1. Aperture size. This is the size of the "window" inside the camera allowing light to strike the film/photosite . Bigger windows (smaller f stop numbers) provide a sharp image at the right focal length only. Smaller windows (bigger f stop numbers) provide a greater depth of field.
2. Shutter Speed. This is the length of time that the shutter allows light to pass through to the film/image sensor. Numbers are described in fractions of one second, so higher numbers are actually shorter amount of time (1/500 second). Shorter shutter speeds create sharper images of moving objects.
3. ISO. Is an international standard of film speed declaring how sensitive the film is to light. A film speed of 400 is twice as sensitive to light as a film speed of 200. Digital cameras maintain these exposure settings for consistency.
4. External Light Source. Sunlight, artificial light, flash bulbs and lamps. Usually more is better. This Instructable's focus will be to shedd light on External Light Sources.
The more control the artist has over the lighting conditions, the more control the artist has over the final image. This is why photographers use a studio with adjustable, bright lights. A bare bulb or lamp creates sharp shadows that often distort the way the 3D subject is perceived. The goal is to create a light source that can be viewed as a single source, to cast a shadow and show definition of the subject, but dispersed enough to cast soft shadows.
My Instrucable will demonstrate how I made a studio with a Softbox, a Directional and an Umbrella to create the lighting conditions I want.
by Steve Glen
Step 1: Softbox
Metal coat hangers
Clear packing tape
White tissue paper
60 W natural white compact fluorescent
Exacto knife (I like the orange handle ones because they are thin and precise)
1. Twist the coat hangers with the pliers to give a frame that will incorporate a large space around the fluorescent bulb: 14-18 inches side to side with 6-10 inches front to back. The idea is to give an even light source so round the backdrop. Tape it up.
2. Apply the foil by bending the top 1-2 cm of the foil over top of the hangers. Foil without wrinkles creates an even and beautiful reflector. Secure it with tape.
3. Stretch the tissue paper across the frame to create an even screen and tape it up.
4. Install the light bulb.
Pro Softboxes are completely enclosed but I left mine without a lid allowing light to bounce off the ceiling to simulate natural light. I choose the white fluorescent because it is brighter than tungsten and I don't need to correct my white balance as much as I would with tungsten.