Build a CNC Router From Scratch (Part 1): Complete Video Tutorial

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Introduction: Build a CNC Router From Scratch (Part 1): Complete Video Tutorial

About: I'm an Urban Designer for Downtown Houston. My formal education is from University of Miami, Bachelor of Architecture, and Masters at University of California, Berkeley in Urban Design. Prior to that, I wa...

Completely build a CNC router from the ground up without plans, just your hands, some cheap materials and basic tools, and common sense. Did I mention you don't need plans? It's easy, and I guide you through a process of building that the measurements are derived through a logical approach, so all the pieces will fit and the structure will be solid. Moreover, you'll be able to build a CNC with almost any dimension.

And when you finish Part 1, don't forget to head on over to Part 2 where I detail the z-axis and y-axis and I start on the Gantry.

A while back, I built a very shabby machine and I knew there must be a better design. You will be able to take advantage of what I've learned from a great depth of research on the internet and personal building, testing and experimentation.

The instructable will be very long. I will probably take the cake on the length, so I'm separating the instructable into several parts. This is part 1 if you haven't already determined that. It is this long due to the amount of detail I will be providing. Since we are discussing detail, I will also provide almost all of the detail via video. Pictures say a thousand words, but video must be exponential. I really hope you enjoy this series and provide comments to help me improve and be more effective.

Even though there is another instructable on building a CNC router, it details a completely different approach and I feel that this video series will contribute to the understanding of mechanical components and unique building methods.

What is a CNC router you ask? I will define it as a computer controlled router, where the router will move on three axes and the computer controls the motion for these axes.

What you'll need:

95% of the structural components can be found at the local hardware store, like the MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard). Have the hardware store do most of the cutting, you'll mostly need 4" widths by various lengths (you don't know the lengths yet because in this build, you can make almost any size CNC router). Don't get particle board. Aluminum angle 3/4" and 1/8" thick.

A few basic tools like a screwdriver and a miter box saw. Both are pretty inexpensive and 4" width pieces usually fit into a miter box saw, especially if it plastic and the miter box can flex a bit. A circular saw would be helpful, but use the hardware store cutting service to your advantage.

A couple of links that you may find useful for these types of builds are cnczone.com. My official build of this machine is here at my site BuildYourCNC.com with almost all of the video step, but don't cheat and skip to a later step. The series is developed to follow a logical process to get measurements, etc.

Step 1: Linear Slide Bearings Video

The CNC router would be useless without a way to move the router on the axis without play. Linear slide bearings are the answer. They enable a very stable and smooth sliding motion without binding. this method of bearings has been used many times, so you can be sure they will work.

The slide bearings are one of the most important component to the CNC router, and it's good to get the concept down in the beginning. You will need about 6 of these in the CNC build at varying sizes (the gantry slide bearings will need to be much longer than the y and z axes.

You will need regular skate bearing (609zz), 5/16" nuts, 5/16" x 3/4" bolts, various drill bits and a 5/16" tap/drill bit set.


Step 2: Right Angle Joint Video

Another concept to get out of the way is the joint that is used throughout the build. I'm using 1/4" bolts and nuts. The bolts are 2.5" long to reach the nut. You simply drill a 3/4" hole to receive a nut and a transversal hole, the size of the 1/4" bolt. Since the screw is centered through the middle of the piece, the boards can be used to tension things like the slide bearings. You'll understand this concept better throughout the later video tutorials.



If cross dowels are desired, I give some instructions how to use these.



Step 3: Z-Axis: Two Videos

Now let's get started on the actual meat of the build. You will start with the z-axis. The z-axis is the axis that will move the router (or any other cutting/extruding/drawing/spraying/heating tool) up and down.

Two linear slide bearings will be needed here at approximately 3.5" long. You will also need a piece of MDF 4" wide and a length that you will be able to cut several pieces. You will also need a router for this step because the rails will be aluminum angles and the angles need 45 degree chamfers to be securely held in place. Who knows, maybe you can use this tool as the main cutting tool for the CNC, so it's justified.




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    Nope, video's are not visible in any of my browsers.

    Tried Chrome, Opera & Edge.

    The video links are dead so this instructable should be removed because there is no way to see what or how something is made. The error below can be found for each of the video links.

    NetworkError: 404 Not Found - http://www.metacafe.com/fplayer/686796/step_1_bui...

    So it is not your computer/phone/tablet. The video simply does not exist.

    Do you have these videos posted anywhere else? I've tried the ones above on my phone (Galaxy S5, my iPad 2, and two different computers (my work Win7 computer and my video editing Aliewnware with Win8 and LOTS of codecs). I can't get them to play on anything. When I try to start one the video window just goes black and a spinner comes on which never stops spinning. I'm dying to see these, but I haven't been able to run them here and I can't find them on YouTube.

    1 reply

    I have the same problem I just started trying, I noticed you posted this 11 months ago, were you able to find the videos?

    Just wondering when posting this you said about 6 gantry slide bearings, what lengths were you using that required 6?

    Hello,

    I'm going to build this! However, I'm going to use MDO rather than MDF. Is this a good idea, any problems with it?

    wanabop

    1 reply

    I would recommend MDO as this is the material I use for all of my machines at buildyourcnc.com. Go ahead, its a great material.

    Hello all, Being a machinest for quite a few years I really don't have much of a problem building a 3 axis machine from sand. However I must admit to being a complete novice of the fundamentals of CNC. I will be building my machine from steel and aluminum and the first question would be Is an acme thread or v-thread sufficient for smooth movement of both x and y tables and also the z axis which would be on a column, or do I need to spend more money for ball-screws and anti-backlash nuts? Which controller, and step motors would I need for a machine of this caliber? I am assuming that they are offered in different torques? Is there software available for the controller and 2 and 3-D cutting without having to spend big bucks for a CAD program with a dongle or hasp? Sorry for the breezy message, but as you can see I know very little. Thanking you in advance is, Reggy

    1 reply

    Your breezy message will require a much breezier reply to touch upon every issue you bring up. I'd like to point out you have not mentioned what purpose you will dedicate your machine to. Like what jobs do you plan on doing? Woodworking, metalworking, something else entirely? Work area plays a determining factor in machine design as well.

    Use acme thread unless you can afford (beg, borrow, steal, or some happens to fall out of the sky and land at your feet ) ballscrews, or absolutely need the performance only ballscrews can deliver. There is no good reason to use all thread as CNC lead screws. Check out my Instructable if you go with acme leads.

    https://www.instructables.com/id/Make-an-Acme-Tap/

    unless you can "borrow" one from work :)

    If you want a typical hobbyist CNC setup get Gecko motor drivers

    http://www.geckodrive.com/categories.html

    and motors to run your machine.  Yeah sure there are other choices but in the long run you're likely best off with those. If you're an electronics nut like me you can make your own:

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cgbeyNNBZ68

    You're going to be doing some "electronics" making your own CNC machine anyways so I hope you're not squeamish when it comes to such things.

    CAD and CAM can come packaged together but they are usually separate. The two big choices are Mach3 and EMC2 for CAM.

    http://www.machsupport.com/

    Mach is closed commercial and of limited utility due to its nature. Many prefer this though as it runs in an environment they are familiar with.

    http://www.linuxcnc.org/

    EMC2 is free, open and virtually unlimited in its scope. Most who try this excogitate why any choose differently. I'm sure they have their reasons, none worthy.

    CAD you're on your own as choices vary widely and it really depends on your budget and what you're after. The sky is the limit with both costs and complexities.

    How precise is your machine?

    one of your videos has been removed

    I clicked on the video and it says it's been removed from Metacafe? Where else can I see it.

    1 reply

    You should be able to see them on buildyourcnc.com. If not, please let me know so I can post them on youtube.

    wow man great videos. cant wait to start to build my own cnc machine. im fifteen but my dad has all of the tools that i need. thanks again

    1 reply

    Good luck. Let me know if you have questions throughout the build.

    GOSTEI MUITO. PARABÉNS... FICOU MUITO BOM

    Did you try making a pcb with the mill?

    1 reply

    Yes, I have created PCB's with the machine.

    what steppers are you going to use 

     a couple of quick questions.  one: i see you're only using a single rail system for the x axis (as opposed to 'sandwiching' the bearing around two rails for the y and z axis).  why did you not use the same approach for the x axis as the y and z?  do you think the machine would be more rigid if you used the 'sandwiching method'.  second: how are you attaching the aluminum angles to the edges of the mdf?  thanks!