Edit: If you want hardware to do tACS and tRNS in addition to tDCS, I've built some of that too.

I was surprised and pleased to learn that human enhancement technologies not only exist, but are within the reach of the basic electronic hobbyist. This instructable is (of course) for educational purposes only and you may be violating local laws by constructing and/or using the device described here. The author of this instructable is not liable for the burns, permanent neurological damage, or other personal injury up to and including death that may result from building and using the device described here.

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a method of external neural modulation that uses a small current run through the brain in order to alter cortical excitability. The details of the mechanism of action and exact enhancements possible are beyond the scope of this article, but start with the wikipedia entry, examine commercially available products, and look at safety data and ethical reviews before deciding if this is something you would like to pursue. Some google scholar searches will turn up interestingthings too.

The photo on this page is from this article.

Step 1: Circuit Principle of Operation

If you don't wish to consider the theoretical basis for the operation of this circuit, skip this step.

The circuit shown is a regulated current sink. You may find it a useful building block in your future projects. It regulates the current through R[L], preventing it from exceeding a set value. This circuit doesn't have active drive capacity, though, and so V[DRIVE] must be large enough to drive the desired current through R[L].

The current through R[L] is equal to I[C].  I[C] is roughly equal to ( V[REF] - (V[BE] of T1) ) / R[LIM] .

To see where this equation originates, begin by noting that the sum of the voltages around the loop formed by V[REF], the base-emitter junction of T1, and R[LIM] must be zero (by Kirchhoff's voltage law):
V[REF] - V[BE] - V[RLIM] = 0
V[RLIM] = V[REF] - V[BE] .

The current through R[LIM] (also known as I[E]) is defined by Ohm's law, and we can substitute using the previous equation:
I[E] = V[RLIM] / R[LIM] = (V[REF] - V[BE] ) / R[LIM] .

Ignoring the base current,
I[C] = I[E] ,
so the current through the load resistor is approximately defined by
I[LOAD] = I[C] = (V[REF] - V[BE] ) / R[LIM] .

If you wish to include the effects of the base current of the transistor, you must also factor in the current gain of the transistor, h[FE].
Viewing the transistor as a node, by Kirchhoff's current law,
0 = I[C] + I[B] - I[E]
I[B] = I[E] - I[C] .

We know that h[FE] is the factor we can multiply by I[B] to find our I[C]. Thus,
I[B] * h[FE] = I[C] .

Substituting for I[B] from a previous equation,
(I[E] - I[C]) * h[FE] = I[C] .

Solving for I[C],
I[C] = I[E] - (I[E] /(1 + h[FE] ) ) ,
and since I[E] = (V[REF] - V[BE] ) / R[LIM] ,
the exact equation then becomes:

I[C] = ((V[REF] - V[BE] ) / R[LIM] ) - (((V[REF] - V[BE] ) / R[LIM] ) / (1 + h[FE] ) ) .
<p>good day, when I was in highschool I bought a disassembled power supply, there is a rotary to be pointed at 3, 4.5, 6, 9 and 12 v, and has a 750 mA.<br>how do I make the current 2 mA?<br>Thanks.</p>
<p>Do NOT--NEVER EVER--attempt to do TDCS with a device plugged into a wall socket. Seriously--NEVER DO THIS.</p><p>If a component fails, you could suffer a horrendous brain injury. Use 9v or 12v (23A) battery powered devices only.</p>
Its too late bro my brother is dead
<p>are you serious? that's horrible! I'm sorry for your loss and very surprised no one responded to your post!?</p>
<p>It's not only when a component fails, there's always a leakage in wall-plugged devices which, under normal conditions, is harmless. But with good conducting electrodes on a body you easily exceed 30 mA, that can kill you. </p>
<p>I succesfully build the device, works like a charm. I tried the more simple one before, just a 9V battery with a resisitor but I experienced flashes, phosphane I think it's called. This one is much better. Then the electrodes weren't good so I made them of teaspoons, = stainless steel. Broke of the handle and drilled holes in them, see picture. Now I'm experimenting with improving my Spanish, 25 min. a day, let's see what happens. And I'm thinking of putting a big capacitor over the diodes to make a soft start, that could be an improvement. But thanks for the diagram, simple and stable, parts easy to find!</p>
<p>I'll just assume that if you know what you're doing, this will work (I hope!). </p><p>However, for something I'm connecting to my cranium (brain), I went with a commercial device from TheBrainDriver tDCS. I did A LOT of research and it's a good device at a reasonable price. Get it directly from their site or from Amazon.</p><p>For the amount of time it would take to learn how to build this thing here, I'm already using one.</p><p>Good luck to those wanting to build one themselves. You are brave :)</p>
<p>For curiosity's sake, would something like this be a valid method as well? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EXTRKXhvBJU </p>
Is there a way to tune it to 40hz?
<p>it DC current it always 0 HZ . you need an inverter to do that.</p>
<p>You're thinking of tACS</p><p>http://www.instructables.com/id/DIY-tACS-Hardware-for-machine-human-telepathy-expe/</p>
<p>I read an article about this in Wired. It was ver interesting. Have you tried this out on yourself?</p>
<p>Yes, of course. 20 minutes 3 times a week for a few months. If you do it regularly half your face tastes like metal, and there can be strange side effects. I was taking oxiracetam and huperzine a at the same time as this, and my pupils just started being different sizes... Since then there hasn't been any obvious long term benefit or detriment to me, however.</p>
<p>the reason your pupils dilated is because you aren't using it properly, if you are using 2mA then you shouldn't use it more than once a week at all, and for no longer than 20-30 seconds, your pupils most likely would dilate like that because, because the brain isn't designed to handle that kind of electrical current, so the repeated surges in electricity would have triggered the systems in your brain that allow the pupils to dialate, or it would have sped up the speed in which the brain processes the chemicals in your brain, either way you're burning through the neurotransmitters in your brain, doing it that much, and you should dial it down to a much lower dose if you want to avoid long term brain damage and/or dying early, you probably will be fine but dial it down before you aren't dude. O.O</p>
<p>The information I've got says 20 minutes is fine at 2mA. Accepted safety limits (the Gottingen protocols) allow &quot;currents of 1 &ndash; 2 mA applied for durations up to 20 minutes&quot;.</p><p>&quot;Establishing Safety Limits for Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation&quot;</p><p>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2754807/</p>
<p>hi,</p><p>would it be possible to get any more photos of the device up? im beginning my build as we speak. I'd like to to take a closer look at the wiring around your semiconductor/how that section was mounted.</p><p>cheers.</p>
<p>Thank you! I'm so interesting your design.</p><p>Does it work?</p>
<p>I built this but the current across the electric leads is 6.91 mA. ( 345% above the safe reading. )</p>
<p>What's the voltage with respect to ground at the base of the TIP31C? It should be about 1.9V. Are there any solder bridges shorting out the transistor? From staring at your picture and guessing, it looks like one of the diodes may be reversed leading to +36V instead of +1.9V at the base of the transistor.</p>
<p>Come to think of it it looks like *all* the diodes are reversed.</p>
<p>I thought the band marked the cathode of the diodes. The green jumper is the cathode. ( I didn't have a red jumper ).</p>
<p>The band does mark the cathode of the diodes. What is the voltage at the base of the transistor (vs. ground)? Have you tried re-building the circuit on a breadboard? Also, green is frequently used for cathode/ground. Red's usually used for anode/positive.</p>
<p>Hello</p><p>I have made your tDCS-device for a school project i'm working on, it's pretty cool and it works. But could you maybe explain how the transistor works. I know the diodes take around 0,6V each so that leaves around 1,8V at the base of the transistor. My teacher said that the transistor compares the voltage at the base with the voltage at the emitter and as long as the voltage at the base is higher, current will flow. However, I calculated the voltage, the 2 2.2k resistors take and that is only 6,6V. So that leaves around 30V at the emitter and that is much higher than the 1,8V at the base. Could you please tell me what I did wrong?</p>
<p>you use 3 diodes in series (this provides a positive bias voltage on the transistor base and allows current to flow)</p>
This is highly useful, but I have no clue how to make it from this tutorial.
<p>Buy a commercially produced one ... </p>
<p>Do you have a recomendation? </p>
I plan to.
<p>Good plan. Unintentional electroconvulsive therapy is no fun :)</p>
<p>TDCS has been the best thing that I have found while researching brain enhancement.</p>
for D2, D3, D4; am I to use three diodes or just one?
<p>Three. It sets a (roughly) 2.1V reference.</p>
Nice warning, I'm slightly terrified
nice project.can u please tell me where to place cathode in case of neuronal stimulation and also for anode in case of neuronal inhibition. <br>
It's possible to use 1 or more PC USB as energy source? <br> <br>ffs, 4 9v batteries?
Why are you using 4 9volt batteries? Most circuits for a basic tDCS device require at the most 2. <br> <br>Another version using one 9v: <br>http://brmlab.cz/_media/project/brain_hacking/tdcs.jpg?w=800

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