Picture of Build Your Own ELECTRIC MOTORCYCLE

The finished project is a 1981 Kawasaki KZ440, converted to electric. It is powered by four Optima Yellow Top sealed (AGM) lead-acid batteries, that drive a Briggs & Stratton Etek electric motor. The speed of the motor is controlled by an Alltrax brand "AXE" programmable controller that can run at up to 48 volts and 300 amps. Contrary to popular belief, and electric motorcycle is NOT silent, but is CONSIDERABLY quieter than a typical gas cycle.

The cycle is GEARED to 45 mph, has fairly good acceleration, no clutch or transmission. There's no oil to change, to mufflers to rust off, no air filter, no carbs to tweak, and no gasoline. I designed it for primarily city riding. The top speed and acceleration could be easily changed by swapping out a $20 stock sprocket.

The cycle recharges from the wall, through a renewable energy program, and if there is a blackout, I can actually run my house off my electric motorcycle! In the future, I hope to expand my system to include charging the cycle with photovoltaic solar panels. Real-world range per charge is 23-32 miles, and charging takes less than 10 hours for a full charge. ( A different charger could charge them even faster - see details on the Batteries PDF)

In this Instructable, I'll walk you through the work required with the motor, batteries, controller, and mounting all components, including showing you some low-tech paper and cardboard "CAD" tricks.

Your Project
But what do you want? You might not even know yet. I always encourage people to take a look at the EV Album. It's an on-line listing of mostly home-converted electric vehicles. Each listing shows the make and model of the vehicle, the cost to convert, the speed and range, and other specifics of each project. You can also search by type of vehicle or brand name.
For example, if you go to , you'll see a wide variety of electric motorcycles. Different brand names, lithium and lead-acid battery types, and a wide range of costs of conversion. Likewise, if you want to see Scooters, Mopeds, and Minibikes, you can visit

Give some thought to what cycle you would like to convert. Do you like sport bikes? Great! They have a lightweight and strong aluminum frame! Do you like standard? Great! There's lots of those out there and you can show off the motor and batteries. Hang out at biker events with your unique ride!

If you aren't sure what to expect in terms of range per charge and top speed, don't worry, online calculators can help you out.
ower Use at Speed Calculator
and of course, a

For more on my electric motorcycle, electric car, and other projects, swing by my blog at

If you are interested in building your own electric motorcycle, but want even more information, more details, and hands-on style instruction, check out the INSTRUCTIONAL VIDEO DVD that I created to teach how ANYONE can Build Your Own Electric Motorcycle!

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schel1 month ago


So ''ve got the info I needed and explained clearly...more clearly /less cluttered than most other related instructables! Now can you answer me this...the wires coming from the controller to the throttle.....could an arduino replace the throttle? this would be for remote or programmed motor "control" ie: instead of a human hand turning a physical arduino sending signals to the controller as though it (arduino) IS the throttle...? make sense?...others have jumped all over me for this...but I think the 2 wires can act as the potentiometer..? yeah?

bennelson (author)  schel1 month ago
On my motorcycle setup, the throttle is a 0-5Kohm twist potentiometer. To replace this style throttle with an Arduino, you would need the Arduino to be able to create a variable resistance in that range. I haven't played around with Arduinos very much at all and would have no idea how to do that, but I'm sure somebody could figure it out.

There are also motor controllers that use a variable voltage of 0-5 volts as their input. Voltage can be varied by PWM, and I know that can be done by Arduinos. So, it may be an easier approach to use a controller with that style input.

Due to safety considerations, I would NOT create any kind of "experimental" throttle for an on-road vehicle, but if it is for some sort of stationary machinery, just follow typical safety precautions and have fun!
schel bennelson1 month ago

YES!! thats the numbers I was lookin' for!!! I'm just starting arduino as well but, if I'm not mistaken 5v is exactly what the arduino needs /handles.

I'm sure a resistor or two would make it a little safer I think? arduino pros?

the applications of this could be for giant remote control cars, a stationary sculpture...anything an arduino could influence via...PIR sensors..bluetooth phone remote control...timers etc.

Much Thanks Bennelson!!

ryan.tippens2 months ago

I have lots of bikes but I have this 74 cb 360,I took this cbr 600 that I had ,it was from a police chase and it was never picked up from the cops after its rider got away after it slide own on a golf course so I got it after it sat at the tow company for a couple of years..never could get a title for it so I sold its engine and took off its rear swing arm and front forks which bolt directly ODDLY to the 74 cb..I welded on the rear swing arm to make this cafe bike....but Id like to convert it to electric since I have 3 more bikes including the 75 cb 550....which will be cafe also but still a gas burner..I want an electric motor that goes faster than 45 mph..any suggestions?Im going to run lithium batteries Im thinking.

bennelson (author)  ryan.tippens2 months ago
For high speed/performance, it's best to go with the highest voltage motor you can. 72V is pretty popular for a fun lithium bike. Motenergy has some good motors. Check them out.
bilalz4001 year ago
Can you use the existing transmission system of the bike??
bennelson (author)  bilalz4001 year ago
On most motorcycles, the engine and transmission are really a single, integrated unit. It's very difficult to remove the engine, but keep the transmission. You CAN build an electric motorcycle with a transmission, but the tranny takes up space that might better be used by having more batteries.

What a transmission in general really does is convert engine speed into torque. Electric motors tend to have HIGH torque at LOW speeds, so you don't neccessarily need a transmission.

For a commercially-built EV cycle WITH a transmission, take a look at the Brammo Empulse.
Kevanf1 bennelson3 months ago

How about getting hold of an old pre-unit Triumph (or other manufacturer) gearbox? They are small and lightweight and also very strong mechanically. You should also be able to get different gear cluster set ups at a reasonable price.

But couldn't you gear that high torque down to get better top speed/further range?
bennelson (author)  bertzie1 year ago
For higher top speed, you would use high gearing, which would pull greater amps. Pulling higher amps creates more heat, shortens battery life, and reduces how far you can go per charge.

In general, to increase top speed, you are best off increasing your system voltage.
JustusH3 months ago

Good day Sir, i would like to ask if this bike could be build in South Africa too, and if i may request the plans for this bike please. Would you consider to open a factory here in the RSA ? A lot of jobs can be created by this and you may profit a lot by it too. My email is 073 327 9390 thank you very much.

JustusH3 months ago

Good day Sir, i would like to ask if this bike could be build in South Africa too, and if i may request the plans for this bike please. Would you consider to open a factory here in the RSA ? A lot of jobs can be created by this and you may profit a lot by it too. My email is 073 327 9390 thank you very much.

JustusH3 months ago

Good day Sir, i would like to ask if this bike could be build in South Africa too, and if i may request the plans for this bike please. Would you consider to open a factory here in the RSA ? A lot of jobs can be created by this and you may profit a lot by it too. My email is 073 327 9390 thank you very much.

JustusH3 months ago

Good day Sir, i would like to ask if this bike could be build in South Africa too, and if i may request the plans for this bike please. Would you consider to open a factory here in the RSA ? A lot of jobs can be created by this and you may profit a lot by it too. My email is 073 327 9390 thank you very much.

SuvarnaK4 months ago

Hi there,
what do you suggest on making a custom frame for my bike?
I want to make one!
What are the members that are included on the frame??

bennelson (author)  SuvarnaK4 months ago
Actually, I would suggest NOT building your own custom frame! By using an existing, stock frame, it already has a Make, Model, Year, and VIN (vehicle identification number.) These are important to have to title, license, and insure your motorcycle.

While it IS possible to build a cycle scratch and get it titled, it's complicated (more in some places then other) and possibly quite expensive. Even if you do that, it may still be challenging to get reasonable insurance.

If you really DO want to build something from scratch, try an electric bicycle. Most places don't require insurance, title, or registrations on bicycles, and it's a great way to learn about electric vehicles!
MrFrancis5 months ago
I'm going to purchase your DVD as soon as I get to a desktop. Thanks sir!
MrFrancis5 months ago
I know nothing about any of this, but this gives me hope. 2k is a reasonable price for the experience of custom made. Great job. Any books you recommend to get me "in the loop". Thanks, -Steve
bennelson (author)  MrFrancis5 months ago
The best book out there is SECRETS OF EL-NINJA, by John Bidwell, but it's starting to get pretty hard to find copies. Any book about electric car conversions will get you going in the right direction, as information about motors, batteries, charging, etc all apply the same.

Also, I made an instructional DVD teaching people how to build their own electric motorcycle. That's available at:

Hope that helps!
oyvisan9 months ago
My key switch can switch two circuits, one like a normal switch and one for an ignition (spring loaded). Which one am I supposed to use?
bennelson (author)  oyvisan9 months ago
You just use a regular on switch.
oyvisan10 months ago

What happens when you release the throttle? Does the motor just keep going in "neutral", or does it start breaking? Also, do you know what the "plug brake" switch in the controller settings does? (I'm using the AllTrax ControlPRO software).

bennelson (author)  oyvisan10 months ago
The vehicle just keeps moving forward in "neutral". There is no regenerative braking setup on my project. Kelly controllers support regen, but I've never heard anything good at all about the quality of that brand of controller.

Plug braking is a way to use the motor as a brake by shorting the system. It slows you down, but does NOT regenerate power. It's typically only used on off-road vehicles, such as forklifts and golf-carts.
oyvisan bennelson10 months ago

Alright, thanks! How do know how you activate the plug braking, and how fast it's breaking? We're building a monowheel, so we need a slow and steady breaking and it would be great if we could do that with just the motor.

bennelson (author)  oyvisan10 months ago

I haven't used plug braking, but I believe you use a reversing contactor, and then the throttle controls the braking. Consult the motor controller user manual for details. Alltrax has nice online versions of their motor controllers that you can download.

Aditya M11 months ago

It's really nice

i have a old panhead frame that i accuired from somewhere that i am thinking about making a ebike from it but i need to 55 miles round trip
Please don't cut up a pan head frame! That is history. I bet you could find a good Japanees frame to trade and still walk with a bunch of money for mechanicals or batteries.
bennelson (author)  thelurchmanfl2 years ago
Lithium batteries are where it's at if you need a range greater than 50 miles. Lead-acid works fairly well for anything less than that.
wouldnt that require a special charger
how would i make the battery pack out of a whole mess of aa type like the tesla roadster
and would this charger work
bennelson (author)  thelurchmanfl2 years ago
Making a battery pack from cells that small sounds like a lot of work!

Remember, you need to have enough cells in series to get to the voltage you want, and enough cells in parallel to get the capacity that you want.

I haven't heard of anyone building projects with AA cells. There are a few projects that people have built from cells pulled out of DeWalt lithium cordless drill packs. Those are more like C or D cells.

That charger is the right chemistry and voltage, but it may too low amperage. My battery pack is 55AH at 48V. If the pack is run half-way down (23AH) and you recharge it at a rate of only 2 amps, that's going to take 12 hours to recharge, and a fully discharged pack might take a full 24 hours!
bennelson (author)  thelurchmanfl2 years ago
Lithium batteries with either use a different charger, or at least a high quality one that is programmed for lithium. Lithium batteries also typically need a battery-management-system.
migglez8131 year ago
how fast can it go?
bennelson (author)  migglez8131 year ago
I live right outside a city, so I geared the cycle low, to a 45mph top speed (the speed limit right outside my house).

Changing the cheap front sprocket out for one with a few more teeth would give the cycle a 65 mph top speed with no other changes.
shinigaimi2 years ago
Hey all, Great instructable Ben!

I am wondering if anybody knows a reputable place and possibly a wholesaler that sells lithium batteries? or if other batteries are better than AGM lead acid batteries? that wont cost an arm and a leg :)
bennelson (author)  shinigaimi2 years ago
I haven't ever ordered lithium batteries, but the prices are continuing to fall. Another advantage of an electric motorcycle is that the battery pack is smaller than an electric car. So, if you DO want to pop for lithium batteries, it's always going to be more affordable than a car.

The Electric Auto Association is also a good place to start for general info, including some vendor links.
itscasper2 years ago
The Optima Yellow battery specifications state good for 300+ discharge/recharge cycles. Does this mean you potentially have to replace your four batteries once a year for a daily driver? Even every two years seems a steep price. Do the batteries degrade slowly over time? I'm very inspired by your instructable!
bennelson (author)  itscasper2 years ago
I've had my Optima Yellowtops for 5 years now. Still working great.

If you don't "dig too deep" in discharging, batteries last much longer. My average trip is 10 miles, so I'm typically discharging the batteries only about a third of the way.

I do sort of baby my batteries, but they WERE the most expensive part of the entire project. By taking good care of them, and always recharging them right away, they have been great!

As far as lead-acid batteries go, I don't think I could be happier.
This could be the best write-up I have ever read. Thank you so much Ben for this wealth of information! But, I do have a few questions.

1) Does anyone have a simple schematic for the electrical? I've looked at Alltrax's schematic, but it includes all sorts of diodes and extra fuses that I don't think are really necessary.

2) What is the coil voltage for the contactor in this project?

3) What is the voltage rating for the keyed switch?

4) Could you just use a heavy duty red switch in place of the entire contactor?

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