Beekeeping or Apiculture is the practice of rearing bees and maintaining the bee-hives by humans. This has been carried out for ages and today apiculture is a profession and/or a hobby for thousands of people across the globe. Honey and beeswax are the main products which are derived directly from bees. Along with these, we also get the secondary products i.e. fruits, flowers etc. Bee keeping is an art which is easy to learn and a fantastic hobby to keep. There are several types/breeds of honeybees in nature. You can find most of their hives on trees, inside hollow trunks of trees, buildings etc. but not all of these breeds are suitable for apiculture. We’ll talk more about this in the next instructable. For now let us see how apiculture is carried out.
Since the early ages the art of bee-keeping has improved considerably. Nowadays honey can be extracted from honeycombs without hurting the bees or the beekeeper, thanks to the movable comb hive a.k.a Langstroth Hive. This is a simple box-type artificial bee hive in which bees are kept and allowed to build a natural honeycomb structure on the frame. So go on, read ahead and learn how to build one these artificial hives in a few simple steps.
Please note that honey bees are very choosy when it comes to their hives. They are extremely sensitive creatures and very protective too. The actual process of selecting a optimal place for the hive is started by a few drones in the colony. These drones go and look for places where they can set up a hive and they have specific conditions too.
First of all the place must have lots of greenery and flowers close-by, secondly the spot where they plan to build a hive must be away from direct sunlight throughout the year but at the same time it must be very well ventilated(Honey bees are extremely sensitive to heat and they tend to die at temperatures around 47.8 Celsius.). Lastly, the pathway leading to the spot must be big enough for the bees to move freely and at the same time must be small enough to prevent predators from attacking the hive.
This hive design satisfies all the conditions and is considered as the best design.
Step 1: Wood Selection
I recommend that you use wood with a thickness of atleast 10-15mm because the hive needs to be sturdy and must be able to support its own weight and the weight of the entire colony+honey. Wood which is too thin might collapse and may destroy the colony and you will loose a wonderful set of tiny pets.
If anyone were to ask me then I would always recommend wood because not only is it strong it also blocks the sunlight completely making it an ideal material of choice. Moreover its easier to get your hands on wood and do some woodworking.(Doing it along with your family guarantees more honey. Don't forget to show some love to the bees too)
This is the most crucial step in bee-keeping. The type of wood you select will determine whether or not you will be able to keep the bees inside. I have built several hives and all of them were made of untreated* Teak wood and sometimes coconut wood.
It is absolutely essential that you use untreated wood. Bees are sensitive and you may kill the bees if you use treated wood. Naturally teak wood is anti-rot so I would recommend you to use it, if you can find it.
You could also use pallet planks which you get from old shipping goods. Make sure that the wood you use is old and in good condition with smooth surface finish. Also make sure the pallet is untreated.
I've recently learned that pallets made after 2006 are all treated (Government standards- ISPM 15) try to find pallets made pre 2000. If its too much trouble. Just buy some untreated teak and build it
*Untreated=Wood that is NOT treated with chemicals to prevent termites, pests etc.
[FUN FACT: Bees are considered to be very intelligent. It is said that they are one of the very few insects which can remember human faces]
Step 2: Parts Required
1.)Wood working tools (Power tools mainly an circular saw (power saw), drilling machine or manual tools)
2.)Glue (White adhesive that doesn't stink after drying. Try to keep its usage to a minimum and instead use the next part)
Optional: (For making a gate as seen in the final image)
4.)Sheet metal (about 4 sq cm)
Long metal nails (75mm long- 3Nos)
Step 3: Building Base
First get your preferred wood (I have used teak) and prepare
the rectangular base of 400x300mm.
As you can see I have used 3 strips of 400x100mm and attached them. You can do that, if you don’t get a 400x300mm single plank. Make sure the thickness is at least 25-30mm. If you are using strips of wood (like I have), use another piece of wood as a beam for the base (bottom side)
Then get 3 strips of wood of 300x20mm and nail them to three corners as seen in photo.
Voila! The base is done.
Step 4: Building 1st Block/floor
Building the block is pretty simple. Grab 4 wood planks of
size 300x170mm of thickness 20mm. Create rectangular slots on the sides and fix them up by driving nails or applying glue as shown in picture.
Now on the top side of two parallel planks, make a groove of 10x10mm and set the box aside.
(NOTE: Pay attention: I have mentioned rectangular slots and grooves. The slots are made on the sides of all the planks whereas grooves are made on the top surface of only on two parallel facing planks)
Now let’s get into making the racks. This is the place where the bees will build their hives. You can see in one of the pictures, a small abandoned hive created by previous residents. The racks are the most important parts of the hive make sure you get it right.
[FUN FACT: Bees are not only hard working creatures but they are also extremely disciplined. Its been observed that there are a few flowers whose nectar is alcoholic in nature, when bees come to this 'flowery bar', they suck up the alcohol, get drunk and sway all the way back to the colony.
When they reach the colony, other bees see this drunk bee and literally push it out of the hive and send it far from the colony and makes sure it stays away until its cured of its hangover.]
Step 5: Making and Assembling a Rack.
The racks have two flat planks and two wedge shaped planks placed parallel to each other. Follow the instructions in the image to create these racks. Make sure that all racks are similar and that they form a snug fit in the box.
Take a small rectangular plank that is 280x200mm and two wedges (Refer the sketch for the wedge dimension). Leave a space of 10 mm from the edges of the rectangular plank and fix the larger end of the wedges to it. (See images) Next, take a smaller plank 260mm in length and with a square cross-section and fix it to the bottom/smaller sides of the wedge. (Again, see images) Your rack is now complete. Place it inside the bock and check if it fits and make minor adjustments if necessary. Make sure it fits perfectly. If you are happy with it, then go an ahead and make 8 more of these.
Step 6: Building 2nd Block and Racks
This block forms the second floor and is very similar to the
1st floor. The only difference between the two is the height. Use the same method as above to create the second block but this time use planks that are about 300x70mm (Shorter in height)
Make the racks the same way but with a (wedge) height of 40mm. (Refer Sketch)
Step 7: Make the Final Roof
Build the roof the same way you would build a floor. Grab 4
wood planks of 300x50mm and make rectangular slots and join them.
Then, instead of making grooves, close the top with another wooden plank.
Finally add a 10mm beading on all the sides as shown in photo.
Also make two holes of diameter 2mm on opposite faces as shown in photo.
Step 8: Assemble
Before we get on with assembly there is one last and
important piece to be made i.e. the gate.
The gate is used to control the movement of the worker bees and to prevent the queen from escaping once you have captured her and put her in the hive. More about this in my next instructable.
The gate is just a piece of wood 300mm in length and with a square cross-section. It has an opening of 70mm in the center. (See the images)
Now grab all the pieces and start assembling. Make sure that you don’t glue or nail the different blocks. They are supposed to be separated. Now just keep them one over the other and your bee-keeper’s hive is ready.
Now keep it in a cool place away from direct sunlight and close to a garden.
IMPORTANT: DO NOT PAINT THE BOX. IF PAINTING IS REALLY REQUIRED THEN MAKE SURE YOU USE SAFE PAINTS AND LET IT SIT FOR A COUPLE OF MONTHS FOR THE PAINT SMELL TO FADE.
One last point! Don't build this just for the sake of it! Build it to protect the bees, save them today!
Hats off to EARTHJUSTICE for the fantastic work they are doing to protect these "sweet" creatures!
Now set it aside and either wait for the bees to come in and occupy it or you could go and get a colony from a local beekeeper and put them in the box. I have been searching for a particular breed of bees to put into the box, my next instructable will come as soon as I find them and put them in the hive.