Step 4: Lay Out and Solder Circuit

This next step requires the most skill out of the others, namely the ability to read a schematic and the ability to solder. Both have an incredible amount of resources both on and offline, so even if you aren't the most technically minded, you should be able to learn both incredibly quick. One that I would suggest is Sparkfun's "How to Read a Schematic."

Above is the schematic used for the square wave oscillator. If you're unfamiliar with schematics, it may look daunting, but take some time reading up on schematics and you'll be able to put together this circuit rather easily.

Note that I have also included a pdf version of the schematic, in case the first one is hard to read in your browser.

If you've never soldered before, I would suggest testing out your skills on a couple of extra wires and components before you try your hand on your actual circuit.

Also, I would suggest getting a "Breadboard," which is a tool that allows you to lay out a circuit and test it before making anything permanent. The second image above is an example layout of the breadboard that will work. Because breadboards are designed to be easily changed and are for prototyping purposes only, your breadboard will probably not look exactly like the one shown here.

If you're new to breadboarding, Sparkfun.com has a really great tutorial to check out.

After you've assembled your circuit, you need to transfer it to the "Perf" Board to be permanently soldered on. Take your time with this step and make sure that all of the connections are correct and that no excess wires are touching.

When you're ready, solder all of the points, and then cut all of the excess wire off. Shown above is the Perf Board, both soldered and unsoldered.

<p>Hello everyone! I never anticipated this would become such a popular instructable! Because of its popularity, I'm going to be making some updates addressing the most common questions I've been asked.</p><p>First, I have uploaded a much nicer looking schematic, with more detailed notes on it. There is one embedded in the instructable as well as a pdf download for easier/more convenient reading.</p><p>Other planned updates:</p><p>-A fritzing diagram for the breadboard layout</p><p>-An eagle file so you can order a PCB custom made for this project!</p><p>-Information on how to get different frequency ranges</p><p>-A troubleshooting guide for some of the most common problems people have</p><p>If any of you have any suggestions for things you would like to see added/improved, please let me know!</p>
<p>Update #2!</p><p>I have just designed an eagle pcb for this, I've ordered a set and will confirm that it does what it's supposed to do, and then I'll post the eagle file, so everyone can have a nicely laid out PCB!</p>
<p>Is there a possibility to add a CV input and output, to add it to an already existing synthesizer. I ask because I own a single-oscillator synthesizer and I want to add a second one.</p>
You'd have to build some sort of &quot;CV to resistance&quot; conversion circuit, so in a sense, yes it's &quot;possible&quot; but there would unfortunately be a lot of math involved and slightly more complicated circuitry to get it to be precise to pitch and everything.
<p>Got it working! I couldn't find a 741 so I used 778a instead. Changes the pin out quite a bit but allows for a dual OSC. </p><p>That changed pinout tripped me up for a little bit</p>
<p>Cool! Glad you got it working! The dual oscillator could be cool if you add another pot for frequency - you could then either sum them or just mix between the two!</p>
<p>Ugh! I'm super interested in different waveforms and mixing the signals together (two voices). Please feel free to expound xD</p>
<p>I have the circuit complete but can't get any sound</p>
<p>Could you provide some more specifics? In electronics, there's a wide range of things that could go wrong, in any number of spots. Are you breadboarding or using a perfboard? What are you hooking it up to, headphones or normal powered speakers? Did you use the exact list of parts mentioned in the instructable?</p>
<p>I've tried doing this, but when I triple checked the diagram everything<br> looked okay, so I'm very frustrated. For some reason, my integrated <br>circuit gets extremely hot and it starts to melt my breadboard... I'm <br>scared of the accidental exposure I may have had with the fumes. <br>Anyway, I can post pictures if that would help, I would appreciate it <br>very very much.</p>
Hmm. There's any number of things that could be going wrong - if your IC is heating up a lot, I would say it's probably due to over-voltage or mis-wiring. What voltage are you using for the power supply? Or are you using a 9v battery?<br><br>Are you 100% sure that the op amp you're using is the same model (and therefore has the same pinout) as the one in the tutorial?<br><br>Are you breadboarding the project first before moving to a perfboard?<br><br>Go ahead and post some pictures!<br>
<p>if I built 3 of these all slightly differently....ie different resistors and different potentiometers....and played 2 of them through the third?...and 2 sets of 3 through another?...etc etc...I imagine you could expand this concept unlimited..</p>
Absolutely! But not &quot;through&quot; one another per se. You'd have to get some kind of mixer together to play them at the same time, but do some googling, circuits for mixers are definitely out there and relatively easy to implement!
<p>i have been thinking about it...and better still....use a multiple selector switch between various independent circuits containing different resistors and potentiometers...each oscillator then becomes a multiple synth...ive played with some software synths on frootloops and most seem to consist of two oscillators and a low frequency oscillator....a question.....is it possible to generate your source tone using different frequency crystal oscillators? </p>
<p>There's no crystals in these circuits, it's just the relationship between the resistors, op amp, and capacitors that causes the oscillation to occur. This oscillator build is *drastically* simpler than anything you'll see on a DAW like fruity loops, logic, pro tools, etc. The design doesn't allow for control inputs from things like LFO's, or a dual-oscillator modulation, or anything of that nature unfortunately.</p><p>Like the ideas, but they're definitely a lot more complicated than this project allows for!</p>
<p>indeed...but three of these items all playing independently but in tandem begin to resemble something more sophisticated.....</p>
<p>this is where my mind is....multiple selector switch between multiple crystal oscillators connected to multiple selector switches between various circuits containing various potentiometers and resistors?....output...just thoughts.. </p>
<p>check out a song called being boiled by the human league...the original track was recorded in 1978 and was one of the very first completely electronic recordings...there is this kind of electronic feedback in the background that sounds like electronic wind...its subtle but really fascinating to listen to..</p>
<p>Hi, are you still working on this?</p><p>Nice synth by the way.</p>
If you mean &quot;where might parts 2, 3, etc. be?,&quot; I fully intend to [eventually] make some more instructables, but have never gotten around to it. This particular instructable I don't do much work on other than replying to comments and the occasional update.<br><br>Glad you like the project!
<p>Got it. I'm looking forward to your future 'ibles.</p>
<p>is there anyway i can hook up a midi keyboard or any kind of controller to control the frequency?</p>
Without a looooot of extra electronics, not easily. The MIDI protocol is based on &quot;events,&quot; like &quot;note on&quot; and &quot;note off,&quot; whereas something like this is analog audio and relies on continuous signals, often called &quot;Control Voltage&quot; or &quot;CV&quot; signals in the analog synthesis world. So, you'd first have to purchase or construct a MIDI to CV converter.<br><br>Additionally, you'd have to alter the circuit to allow for a CV input (which I've intended to do for a while, just have never gotten around to it!), so unless you're quite familiar with analog circuit design, I'd say it's probably best to just stick to what's in here.<br><br>If you've got a MIDI keyboard, I'm guessing you've got some sort of software that could almost definitely synthesize a square wave (I know, not the answer you were looking for, but that's part of this device being so simple, is it doesn't have a whole lot of bells and whistles).<br><br>So sadly, in short, no. =/
<p>Any idea how this can be modified to get a SIN and TRIANGLE Wave Oscillator as well ?</p><p>Thanks and great instructable!</p>
<p>Try looking up 4 op amp function generator. That should give you enough to figure out how to get a pseudo-sine and triangle waves.</p>
<p>I have not personally done it, but it should be possible! In step 4, I denote which portions of the circuit are the Power Supply, Output Volume, and Oscillator portions of the circuit. If you pull out the oscillator portion (that's a square wave in this case) and replace it with circuitry that's readily google-able for a Triangle or Sin wave oscillator, it *should* work. No absolute guarantees, but if you were able to get this one to work, that's a good next step!</p>
<p>not really square but more ramp square combo.<br></p>
<p>Looks like it's working! My guess is that the oscilloscope sampling/triggering might be slightly off, and that's what's causing the artifact ramps.</p>
<p>.the generator works great...i just wanted to ask why have you connected the frequency control part to the inverting input in your schematic as opposed to the traditionally used non-inverting input? Is there any distinct advantage?</p>
<p>Nope, no distinct advantage. The circuitry is a little simpler when using the inverting input. There's a fair amount of mathematical and theoretical circuitry explanation as to why, but that's the short end of it.</p>
<p>Great project. The video at the end was very good to see - shows that what you build really is useful.</p>
<p>Thank you! Glad you like it!</p>
<p>Hello, I have been working on this project for a few days and am having a little trouble. A quick question if I may.. is the ground rail connected to anything? Perhaps it would be the negative side of either the 9v battery or 4.5v rail. Or does it just standalone? Any help would be appreciated, cheers :)</p>
<p>Nope! The &quot;ground&quot; in here is just the &quot;reference&quot; point - doesn't refer to any actual grounding. If I were to be *technically* correct, I would use the word reference instead of ground, haha.</p><p>Anyway, the ground rail is its own rail, and it is the &quot;0V&quot; reference. It's sort of a goofy thing to wrap your head around at first, but by putting the reference &quot;in the middle&quot; of the 9V battery, it makes the + side of the battery technically +4.5 volts, as compared to the reference, and the - side -4.5 volts, as compared to the reference. This allows the op amp to create both &quot;positive&quot; and &quot;negative&quot; voltages, but all in reference to the ground. Hope that makes sense.</p><p>Short answer - nope, it's its own thing!</p>
<p>Could I easily add an external input to this oscillator?</p>
<p>I Made it! It was my first project. Everything worked fine, except for the volume. It is very low after I soldered it. Might it be, that I only use a 10k R, instead of the 2 x 10k in series or the 20k connected to the ground?</p><p>Anyways, connected it to my sound interface and it sounds pretty cool. Planning now on building some effects to modulate the sound.</p><p>cheers from Germany :)</p>
Glad it worked for you!<br>Not sure about the volume knob - could be a cold solder joint or something.
<p>can I use a lt1019 or 1013 op amp?</p>
<p>The 1013 would work just fine, but be sure to check the pinouts so that your - and + inputs and output line up with the corresponding inputs in the schematic.</p>
<p>Hello! :) </p><p>Great tutorial! but I have tow questions. Where is the eagle file? And what kind is your perf board? Is a board that needn't design? Is better this or make my board? </p><p>Thanks in advance</p>
Just realized I haven't uploaded the eagle file - I will get that up soon!<br><br>The perf board I used in the instructable is just a general purpose general design perf board (I have a link to it to buy something similar on Newark in the &quot;gather your parts&quot; step).<br><br>The general perf board will be a bit cheaper, but you have to do a bit of design to get all the nodes to line up correctly, whereas the eagle-designed PCB is an easy way to just place your parts exactly where they need to be. The other advantage to the Eagle PCB is you can skip the breadboard part of it, and build it directly, though that's not as fun!<br><br>If you want to alter or expand the design in any way, the pre-fabbed PCBs can be restrictive depending on what exactly you want to do.<br><br>Hopefully that helps!
<p>Okey, thanks for your reply :) Another question, where I buy my components, there aren't a capacitor 0,001uF with 1600V (like your list). I can buy one of this but 630V. Is there a problem? Thanks!</p>
<p>Nope, that's a maximum voltage rating for the capacitor. the maximum possible voltage we'd see across that capacitor in this circuit is 9v, so one with a 630v rating is 100% ok!</p>
<p>Hello:)</p><p>My first project in this area, had success from the start that I attribute to the author.</p><p>cant wait for the next one.</p><p>Cheers</p><p>Steve </p>
<p>Thank you very much! Glad to hear it worked!</p>
<p>hi ! looks like a great and fun thing! im out to make one. as for the 741 op amp, i ordered this thing- </p><p><a href="http://www.taydaelectronics.com/ne5532-5532-ic-dual-low-noise-op-amp.html" rel="nofollow">http://www.taydaelectronics.com/ne5532-5532-ic-dua...</a></p><p>is it the right componenent? will it work?</p><p>thanks</p>
<p>Yep! It will work, but you'll have to change the pin numbers from my schematic, as the 5532 is a dual op amp (there's actually two of them in the package), and the 741 is a single. Here's a translation for you, with the 741 pin on the left, your 5532 pin in the middle, and the explanation of that pin on the right:</p><p>2 -&gt; 2; Negative input</p><p>3 -&gt; 3; Positive input</p><p>4 -&gt; 4; Negative rail</p><p>6 -&gt; 1; Op Amp Output</p><p>7 -&gt; 8; Positive rail</p><p>Hope that makes sense, thanks for trying it out!</p>
<p>Hello and thanks for this awesome tutorial! I'm going to make my own version of it next week (when I get the parts). Does the cable out of OP amp 5 go directly into the oscillator cable or is it connected to the frequency pot and R8? Just to be sure. I'm going to build exactly this oscillator except for that I'm going to put 5 potentiometers parallel next to each other with each a button in series, so you can play it like a piano (except more notes together won't work). Thanks for inspiring me to do this for my physics assignment and giving me this awesome tutorial!</p>
<p>I should have looked better at the breadboard schematic. I already know the answer</p>
<p>Glad you got it figured out!</p><p>Regarding the switches and frequency, as long as you're doing your calculations with the series/parallel resistors, it should work! Just note that pressing multiple switches with the resistors in parallel will cause the resistance of that leg to decrease, which actually causes the frequency to increase. So, you won't be able to &quot;play&quot; the keyboard without a lot of care being put into making sure the switches aren't pressed at the same time.</p><p>The other note I will make is that the switches, when unpressed might also have some erratic behaviour, as the oscillator may still oscillate, but at a very low frequency. I would suggest using SPDT (Single Pole, Double Throw) switches, with the second pole connecting across the oscillator output. This will &quot;Gate&quot; the oscillator off of these switches as well as change the frequency, so if none of the switches are engaged, literally nothing is coming out of the oscillator!</p><p>Hope that helps</p>

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