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Picture of Build LED Under Counter Lighting that ROCKS!
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Background:
I admit it, I am a geek when it comes to LED's and LED lighting. The fluorescent under counter lighting that came with my hose wasn't cutting it. Time for an upgrade! With a background in physics and surgical lighting, I knew I needed a good Color Temperature and Color Rendering Index (CRI). So what are Color Temperature and Color Rendering Index? They are two measures of what light looks like and how it makes things look when it illuminates them. Color Temperature can be read about here, and Color Rendering Index here. Color Temperature is the main “color” of the light based on the temperature of a black body radiator. It is measured in degrees Kelvin (Which is “zero” equals absolute zero and the same per degree increase as Centigrade.) A lower Color Temperature, say around 3700-3500K is considered “warm” light and a hotter one such as 7000K is considered “cool” because it is bluer. Yes, it is backwards from what you would think. There is a lot of debate going on about Color Rendering Index as it is more subjective than people realize. It also depends on Color Temperature, so a CRI of 90 at 3700K will look different than a CRI of 90 at 6700K. Why is this important and why do I care??? Well, when it was just incandescent lighting vs. fluorescent you kinda knew what you were getting into.

For me to achieve success with my kitchen counter lighting project I needed one key thing: wife approval factor. As much as I liked LED's my wife has a different opinion. I first had to prototype a 4 foot section and do a side by side comparison. The LED's won!

There are a lot of power LED's available these days from Nichia, Cree, and Seoul Semiconductor. All are available in warm or cool Color Temperatures. The LED's I used, I lucked into. I got a bunch of 1 watt Nichia emitters that have a color temp of 4400K and a high CRI. Unfortunately for me, they were bare emitters, not mounted on a star PC board.

Another piece of the puzzle I needed to figure out was: How much light do I need? Light gets measured in “Lux” which relates to “Lumens” by means of one lux = one lumen per square meter. Check here for more info: Interestingly, there is a push to have light bulbs listed in lumens instead of watts as that measurement is more relevant to what you see. There are also recommended levels for the amount of light that should be present in living and working spaces. Check that out here  OK, with all this background info I was ready to start... 
 
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Step 1: Design Phase

Picture of Design Phase
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I really wanted to improve on the current light output and provide a nicer quality light. To answer this I needed to figure out how much light was there to begin with. First I researched the light output of typical fixtures and came across this great info
So I looked under my counter and found a random assortment of fluorescent lights. I have a lot of counter space including two five foot stretches of cabinets on a 24 foot counter that includes the sink and stove. The five foot stretches were different, one had a four foot fluorescent and one had a two foot and a one foot. I guess they were “what ever was on the back of the truck” designed... I now had the chance to even things out. I measured that available space and came up with 16.5 feet of total space broken down into sections of 5, 3, 1.5 an 1 foot. Based on the light output I wanted I came up with a need for about 400 lumens per foot. My LED's were 70 lumens per watt driven with 350ma (About 1 watt). At 440ma I determined I could get 90-100 lumens. After modeling this in excel I figured I needed an LED every 2.7 inches. I rounded down to 2.5 inches.

How to mount these was my next thought process. I came up with using 1.5” angle aluminum that would also act as a heat sink. There are many IC's designed to drive LED's and LED strings with boost convertors etc but I went old school. White LED's have a voltage drop across them of about 3.5 volts. If I put 8 of those in series I would need 28 volts. This worked for what I was going to use as a power supply. I had several 24VAC transformers from other unfinished projects that could supply 2 amps and I wanted to be able to use these. They are also readily available. One of these could run 3 strings of 8 LED's with a margin of safety. Check out schematic 1, because the 24 VAC is an RMS value the peak value of the voltage is 1.4 times larger. So after rectification and charging a filter capacitor there is about 35VDC available at no load. Under load of about 1.5 amps we drop to just over 30 volts. I planned on using a simple current regulator based on the LM317. They are well known, robust, can supply 1.5 amps and, are not expensive. Because the LED's I had were not mounted on a PC “star” board I had to source those and figure out how to solder them to the boards. The following is my experience with all of this with a very good outcome. You can use as much of this as you need to build your own LED lighting system. Lets start building!

Materials:
LED's Aluminum Angle: Mounting Hardware:
  • 4-40 nylon screws Digikey H544-nd 
  • 4-40 nuts Digikey H216-nd
  • Transformer, 24VAC Jameco
  • Wire 22 gauge, white and black. I used Black for ground and white for +DC
  • Wire nuts Lowes
  • 5 Dual gang J-box 2 1/2” height to contain the power supply and connect to LED strings Lowes
  • Covers for J-boxes (should be right next the the J-boxes)  Lowes 
 

Step 2: Construction: Soldering the LED's to the Stars...

My first challenge was to mount the LED's on a Star PCB. At first I thought I could solder these by hand and all I needed was to find the LED star mounts. I found some from Digikey (Search LED Star PCB) but the price was a little steep. I then found that Deal Extreme had them for much less. I ordered a few to experiment. That is when I learned that hand soldering these was a no go. After doing some sleuthing around I found that people were converting electric skillets into surface mount soldering stations. I ordered some solder paste from digikey:,  read up on the soldering temperature profile for LED's and drove to Walmart to buy a skillet. I found that by turning the skillet to the lowest setting I could get the right rate of heating, then when I reached the part of the graph where the temperature should peak turn it to high until the solder re-flowed then turn the hot plate off and let it cool. That met the cool down part of the graph. I monitored the whole process with a non contact pyrometer I got on sale at Harbor Freight. My son was fascinated with this and still uses it to see how hot or cold things are. It was a manual process but I could do about 50 LED's at once so no problem!
  1. Put solder paste on the + and – tabs of the Star PCB.
  2. Put some solder paste on the bottom of the LED.
  3. Place the LED on the Star Note: be very careful to get the polarity right! + to + and - to -
  4. Put the whole thing on the base of the electric skillet. I tried to keep them evenly distributed from the heating elements.
  5. Turn it on to low while monitoring the temperature until you get to 150°C.
  6. Turn the skillet temperature to High until you see the solder re-flow somewhere around 220°C 
  7. When all the LED's have re-flowed, turn the skillet off and let cool
The whole process should take 4-5 minutes or less. See the Pictures
  

Step 3: Construction: Mounting the Stars

Now how to mount them... To use the angle aluminum I needed to ensure that the mounting hardware did not short anything out. I found non conductive nylon 4-40 screws from Digikey that were the perfect solution. No worries if they touch any of the solder connections. I started by marking off 2.5 inch increments on the angle aluminum. I was going to wire the LED's in series with eight per string. This meant for my 5 foot sections of light (Each 5 foot section was actually one 3 foot and one 2 foot section) I would have to have two extra on one section to connect to six on another section. To accurately and repeatably drill the holes, I used a jig with my drill press. This was simply two pieces of wood clamped so that all the holes were the same distance from the edge of the angle aluminum. I drilled all the wholes at that distance then set the jig to the correct distance for the second set of holes. Add holes for the current regulator every eight LED's. Finally don't forget to drill mounting holes on the other side of the angle to mount to the counter. Use a larger drill bit to clean up the holes when you are finished. I used 400 grit sand paper to smooth the surface that the LED mount too. This is to ensure good thermal contact. When mounting the LED's use the non conductive 4-40 screws and align the LED stars so the they can be daisy chained easily when wring them. Align the + and – connections so that they all go in the same direction. See the pictures. Mount the LM317 regulators IC's. Use a thermal insulator such as this  when mounting them. DO NOT tighten the screws too much or you can strip the threads. When they were hand tight, I added about a ¼ turn with the screw driver.

Step 4: Construction: Build the Regulators

Picture of Construction: Build the Regulators
We are using the LM317 regulator it is actually a voltage regulator but it makes a great current regulator by adding one resistor. There is an internal reference between the output and the adjustment terminal of 1.2 VDC. By using a 2.7 ohm resistor we can set it to supply a maximum current of: I=V/R or 1.2/2.7 = 444 ma. I mounted the resistors directly to the 3 terminal regulator by forming the leads into little half loops that I could solder directly to the ADJ and Vout terminals See picture. NOTE: We actually take the output from the ADJ terminal. Because of the voltage drop across the 2.7 ohm resistor, the LM317 will supply a fixed current to ground out of the ADJ pin, which in our case is 444ma. Also note that the current flows through the resistor too, so it needs to rated for a minimum of 1W to be safe.

Step 5: Construction: Wire the LED's

Construction: Wire the LED's
I used 22 gauge wire and connected the LED's in series in sections of eight. For my two five foot sections I had the situation of a three foot piece and a two foot piece. This left me with having two LED's for one string on one piece of aluminum and the other six on the other. This meant I needed to connect the string after I mounted them. Gotta love soldering under counters and upside down.

First step here is to solder a small blob onto the + and = terminals on the Star PCB. This is a little more difficult than you think and turning the temperature up on your soldering iron helps a lot. Then tin each wire and with a clean tip, put a little solder on the tip and press the wire into the blob until it flows in.

Connect the top of the string of LED's (by that I mean the end with the + on it to the ADJ pin of the the LM-317. See the schematic. I had one section that was only on foot long and I only used six LED's. I used a different transformer for this section, an 18VAC one. This gave me less of a voltage drop across the LM317 and thus less heat. I soldered separate ground wires after estimating how long they would need to be to get to the power supplies but daisy chained the positive leads to all the Vin on the LM317's and left enough extra to go to the power supply. Which brings us to the power supplies...

Step 6: Construction: Power Supplies

Picture of Construction: Power Supplies
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The power supply is the classic: Transformer, Full Wave Bridge and a Capacitor. Just like Grandpa Jules used to make.  I had a couple bridges lying around but this one is perfect.  Then for filter caps these work great.  I built the supplies into 2.5 inch tall dual gang J-boxes. These are the kind of metal boxes that you can knock out circular openings and put in strain reliefs to bring wire into the box. I knocked out one of the cutouts and put in a ½” strain relief. This is to bring in the wire I used to connect the AC power. Then mount the transformer to the bottom of the J-box using a 6-32 machine screw and nut. I soldered the capacitor to the bridge rectifier ensuring that the + and – were correct. Then connect the 24VAC wires to the AC input on the bridge. If you are not sure about which wires are which, the 115VAC side will have a higher DC resistance that you can measure with a DVM. My transformer read about 18 ohms on the 115VAC side and about 2 on the 24VAC side. I used heat shrink tubing to cover the AC leads and then soldered about 2 feet of the black and white low voltage wire. Then I wrapped the whole rectifier and capacitor package in electrical tape to insulate it. I did a 8 hour test run to make sure it did not get to hot. For the 115VAC side, I used about 2 feet of SOJ 14-gauge rubber insulated wire from Lowes. Based on my specifics this worked for me. You may need to do this differently depending on your use. Strip back a couple inches of the outer insulation and then using wire nuts connect the line and neutral to the 115VAC side of the transformer. I connected the ground wire to the case of the J-box to be safe. Strip about the same length from the other end and expose enough copper wire to use wire nuts on the AC power coming out of the wall. Tighten the strain relief and you are ready to install!

Step 7: Installation

Picture of Installation
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Open the AC breaker supplying the existing lights and remove the old fluorescent lights (if you have them).

OK, I first mounted the angle aluminum up against the back of my cabinet. This posed two problems. First is the AC power wires came out of the wall where I wanted to mount the lights. Second, after mounting a set I found that butted up agains the wall, there were spots in my kitchen, specifically while seated at my kitchen island, you are in direct line of sight of the LEDs and they were bright! This would not do! I did a little experimentation and determined that moving them forward just a few inches made all the difference. To allow me to permanently mount them this way I bought a 4 foot piece of 3/8” PVC pipe from lowes and cut a bunch of 2-1/2” pieces. Then I mounted them using 3” drywall screws. This gave me space behind the lights to tuck away the AC power leads and get them flush agains the cabinet bottoms.
After mounting the Lights, take the J-Box and mount it on the bottom of the cabinet using a short wood screw or two and the holes already in the bottom of the J-box. Route the AC power around the LED lights and connect it to the existing AC wires Black to Black (Hot) and White to White (Neutral) DO NOT FORGET THE GROUND WIRE! For the DC connections, cut the wires to appropriate length so you can tie wrap them back or tuck them in and solder to the LED strips see the schematic for details. After double checking everything, shut the circuit breaker and turn on the power. You should have a beautiful light! If not it is trouble shooting time. If everything works, turn off the power and carefully put the metal cover on the J-box. Continue for each power supply and light section. I used one power supply for every three sections of 8 LED's this gave me five total for my project. I had one small section of a cabinet that only had 12 inches of space. I used a string of 6 LED's and an 18VAC secondary transformer.  

Step 8: Conclusion and taking it further

Picture of Conclusion and taking it further
This project gave me exactly what I wanted. Like most projects, it cost a little more than I anticipated but the results are fantastic. Things I intend to do are make it dimmable via PWM. I plan on experimenting with a MOSFET to control the supply of DC to the LM317. If that works, it will be very simple to control the MOSFET via an AVR micro controller or even an Arduino. The challenge for me will be how to get the PWM signal distributed to each light section. I had AC power everywhere I needed it but the wiring was already there. I also plan on covering each section with a diffuser using sheets from Lowes that are the ones you would put in a ceiling tile based fluorescent light fixture. I also plan on building a few other sets of these for other lighting. One transformer will power 24 LED's and that puts out about as much light as a 40 watt 4 foot fluorescent light. A friend of mine already wants me to build him an aquarium light.

Jules
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Too bad that each individual emitter is so visible on the counter-top. Some type of diffuser is in order.

NinjaBoy122 years ago
Fantastic job! I am starting to plan a similar project based on this Instructable to replace my Xenon lamps in my Juno under cabinet lights. Same issue as others have mentioned. I love the quality of light I get from the Juno fixtures but the heat they give off could heat a small cabin, hasten the mold process of any bread left on the counter and melt every bit of chocolate my wife bakes with. I do apologize for this queston if already answered but I can't locate the same Nichia LEDs you used. Can you be specific with a link or PN. Searching on the PN listed on the bag in your image gallery does not yield helpful results. Thanks!
ttyl22522 years ago
Thanks for the awesome Instructable!

I am working on a project for my kitchen as well. The only problem is that my LEDs did not come with the PC Starboards and unfortunately it really isn't in my budget to go and buy a few hundred of them.

How important do you think the need for the PC stars as a heatsink is?
I was thinking of soldering the LEDs directly to a l shaped piece of metal, but mounting them at the top of one of the edges to make soldering even possible. I'm not sure if this will be enough though... I was hoping the L shaped metal would act as a heatsink. Any thoughts?
DJJules (author)  ttyl22522 years ago
They really need to be on a heat sink star PCB. it also electrically insulates them. They might short out of you connect them they way you mention search here for them:
http://www.aliexpress.com/item/1-W-high-power-LED-Circuit-board-PCB-star-hexagonal-aluminum-plate-Free-shipping/519128905.html

J
ules
bsulli42 years ago
Jules, This is a fantastic instructable. I will be buying all of my parts brand new and therefore can pick exactly what I want rather than working with what I already have (which is nothing!). So, I have a question for you. I'm wondering if the LEDs in the following link will work with the power transformer in the second link. Thanks!
http://www.dealextreme.com/p/waterproof-43-2w-3400k-960lm-60-5050-smd-warm-white-led-light-plastic-shell-rectangle-module-dc12v-109076?item=1

http://www.jameco.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/Product_10001_10001_101291_-1
DJJules (author)  bsulli42 years ago
They should work just fine. Good luck. Love Dx btw

Jules
neutron72 years ago
If you want to dim it without worrying about Rewiring everything, you could use a induction compatible dimmer switch. You can even get an x10 compatible one if you want to control it from elsewhere.
Thanks for the great tutorial! It inspired me to do something similar for my kitchen but I have a small problem. I purchased a 5m strip and when connecting to power supply the light at the end of the 5m is not as bright as the beginning. As though power is lost. What could be the cause of this?

Any help would be greatly appreciated!

I have the following:
5m rgb smd 5050 LEDs (300 leds total) (12v 1.2amp/m)
1 24 IR Remote
1 12v 7amp power supply

Here are the links to what I have purchased:

LEDS:
http://www.ebay.ca/itm/160703608361?ssPageName=STRK:MEWNX:IT&_trksid=p3984.m1439.l2649

REMOTE:
http://www.ebay.ca/itm/390379498690?ssPageName=STRK:MEWNX:IT&_trksid=p3984.m1439.l2649

POWER SUPPLY:
http://www.ebay.ca/itm/220915150719?ssPageName=STRK:MEWNX:IT&_trksid=p3984.m1439.l2649
DJJules (author)  meyer_lanski3 years ago
It sounds as if you have a voltage drop across the LED strip. I would run an additional power wire for the +12 volts and ground to the end of the strip also. Or, split the strip into meter segments and run separate power to each. The challenge you have is that strip draws 1.2 amps per meter and it is basically a PC board with the LED's mounted on it. (I have a couple of those I just picked up that are RGB leds!) So, a 5 meter strip draws 6 amps and there is bound to be voltage drop across it.

Jules
Hi DJJules,
Thanks for such a quick reply. I didn't think of adding an additional power wire to the other end, great idea! However my LEDs are RGB so Where would I connect the negative wire to?

The positive goes to the '+' but the R, G, B, are all negative (ground) so If I connect to only one of r, g, or b, then only the color i connected to will light up brighter and if i connect the negative wire to all three r, g, b then the strip turns white in color since current flows through all three.

Remote Box (control colors) End of strip
+ ------------------------wire--------------------- > + wire goes to additional power
R ------------------------wire--------------------
G -------------------------wire------------------
B -------------------------wire-------------------


My current power supply is 12v 7amps. Would it help if I tried a 12v 10amp power supply? Trying to thing of a way to fix the voltage drop problem.

This is becoming more of a headache than i expected!

Thanks again.
Ian+Siobhan3 years ago
whats the overall cost of this project?
DJJules (author)  Ian+Siobhan3 years ago
This one ran more than I expected for sure even though I had the LED's already. plan on a couple hundred bucks. You will never have tor replace a light bulb again though!

Jules
phettsack4 years ago
How is the color reality?
Does a steak look like a steak or more like a cleaning sponge?
DJJules (author)  phettsack4 years ago
The color is fantastic. these LED's have a great CRI and look good.
woodNfish4 years ago
Nice project, but I have a problem with your AC wiring connection to your power supply - it is exposed. It should be inside the connection box that your power supply is in, or inside another connection box to shield them from anyone touching them.

So here is my suggestion to fix the problem: Mount the power supply box where your AC comes in so all your wiring is inside and then mount your lighting strip to the power supply box. It still won't meet code because your lighting strip has exposed connections too, and you are pumping 4 amps through it which is more than enough to kill you.
DJJules (author)  woodNfish4 years ago
Yea, I need to put the wire nut connections inside a J-Box. I also plan on putting a cover over it to diffuse the light. I'll make sure that it encloses everything. They do not draw 4 amps. each LED string has about a tenth of that at 440ma. And there are no exposed voltages above 30VDC.

Thanks,

Jules
Hi Jules, I was looking at your power supply schematic that shows 4amps at 100 volts. I figured that was for all the strips total, but I could be wrong. Still, it is a very nice project and you do good work.
Ninzerbean4 years ago
The Xenon lights under my kitchen cabinets are so hot I turn them on to heat my kitchen in the winter, they melt chocolate in the cupboards above, and I got a second degree burn once by accidentally touching the glass in front of them. I hate them, I thought I had no choice because everywhere and everyone I asked about LED's said they were not available for this purpose. Ha! I loved reading your 'ible and though I can't make these myself I will look into the sites some commenters suggest. Thank you!
vishalapar14 years ago
Wierdly cool, how did you add the PDF file and the excel file to this instructable??
DJJules (author)  vishalapar14 years ago
Easy, when you are adding pictures for each step, select the pdf or excel file instead of a picture.

Jules
atzonkov4 years ago
Great Instructable. What was your over all cost?
DJJules (author)  atzonkov4 years ago
Thanks! It was about 200 bucks for everything not including some tools I bought. Remember though I was given the LED's these are about $1.50-$3.00 each so add that in there too. Once again, not cheap but results well worth it.
Thanks for the info. I am trying to decide between doing this myself (for the fun) or going with some commercially available LED under cabinet solutions.
Great instructable!
I know it sort of defeats the purpose of an instructable, but you could probably save a lot of time/energy and definitely a lot on money by buying led light strips or light bars from here: http://www.oznium.com/.
Nice job! At 3.5V per LED, you could string 35 of them in series and run it off the 120VAC from the wall, with no other components required (except a fuse for safety) and place more 35 LED strings in parallel with the first for additional lighting.
You cannot run these LED's merely by constant voltage in the way you are suggesting. LED's are to be driven with a Constant Current source of power.

Running them in a constant current configuration provides multiple benefits.
* Protection from providing too much current
* Prevents Cascade failure if one LED goes out

This idea is great overall. But I'd just be careful running 350mA LED's at over 350mA as the author is.
DJJules (author)  chilloutdocdoc4 years ago
I am running them above 350 ma but max on these form their data sheet is 700ma. I also made sure that nothing get too hot. The star PCB hits about 41C max which means the die temp is still less than 50C. Max form data sheet is 80C

You are correct on the current limit. I have seen other instructables that do not have any current limiting. recipe for disaster.

Jules
DJJules (author)  mattthegamer4634 years ago
The problem with that is without running them form DC, they will turn on and off 60 times a second and you can notice that slightly kinda flickers. Then there is still current limiting to deal with. I thought about running them all in series with a higher voltage DC supply. but for safety kept it lower.
adamazing4 years ago
Epic instructable, and brilliant project! But the title is confusing, especially since the reflected light in the thumbnailed main project image makes it appear as if the light is shining up from beneath what I think of as the kitchen counter/counter top. I have no idea what you'd call that space, but calling it a counter just seems weird to me. :)
I hadn't noticed until you said it, but it should be Under Cabinet lighting to be similar to other products out there.

nice instructible, btw!!
chrwei4 years ago
How much power do the 24 LEDs actually use, including transformer inefficiencies?
DJJules (author)  chrwei4 years ago
Each LED string draws 440ma and the voltage steady state on the capacitor is about 30 VDC (Which includes the drop across the regulator) I am estimating that the string of 24 draws about 40 Watts which is what the 4 foot fluorescent that one of my counter sections used. But. I am getting 500 lumens at the counter top with the LED's and was 350 lumens with the old lighting. And, that was the brightest spot.
WVvan4 years ago
Great Instructable! Well documented and informative. Learned some new stuff.
It's really Under Cabinet/Over Counter lighting.
Brilliant.
Especially with found LEDs.
I was wondering about dimmers as well.
I don't understand your flickering issue.
So far we have old-school christmas lites in our kitchen and my wife loves them.
Thanks for the ideas.
Very impressive instructable. You bring up an important point that many other instructables neglect: wife approval factor. I will present this project to my wife with this carefully applied. Thanks!
Ugifer4 years ago
Nice looking project - I might just try something similar.

Two minor points in your instructable - the Kelvin scale uses the same increase in temperature per degree as the Celsius scale (not Fahrenheit), and also I don't think the output from your bridge rectifier in the picture should be 63V AC. Rectifiers should give you a DC voltage, and as you say in the text, the maximum you would expect is about 35V under no load. Otherwise a beautifully presented entry. Thanks.
DJJules (author)  Ugifer4 years ago
You are absolutely correct on the Fahrenheit. Kelvin is the same increase as Centigrade. Rankine is the the one starting at absolute Zero and increasing the same as Fahrenheit. The Capacitor in my schematic is rated for 63V. it actually sees about 35 as you mention. Wanted to ensure no one under rates theirs should they build this. I have seen several manufactures do this. Say, use a 35V rated cap that works at 50 (for a while anyway...) then they start seeing failures in the field.

Thanks for this nice comments and for reading it. (i'm going to edit the temp comment in the instructable)

Jules
Ugifer Ugifer4 years ago
Edit - maybe the 63V is the voltage-rating of the capacitor - in which case pls ignore the above.
xxev754 years ago
Has anyone tried tackin up just some regular LEDs lights like xmas ones? just and idea

It would work because X-mas lights are getting cheaper, however, there are 2 problems; if you were to just plug them in as is, like DJJules mentions below, the string would cause flickering when you move around due to the AC (alternating current) power line. Another problem would be is that the amount of light from 1 string of lights is a lot less than the LED string in this instructable, so if you wanted to get close to the above equivalent light output, you may have to get around 3 strings to get close to the same amount or make a diffuser to spread the light more.

Other than that if you don't mind the flickering (or run it through a bridge rectifier and rewire the X-mas string), then it should work. And I'm not saying it won't work, but it requires some modifications to get an equivalent result.

Some material that works great as a diffuser is the plastic and diffuser material of the backlights in LCD Monitors/screens. They worked great when I made a LED lightpad for sketching.
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