What is a workbench?
A woodworker's workbench isn't a table, it's a work-holding system. It's not something you set things on top of, it's a tool that holds your work. Where a worktable might have a machinist's vise bolted to its top, a woodworker's bench is built to accommodate a number of different workholding mechanisms, such as bench dogs, planing stops, hold fasts, or board jacks, and will usually have one more woodworker's vises integrated into its structure.
A workbench needs to be heavy enough that it doesn't move under you while you're working, and stiff enough that it doesn't rack itself to pieces under the forces that will be placed upon it. It doesn't take many hours of planing a board or hammering a chisel for a worktable made of nailed 2x4s to come apart. Traditional bench designs use mortise-and-tenon joinery, which is strong and rigid, but not really suited for a novice woodworker who doesn't already have a bench.
This instructable shows how to build, with basic tools and readily-available lumber, a bench that provides most of the function of a traditional woodworker's workbench. I began with a design by Asa Christiana that was featured in the second season of finewoodworking.com's video series Getting Started in Woodworking. The project plans are available on their website.
Christiana's design was a simplification of a bench from Sam Allen's book ''Making Workbenches''.
The bench I will be describing differs from both of these in a couple of areas, the most significant of which is the top. Allen's top was made from three layers of 3/4" medium density fiberboard (MDF), topped and edged with 1/4" hardboard. Christiana's top was just two layers of 3/4" MDF. My top is two layers of 3/4" MDF edged with 1/2" oak and topped by a 1-1/2" thick edge-glued oak Ikea countertop. My top is more expensive in both time and money than either Christiana's or Allen's. If you're looking to build something fast and cheap, I'd recommend Allen's approach over Christiana's. The hardboard significantly increases the durability of the top.
The essence of the design is a joinery system using threaded rod that provides a great deal of strength and rigidity. The base is formed with 4x4 legs and 2x4 stretchers, connected with dowels and threaded truss rods. As screws are tightened down at each end of the rods, the structure is pulled together forming a rigid unit.
I am new to woodworking. I'm learning as I go along, and I'm documenting as I learn, in the hope of being helpful to other novices. On the range from slap-dash to deliberate, my method is definitely on the deliberate side. If you have enough experience to be confident in using techniques that are more time-efficient, go for it. The techniques I'm using are those I thought least likely to go wrong, not those that would produce a product in the shortest time or at the lowest cost. You'll notice that I made a number of mistakes, spent considerable time on work I later determined to be unnecessary, and in a number of cases I used different techniques at the end than I did at the beginning. These are all the result of learning. I thought it would be better to demonstrate how I made errors, and how I corrected them, than to provide a set of instructions that presented the false impression that everything went together perfectly.
Step 1: The materials
If you decide upon construction lumber, you want kiln dry lumber. Green lumber will warp on you as it drys. Dig through the stacks and pick out the straightest, cleanest pieces. Generally, the boards that are sitting loose on the stack are those that other people left behind, as they sorted through looking for better. Be prepared to move them out of the way, and to dig down to the better stock. Be nice, though, and put everything back when you're done.
For the base:
The base is made of four legs, four short stretchers, and four long stretchers. The legs are 4x4's, roughly three feet long, the stretchers are made of 2x4's, the short are two feet long and the long are four feet long. You can cut two legs and a short and a long stretcher out of standard length stock, so you need:
In addition, you will need four pieces of 3/8" all-threaded rod, two feet long, and four pieces of 3/8" all-threaded rod, four feet long. I bought four pieces of six-foot length, and cut them down.
For the top:
Christiana's design uses three pieces of MDF - one two-feet by four-feet for the shelf, and two two-feet by five-feet to laminate the top. These can be cut from a single 49x97" panel. Allen's top was three layers of 3/4" MDF topped and edged with 1/4" hardboard.
I made my top from two layers of 3/4" MDF and an edge-glued oak Ikea Numerär countertop.
One 49x97" panel of 3/4" MDF
One 25x73" panel of 1-1/2" edge-glued oak
One 1/2x1-1/2" oak board, six feet long
One 1/2x1-1/2" oak board, five feet long
One 1/2x1-1/2" oak board, two feet long
For the vise:
If you're installing a vise, you'll need hardwood for the jaws and you may need some scrap MDF or plywood to make up the proper mounting thickness. For the vises I chose:
Two 24" lengths of 2x8 oak
One 13" length of 2x6 oak
4 - 3/8" all-threaded rod, 48" long
4 - 3/8" all-threaded rod, 24" long
32 - 3/8" dowels
16 - 3/8" nuts
16 - 3/8" washers
30 - 1-1/2" drywall screws
30 - 2" drywall screws
30 - s-clips
4 - levelers
Plus whatever you need to attach the vise or vises
Note: I've photographed the lumber lumber leaning against the wall, but storing it that way can cause it to warp. Stack it flat, and leave it for a week or so to adjust to the shop's temperature and humidity.