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The "Electro-Metro" Project.

Can't afford a Nissan Leaf? No Problem!

Build a cheap electric car yourself by removing the the car engine, replacing it with a forklift motor, and adding batteries.

I have plenty of videos about this project at:
http://www.youtube.com/user/BenjaminNelson
and 300MPG.org

The primary "build blog" for this project is at:
http://ecomodder.com/forum/showthread.php/ben-nelsons-electro-metro-build-thread-848.html
but watch out! That is a good read for when you have WAY too much time on your hands.

For a good intro to basic electric car construction, stick with this Instructable.

For more in-depth construction information, check out the instructional Video DVD available at 300MPG.org

 
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Step 1: Get a car.

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The first thing you need to do is get a car. They are not all equal.

I was looking for something lightweight, with no power anything.

Heavier cars need more energy to push down the road, thus limiting your range on batteries.

Things like power steering and power brakes run off the engine, which is going to be removed anyways, rendering them useless. Power windows and locks add weight and complexity to the vehicle.

I ended up finding a Geo Metro for sale, for $500. The engine ran fine, and the body wasn't too bad, but I couldn't drive it home because the clutch was messed up. Oh well, this conversion isn't going to use a clutch anyways!

Make sure the car doesn't have anything major wrong with it (other than maybe a blown engine!) You want to do a Conversion, not a Restoration!

Step 2: Remove anything gasoline related

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Remove anything related to the gasoline internal combustion system.

That means that you are going to take off:
Gas tank
Exhaust, muffler, cat
Engine
Starter
Radiator
Coolant tank
Fuel lines and filter

and anything else you can think of.

Removing all the extra bits saves weight and cleans up the car, making it easier to paint, run wiring, and do everything else in the conversion.

If you remove parts carefully, you can sell them to help cover the cost of the conversion. I bought the car for $500, but then sold the engine, gas tank, and radiator for $550. Free car to convert!

Make sure to not alter any safety gear. In this case, I was careful to make sure the driver and passenger airbags remain intact and functioning.

Here I am removing the gas tank. I had never removed a gas tank before, and couldn't figure a good way to drain it. What a mess!


Here's a video of me literally lifting out the engine with a pulley and clothes line! Hard to answer my phone with my hands full like that!

Step 3: Adapter plate

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You did make sure to keep the transmission, right?

We will use the car's original transmission as a way to connect power from the electric motor to the car's wheels.

The trick here is how to attach the motor to the transmission?

We will make an "adapter plate" out of a chunk of plate aluminum which has holes in it to line up with both the transmission and the end of the motor.

I pulled the transmission out of the car, and flopped it on some tagboard, then outlined it in pencil and marked all the holes.

I then took that and the motor end cap to a local machinist who is also a hot-rodder and knows way more about cars than I do.

He cut an aluminum plate to the size and shape required, complete with carefully aligned holes. The center of the motor drive shaft and the center of the transmission driven shaft need to line up perfectly.

Before bolting the motor and transmission together with the adapter plate, we need to design a coupler that will mechanically connect both drive-shafts.



Step 4: Coupler

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The coupler is a means of connecting the rotary power of the electric motor to the transmission to power the car.

While there are a number of ways to do this, including keeping the clutch and machining the flywheel, I chose to keep it simple and use a "Lovejoy"-style connector.

Lovejoy connectors have three fingers and a shaft-hole. Put one connector on either shaft, and a rubber "spider" between the two. Poof! you have a mechanical connection!

Lovejoy couplers are designed with a keyway and set-screw, but both the shafts on this project are splined! Splines are much stronger than keys, but much more difficult to machine!

For the transmission, I took the old (broken) clutch plate and ground off the rivets to get just the middle splined center out. The machinist cut off the ears, lathed a step in the Lovejoy coupler, pushed the clutch spline in there, and welded it in place.

The motor spline COULD have been more of a challenge, as I didn't have any part with a spline on it for the shaft to go to. Fortunately, the motor was double-shafted (one on each end) and the back end went to a drum brake, which was the parking brake on the forklift.

I took the drum brake apart, sure enough, it was the same spines on the back end. I was able to get the very center, splined section, of the brake out, and use it to make the motor half of the coupler.

Line up the motor and transmission, with the coupler halves between them (with the spider in there) and bolt both the the adapter plate.

Congratulations! You have an electric car drivetrain!!!




EDIT!:

I ran the car all summer with this set-up, but a few weeks back, it failed. I don't think the issue was the style of coupler. I think the main issue was that I installed the transmission and motor in the car seperate from each other. Because of that, I never got a true center alignment and bench test.

I rebuilt the coupler (with a little help from some friends - OK, I would have been lost without them..) by welding both female splines to a piece of flat steel plate, rounding it off, and adding a tubular jacket.

Then, the new coupler, motor, and transmission were all mounted to each other, tested, centered, and tightened. THEN the whole thing got put it the car.

Been working great since then.

Watch the video - it will make sense.




The first three photos at the bottom are the original "Lovejoy" coupler. The last two photos are of the current one-piece "solid" coupler.

Step 5: Motor

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What's an electric car without a big electric motor to run it!?

I bought my motor for $50 out of some guy's garage. He had bought a junky forklift to build his own automotive lift, and had no use the the motor and some other parts.

The motor was very rusty and greasy, but it did spin (not fast or easily) when I applied 12 volts to it.

Rebuilding an electric motor is very easy. There are only a handful of parts to it.
I degreased it, removed the coils and sprayed them with insulating epoxy, checked the bearings, put it back together, and painted it.

I also had the machinist put the rotor on his lathe and take a tiny bit off the commutator. That makes it looks new, and provides a smooth, conductive surface for the brushes to ride on.

I also replaced the brushes, purchasing new ones at a shop that specializes in forklift motors. $50 for the new brushes brings the total cost of $100 for a pretty decent electric motor.


Step 6: Batteries

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The motor won't do you any good, unless you have some batteries to power it with.

This car uses 6 x 12V batteries, for a 72V system.

These are Deka Dominator true Gel-Cell batteries. They can not leak or spill acid, nor do they require watering.

I was fortunate enough to be able to get these batteries, slightly used, for $12 each - essentially scrap metal prices!

One downside of these batteries is that they are picky about charging voltage. I was finally able to find a 72V charger designed for these batteries, and got it used for $200.

If I had used the more typical deep-cycle flooded batteries, I could have used a different charger, or even 6 12V chargers, one on each battery.

Four batteries are in the cargo compartment of the car, and two are in front, where the radiator used to be.

For the rear batteries, I cut two pieces of bed frame to lay across the spare tire well, and ran a bolt through the end of each piece down into the frame of the car.

For the front batteries, a few friends came over and helped me weld in a metal tray for the two batteries to sit on. Then I cut two short pieces of unistrut, and ran threaded rod through holes in the tray to bolt the batteries down. I then insulated the front batteries with rigid styrofoam and re-installed the front bumper.

I went to the boat store and bought a "battery charger power inlet". This is a male electrical connection with a rubber cover. Since the gas tank was already removed, I installed the power inlet where the gasoline used to go in.

I added an additional circuit in my garage, just for the car, and have a 25' 12 gauge yellow extension cord with power indicator light in the end, just for plugging the car in with.

Plug it in at night, and it's charged the next morning, automatically.



Update! I later played around with more batteries. With a motor controller that supports higher voltage, I was able to run up to 144V (12x 12V batteries.) At that voltage, the top speed of the car was at least 73 mph, but I really had no cargo space.
Just so you know, Ford Ranger front coil springs fit the back of a Geo Metro, but you have to shorten them.

Step 7: Controller

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The controller is an important part of the electric car conversion.

The controller is a solid-state electronic box that controls the power (speed) between the batteries and the motor.

My controller is a Curtis 400 amp peak PWM controller designed for use with series-wound motors. It can run on 48-72 volts.

The higher amperage your controller is, the better your acceleration will be. The higher voltage, the better top speed and efficiency of the car.

Also, keep in mind that amperage is also what defines range in a battery. Capacity is marked in Amp Hours, but draining a battery at double the amps will give you LESS than half the run time! Having a controller running higher voltage will use LESS amps to do the same amount of work.

What's this mean? Buy the highest voltage controller you can afford! 48 volt controllers are cheap, as they are used in so many golf carts. 100V+ controllers get expensive real fast.

My 72V controller seemed to be a good compromise of cost and efficiency. I bought it slightly used on E-Bay for $300.

Follow the schematics available through the controller manufacturer to connect the batteries to the controller and motor with heavy gauge cabling, such as welding cable, with solid, heavy-duty lug terminals on the end.

The controller requires a 0-5Kohm potentiometer as a "throttle". This could be as simple as a $3 Radio Shack part, or as fancy as a purchased, specialty part such as a Curtis PB-6

I split the difference and installed a 0-5K pot inside a free-from-the-junkyard forklift throttle control.

Run the gas pedal cable to the potentiometer, so that when your foot is on the gas, it sends a variable signal to the controller.


Update! I later switched over to running an Open ReVolt motor controller. It's the same one you can find here on Instructables at http://www.instructables.com/id/Homemade-100-HP-Motor-Controller-for-an-Electric-C/
That controller is good for up to 144V and 500amps.

Step 8: Other

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Currently, the car is insured and registered, although the DMV is still requiring that I drag it in and PROVE that there is no engine in the car before they give me the emissions tesing exemption.

This car can go for 20 miles on a charge, and has a top speed of 45 MPH, the speed limit right outside my house. In town is all 25 mph anyways. My typical ride is 10 miles for going to work, grocery store, post office, etc, and back home.

If I doubled up the battery pack, I should be able to go 30 to 40 miles on a charge.

This project has cost me about $1200 total, including buying the car in the first place. If I would have done the machining myself, I would have only spent around $800 for everything. This car charges at my house through a renewable energy program. All electricity comes from wind, bio-gas, and other renewable energy sources.

I kept the back seat and can carry four people total.

The original driver and passenger airbags are completely intact and functional.

I mostly drive this car in third gear. Turn the car on - put it in third - drive. It's really that easy. There's no engine to kill, so you don't have to push in the clutch before coming to a stop. The motor has so much torque that I can pull away from a dead stop in fourth gear.

I still need to come up with a heater. (EDIT: Please see below) I think I will wear an extra thick coat and gloves for winter driving and have an electric defroster on the dashboard to keep it from frosting. The heat issue has been on my mind since the start of this project. The inefficiency of a gasoline engine is a blessing in a cold Wisconsin winter.

I did gloss over a few steps of this project.
I skipped telling you how many times I took apart, and put back together, the electric motor. How many times I lugged it back and forth to the machinist's. A friend and I were up til 2 in the morning one night fixing the control arm mount! Or how I had to literally shorten the motor because it was too long to fit in the car! But those things are for another story at another time!

I made sure to have an interlock, so I can't accidently drive away while plugged in. Make sure to have a nice big fuse inline of your main battery pack.

All the little challenges of a conversion like this are part of what makes it fun and interesting. In my case, I did a fair bit of experimenting of the best way to run the power brakes.




Winter Heat:
Sure, gasoline engines aren't efficient, but all that waste heat sure is nice in the winter. Since this car no longer has the original engine, it doesn't have the original heat either. The blower motor is still there and works fine for defogging the windshield.
Some EV converters remove the original heater core and replace it with a ceramic heating element that runs on their pack voltage. That sounded like a lot of work, and I was already sick of tearing apart the dashboard.

I already had a household (120V AC) electric oil-filled radiator. I just put that behind the passenger seat, and run an extension cord out the window to a timer.
The heat comes on automatically in the morning and heats up the inside of the entire car before I get in it.
The mass of the oil in the radiator stays hot for about 10 minutes or so after I leave. Most of my trips aren't any longer than that anyways.

I like that with this heat system in that:
1) I didn't have to buy a darn thing
2) The entire interior of the car is already warm - seats, steering wheel, everything!
3) This also helps keep the batteries warm.
4) All the electric power comes from the wall, instead of the batteries

The only down side is that if I am parked all day somewhere that I can't plug in, I don't have that same heat for the ride home. On the other hand, most of my trips are pretty short, so it's not the end of the world.

This heat system consumes about 5 cents worth of electricity per use.

BRAKES:
One of the reasons why I chose this car to convert was that it has manual windows, manual locks, manual transmission, non-powered steering,pretty much manual everything - except the brakes. The first time I drove the car as an electric conversion, I found the brakes to be a little hard. (You CAN stop the car WITHOUT power brakes, you just have to push really hard!) It was just a low-speed test drive, but it was pretty obvious that I had to work on the brake system. Power brakes work on vacuum created by the engine. Without an engine to make the vacuum, the brakes just don't work the way they should. 
Some people say to find a different, manual, master brake cylinder and install that, or even just to punch a hole in a certain spot in the cylinder to convert it to manual. Neither of these sounded like great options. Really, I just needed an electric way to make a vacuum.
So, to start out with, I played around with an aquarium air pump, just to learn how the vacuum brake system works. After that, I starting looking around for a 12v air pump with a connection on the "In" end, so that it could be used as a vacuum pump. A friend of mine dug one up, along with an aluminum bottle that had a threaded connector already on it.
I connected the air pump to 12V+ power through a vacuum switch. The vacuum switch measures vacuum in the bottle - if there isn't enough vacuum, the switch turns on the pump.

Now the car has power brakes, just like it did originally, only it's driven by a tiny electric motor in a little pump, instead of by a gasoline engine. Compare this to newer versions of the Prius, where the air conditioning is driven by an electric motor. That way, you can have AC without the engine running!

Step 9: Now you make one!

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An electric car really is fun to drive!

My house is on a renewable power program, where I get all my electricity over the power lines, but coming from bio-gas, wind turbines, and other renewable energy sources.

Doing a calculation on energy consumption, comparing gasoline and electricity, the car gets the equivelent of about 130 miles per gallon

This has been a fun project to work on and I have learned tons doing it. Keep in mind that I have NO background in electronics or engineering. All I did was go to the library, start talking to people, and learn what I could!

If I can do this, so can you!

So how about it? Are you building an electric car or have any other DIY Green Tech? Let me know!

You can stop by 300MPG.org to see the videos that my friends and I are making to teach you, step by step, how to build your own electric car!

I found that there was a lack of instructional videos in the world of electric cars. I bought a couple, and they all were TERRIBLE! So, I made my own! Stop by 300MPG.org to check it out!

Take care, and keep it green.

Thanks,

-Ben



PS: if you enjoy the videos, please give them a high rating, this helps me to be able to keep making them!

For more photos of this project:
http://gallery.me.com/benhdvideoguy#100161
http://gallery.me.com/benhdvideoguy#100222
http://gallery.me.com/benhdvideoguy#100273
http://gallery.me.com/benhdvideoguy#100287
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toby que1 month ago
I thought that transmissions were only for gasoline cars. Why did you have to put one on an electric car's motor?
toby que1 month ago
Why did you put a trans. To the motor, i thought that transmissionswere only for gasoline cars, why?
MinzM made it!2 months ago
Ever put a solar panel on electric car????
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JustinW66 months ago

How do you change gears without a clutch?

It's surprisingly easy. Just rev the motor up to the right speed, and push it into gear. It took about a day to get used to for me.

Max P MPaulHolmes3 months ago

MPaulHolmes, does changing the gears in this way not damage the gears? I'm asking, not to be critical, but because I am hoping to build my own EV. I'm wondering whether I need to try to keep the clutch. It seems like most people don't use a clutch, but to me, that sounds like it would damage the transmission pretty quickly.

That's how most truck drivers do it...

jupiler013 months ago

hello

i wanted to now more about it

i like elec car wil you help me

greetings sam

mjustus3 months ago
why try and build some type of altenator that way while u drive it can charge batteries and drive unlimited
IGOTROLLED3 months ago
IGOTROLLED3 months ago

Hi guys,

you are the pioneers of electric cars so I would like to invite you to join 80edays, the hardest EV endurance test driving around the world!

I would like to make a link exchange with this great website.

Kind regards

Rafael de Mestre

www.80edays.com

jolaniyan5 months ago

Hi Ben! The ecomodder and 300mpg links aren't working.

bennelson (author)  jolaniyan3 months ago

They worked when I clicked them. Maybe try a different browser or check again later. You can always do a google search if you needed to.

omars38 months ago

the motor u used is a universal motor(ac/dc) or a PMDC motor??? nice work.

bennelson (author)  omars38 months ago

It's a series-wound DC motor, 10.5" diameter, Nissan brand, originally out of a full-size electric forklift.

Thanks for all the great information. Have you found another electric engine as a power source other than from a forklift?

collin.druz4 months ago

Hey thank you for this intractable! Definitely puts the idea in perspective. The question I have is what do you think would be the weight max of a car you wanted to convert to electric and still be efficient/practical?

birddseedd5 months ago

Where do you find the batteries that cheap?

mbsB5 months ago

With gas being $2.10 a gallon, why would you want to ruin a perfectly good running Geo Metro, which has 3 cylinder engines and averages 50 MPG anyhow?

bennelson (author)  mbsB5 months ago

Gas is only $2/gallon at the moment. In my area, a few years back, it's been as high as $4.50/gallon.

Electricity is cheap. At my electric company rate a "gallon of electricity" works out to about a dollar, so it's still HALF the cost of even "cheap" gasoline.

Also, I can make my own electricity, but I can't make my own gasoline. (For example, I can charge a vehicle from this: http://www.instructables.com/id/Solar-Swing-Set-PV...

Lastly, the Metro actually wasn't in working condition when I bought it. It had a some problems, including the starter and the transmission. The engine did run. When I converted the car, I sold the engine to a Metro owner whose engine had died, so that he could fix his up and keep it running.

Besides purely the cost of fuel, there's all sorts of other reasons to build an electric car, such as the great learning experience. Also, just test drive an electric car sometime - it FEELS different than a gas car. You can't help but smile!

bennelson (author) 6 months ago
It's different with an electric motor than with a gas engine. With the motor, there's not all that extra weight of the flywheel and the power of the engine still idling when your foot isn't on the accelerator. Just let off the accelerator, wait a moment, then shift. It's really easy. It's one of those things that's hard to explain, but if you experience it, you just go "Oh, that was easy."
transistor28 months ago

just a few things that might help, one take the batteries out and buy a cheap generator from harbor fright about 120 and that will give you over 5 hours of use per 1.25 gallons of fuel, and it would atomatically regulate its output based on the demand from the motor, also keep 2 batteries in to bridge the gap between the generator giving more power and the drain for the motor, and 2 buy a thing of 20 gauge nichrome wire and make a coil around a tube put a small fan at one end and attach it to the vent that would normaly be the input from hot air from the engine, and then wire it to a potentiomiter/switch and then 1 battery that way you can turn on off and controll its heat output, and then i want to do this type of project, how hard was it to adapt the motor shaft to the cars transmisssion?

absolutly no. buy a utility trailer and put a generator on it. only need to use the generator when driving over the charging range. then you'd never need to discharge the battery on long trips increasing the balling-ness of your road trip. in fact, get an old VW diesel for the generator. I know it would get good MPG, we took one from Vancouver to Alberta at 15.00 dollars spent on diesel. the Olds that we took that winter was 80 bucks every time we saw a gas station. EV cars plus diesel generator makes long ass road trip.

hola si el auto que tengo que convertir es manual no tengo que montal la volanta para hacer los cambios gracias alfredo

gerardo.munozherrera.5 made it!8 months ago

Mr. Nelson, i don`t speak english well but i need your help. I`m a Colombia Mechanical Engeenering, living in the north of Brasil -Amazonia-, working like mechanical automotive teacher, and I am looking for a course in USA about car conversion, including theory and practice. Please send me information. Thank you.

Gerardo Muñoz Herrera.

gerardo2502@yahoo.com

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radeq1 year ago
Hello, super inspiration and my big dream for many years! BUT, what about technical licence? I don't know US laws, but all european police patrols strictly check the "papers" of a car and "conersion" like this is direct order of very big fine :-(.
If it's easy or free in the US, I'm quietly envying, but I'm afraid, nor there is it possible...
forra radeq8 months ago

In which European country you live in. In Finland this is possible and if it is possible in Finland there should not be a place in a world where it is not possible :)

radeq forra8 months ago

The Czech republic. In general, it's the same, but it very depends on what "official vehicle inspection facility" needs in fact. I'm afraid (and listen to), it's very very complicated (and expensive) process. Do your authorities need no technical drawings (project), special mechanical test of your "self-built" car, etc.? The main argument of our authorities (officers) is, that changing of engine and adding a battery change driveability and also safety. It's tru in general, but they make it more complicated than is necessary. It's really horrible process, and most of people I know, they wanted to do it, rather finally bought some old official electromobile and change battery (it's much less problem). Hope, it'll change, but not yet, unfortunately ...

forra radeq8 months ago

Here is a link

http://ecars-now.wikidot.com/ecars-now:faq#toc32

this is how it is in Finland

bennelson (author)  radeq1 year ago
No matter where you live, make sure to check your insurance, title, registration, and any other legalities you need to take care of before doing an unusual car project.

You want to make sure ahead of time that you can legally drive your vehicle when it is all finished. The only issue that I had on my car was that it was difficult to pass pollution controls! Yes, even without an engine, I still had to do a smog test!

can you elaborate on the difficulties you had passing pollution controls? I thought it would only be a matter of showing the bureau of automotive repair that you had modified the car to run on electricity. do you have to pass some sort of electrical emissions test?

bennelson (author)  kleeem12 months ago

I live in one of the counties in south-eastern Wisconsin that requires emissions control testing. Usually, this just requires going to a specific location and having a test run using the ODBII port. Without the engine, the ODBII port has nothing to talk to! I originally mailed a letter to the state, explaining what I had done to the car, including photos showing the conversion process. The letter was returned, apparently unread, with a rubber-stamp response of "Please take your vehicle to your local emissions testing station." When I did that, the person there plugged in to the ODBII, which of course would NOT connect. She then said, "Let me try again...." thinking it was a bad connection, rather than the fact that THERE WAS NO ENGINE IN THE CAR! The local folks at that test center had NO idea how to deal with it. Even on all the forms, it listed GAS and DIESEL as the only choices for fuel types. Eventually, I was able to find a real person, with an actual job title, business card, and desk. With him, I was able to make an appointment at a "Technical Assistance Center", which was also further away than I could drive to, so I had to tow the car there. When I FINALLY got the car back into their shop and has somebody of authority look at it, the entire "inspection" consisted of me popping the hood and a man looking into the engine compartment and saying "Yep, there's no engine in there." He then signed the bottom of a form and faxed it in to the state and told me I should be set forever on pollution testing on the car. No joke, pollution testing on the car really was the hardest part of building it! It's a little different from State to State, and maybe even which county you are in. Some places no pollution testing. Also, many places exempt vehicles older than 1996, because that's when ODBII came in to play.

Moral of the story? Just figure out what you need to do before you start your project. The last thing you want is not to be able to legal drive the project you put so much work into. Does anyone here drive a Volt or Leaf? What did you have to do for emissions testing or pollution control? (Keep in mind that my project was built BEFORE those cars were available.)

bennelson (author)  bennelson12 months ago

Here's a photo of me in the middle of winter, posing happily as I just passed the "Yep, there's no engine in there," test.

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bennelson (author)  bennelson12 months ago

For the full story on emissions testing, please visit: http://www.300mpg.org/projects/electro-metro/emissions-testing/

If I understand well, your car is really completely legal? May I ask what all did you need to do (and what to pay for it) for registration ability? We in Europe need for this action an army of lawyers connected to bribed officers and policemen.

Sumary: It's quite easy (and relative cheep) to physically convert, but quite impossible (and/or expensive) to legalize. So, finally nobody try it there (although there is gasoline more expensive than in the US!), because of legalization problems and/or fees :-(
bennelson (author)  radeq1 year ago
Yes, this car is completely legal.

It still has all the original safety features. This car has "daytime running lights", which have not been modified.

It has driver and passenger-side airbags, which have NOT been changed or modified.

The original seatbelts are all intact. Although I cut around the back seat, I make sure not to alter where the seatbelts mounted.

Before starting the project, I called my insurance company and told them exactly what I wanted to do. They had no problem continuing my insurance. Their thoughts were that the car had a lower top speed and would only be used closer to home would actually make it a BETTER insurance risk.

I already had a clean title for the car.

Registration in my area requires a pollution test. I wasn't able to pass it (even though the car doesn't make pollution at point of use) because without an engine, the ODBII system used at the emissions testing was not able to communicate with my car. It took me a while to find the correct government official for me to get an exemption, which required a mechanic to inspect the vehicle. That man looked under the hood, said "Yes, there is no engine in there", and signed a form.

The United States has a long tradition of people working on and modifying their own cars, so it tends to be pretty liberal on making changes, as long as they are still safe. That said, exact laws can vary quite a bit from State to State and even which County you are in.

For NEW cars, it is EXTREMELY difficult to begin a new car brand, and it is one of the most highly regulated industries in the U.S. (Thank you Tesla Motors for all the hard work you have done! shaking things up!)

BEFORE starting a project, make sure to check over what things will be required for you to legally drive your vehicle and that you meet all your requirements.
Yes, it sounds very logical, safety should be only required for successful conversion legalization, but european laws aren't logical. As I said, I'm envying liberal laws (needed a pollution test is only a dry fly). In EU, mission impossible ;-).

P.S. In fact, no wonder, that EU make individual GAS-EL conversions so unpleasant. The hole EU stands on gasoline excise taxes. Better labor mobility is not interesting topic (to ban cheep traveling is much easier way to fill a budget). So, there'll may be a chance until it runs out of oil, ..., but then EU will certainly make double (or quadruple) electricity tax :-D
Rob3609 months ago

Hi Bennelson,

We are planning to build an EV based on an old Volvo 360 to do the Nordkapp challenge in December 2015 (7000 kilometers from Amsterdam (The Netherlands) to the Nordkapp (Norway) and back. Do you have any advise?

bennelson (author)  Rob3609 months ago
Wow! That's a long race. You'll need a really good large capacity battery pack and a good (fast) charger.
Good Luck!
-Ben
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