there are uhndreds of tutorials on it. \
With that said anyone with the experience and knowledge will love the display this gives. I was amazed the first time it was to unbelievable
iceng2 years ago
Your video won't play....
Says " This video is private. "..
Can you let me see it ?

A
bobzjr2 years ago
This looks cool and very dangerous.
Love The Smiths!
you said you meant 47uf instead od 47nf witch one is right ?
will it kill you and if it won't how bad is the shock?
htc1095 years ago
 can anyone give me advice on a good enough power source or atleast how to make one using some kind of batteries or power adapters????
You can modifiy a atx computer power supply to give you around 20a, its realy easy
Plasmana (author)  htc1095 years ago
You can use a car battery...

Power supplies are not recommended as they have 'noise' in the lines, it will interfere the performance of the plasma speaker.
 i have a power supply which is 30v would a capacitor to filter the noise?
3 12 volt batteries in series would give you 36 vdc with less ripple. if you have a o-scope you could always take a look at the ripple with the power supply you currently have.

If you use a oscilloscope's AC coupling setting it will reject the supply's DC and reveal any ripple
a car battery will work
havent tried it yet, nor have i built this plasma speaker, but i do know car alarm transmitter batteries are rated at 12V

 http://www.radioshack.com/product/index.jsp?productId=3538773&clickid=prod_cs

radioshack isnt the best place for components but batteries should be fine lol
arianen3 years ago
I've been looking around at all of the websites mentioned in the comments, but still haven't been able to track down the 22K potentiometer. If someone could give me a link to where I can buy it, that would be great!
A 25K potentiometer will work fine.
http://uk.farnell.com/jsp/search/browse.jsp?N=731+2031+202462&Ntk=gensearch&Ntt=22K+potentiometer&Ntx=mode+matchallpartial


and

http://uk.farnell.com/jsp/search/browse.jsp?N=731+2031+204275&Ntk=gensearch&Ntt=22K+potentiometer&Ntx=mode+matchallpartial

might be what your looking for
Not to be rude or anything, but next to the audio jack on the Schematic where the capaciter is, the Schematic says 47uf 250v but i am finding it verry hard to get one.

I am wondering if you mean 0.47uf or 0.047uf at 250v becuse i am bulding one this weekend (4 days away).

I was also wondering if i could use the cpu cooler from a dell poweredge 1850 server.

Thankyou verry much.
nof-z3 years ago
the last video is private. i cant watch. does the radio shack basic electronics kit you used in the prototype have all of the pieces in it?
I found a great website to buy flyback transformers,
http://www.collectiblearcadejukeboxespinball.com/flyback-transformer/
i am probably not going to build that one, i like stuff like that but someone might accedently touch it and die
mymridon3 years ago
We just finished our basement and we have a home theater room but my dad is too busy to find/make/purchase/etc a sound system so I was thinking of easy/fun/cheap/cool solutions. I was thinking of making five of these and maybe figure a way to make a sub out of one and make transparent boxes for them for cool effect.

Any ideas to contribute or counsel for/against this idea? Thanks
sciencetor23 years ago
hey, i was reading your circuitry diagram, and i'm sorry in advance for being picky, its kind of in my nature, but in your illustration of the flyback transformer you used the symbol for resistance, rather than inductance, and a trasformer uses inductance. but over all this is a very cool project, I would like to build something like this in Tesla Coil form, but it appears to be much more difficult(or impossible, i'm not entirely sure how that degree of fine tuned modulation would work in a Tesla Coil) but currently i think ill settle for a regular musical Tesla Coil due to the complexity of this project.
theVader753 years ago
how much voltage are you giving to the flyback coil?(12-40)
im afraid not to burn the mosfet (irf 640)
i created a profiole to ask you, or anyone, will this work with a Tesla coil, all i want to do is make a tesla coil guitar amp and this would be a major step for me getting there. and the more people help me the sooner i may be able to make a page on how to do that. so please help me!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
http://www.instructables.com/id/Audio-Modulated-Solid-State-Tesla-Coil/
A tesla coil works much differently than the device here. Not to mention running on much MUCH higher frequencies. If you could do it, it would be highly unlikely that the sound quality would be any good, and if you got anything wrong, it could short back into the guitar.

However, a higher voltage version of this device is not impossible, so you could try that (within reason. you're not going to get a considerable volume out of anything you can run off 120v wall source.).
Maybe someone mentioned this elsewhere, but it's probably a good idea to optically couple your input (like with a really long fiber optic cable) if you're dealing with high frequency at even marginally high voltages. High frequency AC can see a fully conductive path even across insulators in some cases.
N3v3rm0r35 years ago
ok, i've built the s[eaker(school project) and.... that bloody mosfet blew up when i was presenting it to the classroom :(. thankfully, i had another one and just replaced it, i haven't soldered the mosfet to any cirquit board, it was beeing held in place by crocodile clips. another thing: would i fix the problem by putting a computer fan on the mosfet??
Just buy a bigger fet, there cheaps as chips on ebay
Plasmana (author)  N3v3rm0r35 years ago
I had MOSFET's blowing up in my face before, not fun... Using a fan may or may not fix the problem, but it will certantly allow you to run yout plasma speaker for longer.
Seems I'll just have to try(thankfully I have a dozen of those MOSFETs xD)
try putting a big heatsink. Its definitively worth it.
I'll put it inside of my computer and I want to be VERY sure that it'll not blow up(or at least it'll not take anything with it...) Haven't yet tried a fan, the heatsink works, but better keep your fingers away......
This is my first soldering project fyi, but just a funny bit of information, when I hooked my circut up to a speaker(at a lower voltage) it was not playing MY music but intead it was picking up AM1100 radio, what could cause this? Its kinda funny XD
Make two of these for stereo sound XD
I have a question: Could you use a plasma speaker for the delivery method of a RIFE machine? (If you dont know what a rife machine is google it, it can cure many diseases including lyme)
So from what I understand as to how this works is that the high frequency (inaudible) allowes the voltage to be driven accross the coils on the transformer at a much more efficient rate, thus allowing the lower (audible) frequencies to be transfered at the much more efficient rate, am i right? Also I have a question, is there a way to modify a normal self-powered computer speaker so that it produces these high frequencies? This is for my science fair which is on electro -magnets.
GASSYPOOTS3 years ago
saftey box maybe?
widownt3 years ago
Okay, so i've got an plasma globe and i wanna use this for a plasma speaker, i know it can produce the sparks but i;ve got a problem, what should I change to get sound out of this? Please help, help is appreciated a lot!
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