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In this project we use Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Animal, Vegetable and Mineral to make something with a multitude of practical uses. The text is detailed and stands alone, but the videos are very useful and entertaining. Video #1, the Quicky version, is the 7 minute general interest, entertainment version. Video #2, buildcult, is the long educational 20 minute version. I'd recommend watching the short version first, before reading this instructable, so that you have a visual reference. I did my best to make it worth 7 minutes of your life. I conceived this project for the Brave the Elements contest, which you can vote in here, hint hint.

The goal is to build a kiln from natural materials in order to burn and slake lime for seashells. Lime is immensely valuable! If lime disappeared tomorrow, civilization would fall hard! It is the main ingredient in cement and can be used to make mortar and plaster. It can also be used in the arts for limewash and fresco, in soap making, mixed with casein (milk protein) to make pre-industrial waterproof glue and paint, for smelting and refining metal, and to remove hair and prepare skins for rawhide, hide glue or tanning. Ever read the ingredients on your tortillas or tortilla chips and seen “traces of lime”? That’s because lime is used in processing corn kernels to make tortillas, hominy and grits, which is easy to do at home. Not only does it make corn more nutritious and digestible, but it also lends to the unique flavor of those products. Beet sugar is processed with lime too. Lime is also used to potentiate certain drug substances such as betel nut and coca leaves, a small bit of lime being chewed with the plant material to activate it. So, yeah, wow, lime is one of the most useful substances ever!

A WORD ON SAFETY: A lot of people think that lime is some deadly scary chemical that will burn you face off. It’s not… not really... well, maybe. Quick lime is dangerous, but that is a brief transient state. During slaking, the quicklime will give off heat and boil vigorously, so that is dangerous since the stuff can splatter around and is not only hot, but also highly alkaline. So, yeah, okay, maybe doing a face plant in a boiling tub of quicklime may burn your face off. Don’t do that! Otherwise, the stuff is not that horrible, and people have been making tortillas, mixing mortar, plastering walls and tanning leather without goggles and hazmat suits for a very long time. It is also non-toxic. You definitely don’t want your pets drinking lime water or your kids playing with lime, but that is due to it’s concentration mostly, and not to inherent toxicity. When diluted, it becomes less and less caustic and is at some point completely harmless. Once converted to calcium carbonate by drying, it’s just like egg shells, sea shells or stone, not only non-toxic, but actually used as a calcium supplement. So, don’t get it in your eyes, keep it away from children and pets, be careful when slaking and use common sense and everything will be fine. It will temporarily dry skin though skin though, so be aware of that.

Before we get to the fun stuff, let me explain how this works. Don’t be intimidated by the chemistry terms, they aren’t important. The changes lime goes through have a name, The Lime Cycle. By heating stone or shells red hot, about 900 Celcius (called calcining), we can change lime from it’s stable inert form, calcium carbonate, into Calcium oxide. Calcium oxide, aka Qucklime, is the most unstable and highly reactive form of lime. Quicklime reacts violently with water, giving off tremendous heat and boiling vigorously. This reaction with water makes it into Calcium Hydroxide, which is similar to lye, but not as strong. This is the form that is used the most in the arts and industries mentioned above. If the lime is kept under a layer of water, it will not only keep forever, but it improves with age! This stuff is called lime putty. You may be more familiar with the dry lime you can buy in a bag, which is dry calcium hydroxide. This bagged powdered hydrated lime is widely available, but inferior to wet slaked lime putty. You can hardly buy lime putty, and it is very expensive, but you can make it! For more on the forms of lime see my article, Understanding Lime.

Basically, lime putty is like liquid rocks. Once it is allowed to dry with exposure to air, it absorbs carbon from the atmosphere and turns back into a hard rock (or shell, which is pretty much the same thing). Think about that for a second. That is awesome!

And thus the lime cycle is completed from rock or shell, to quicklime, to lime putty, and back to rock/shell.

In my book, it doesn't get much funner than burning and slaking lime, so lets get this party started!

Step 1: TOOLS AND MATERIALS

The pet straw/clay kiln is so simple you could do it with almost no real tools, except maybe something to carry water, it would just take longer. A wheelbarrow is nice to mix in, but you could also just use a bucket or tub. A shovel is good for digging clay. Maybe some tools to cut and split wood.

STRAW: You need a type of straw that is flexible enough to curve around the kiln body. I prefer my wild straw, but bale straw from the feed store works fine too. Don't use hay. You want the hollow stems of the straws, not the flat grass blades which compose much of a bale of hay.

CLAY: Clay or high clay soil is need to make clay slip for the kiln. Try to dig down at least past the top 6 inches of the soil. In many clay soil areas, there will be heavier clay about 1 foot down. Mix the clay with water. If dry, try to soak it for at least a day or two if possible. Mix by hand, squishing the clay between your fingers, or use a paint mixer shaft in an electric drill. Use less water than you think you’ll need. You can always add more! Make the slip thick, like a thin batter. When dipped, a lot of clay should stick to the grass leaving a good coating on each straw. Lumps, bumps and sand are no problem as long as the consistency is right.

FUEL: I have used all different kinds of scrappy wood for firing lime kilns. Use anything that is dry and not soggy or so rotten that it is very light in weight. pine cones, dead bark, nut shells, twigs, sticks and of course just plain old firewood are fine. You do want a proportion of small stuff in there as well as enough big stuff to keep the fire hot for a while.

We are dealing with two basic factors here-

Temperature: the shells or stone must reach a certain temperature to calcine.

Dwell time: The temperature must be maintained long enough to thoroughly penetrate and finish the job.

Having enough fuel and enough air flow will give you adequate temperature and having a large enough mass of wood, with some of it in larger pieces, will give you dwell time. (BTW, it is hard to drive the temperature of wood too high, certainly not without forced air.)

I don't use wood much over 2 inches in diameter in these small kilns. Use some around 2 inches, some small stuff to spread the fire and keep it moving, and a bunch in between. There's no need to over think it.

You can also use already prepared charcoal. Using charcoal will almost eliminate smoke, making this process accessible to backyard pyros who live in populated areas.

Feedstock can be either limestone or shells.

SHELLS: As far as I know, any shells will work. With shells, you know what you are getting, very high calcium lime, known as FAT LIME.

LIMESTONE: Limestone varies in composition and may contain either useful or un-useful impurities. High magnesium is common in limestone, but it has similar properties and magnesium limes can be used in building. I guess it either works or it doesn't. Just burn whatcha got and see if it works. I don’t have a lot of experience with limestone, because it is rare in these parts. The thicker the stone is, the more dwell time it requires, so break limestone up into smaller pieces. I try not to use any stone much over about 2 inches thick and I think smaller is probably better in a small kiln.

CHALK, CORAL AND MARBLE: Are other materials that are sometimes burned to make lime.

FOR SLAKING: After burning, the lime is slaked in water. You'll need a ceramic, galvanized metal or wooden vessel. A galvanized tub is good. A stainless stock pot will work for small amounts. The slaking lime gets very hot, so don't use plastic. You also need boiling water and a long stick to stir with so you can stay well back from the boiling splattering lime.

STORING: The finished lime should be stored in a container with a tight lid to keep it wet. A five gallon bucket with a lid is perfect.

CAMERA: You need a camera so you can take pictures or videos to show me later!

<p>Simple and cool and fun and cool...and fun! ROFL! (saw the vid) </p><p>Easy to construct - a good project for kids or even just a lazy, outdoor, family Sunday. Perfect! </p><p>These simple things remind me of the way the Amish &quot;work&quot;. Everything is like a workshop. It's not really work. They gather and eat and laugh and enjoy one another but, at the end of the day, they've built a barn, cooked two full meals and fed 40 people. They've cleaned up the mess and gone home dirty and sometimes even bloody but HAPPY - and they love it. They get so much done with no &quot;work&quot; at all - it's just the living of life and it's &quot;cool and fun and fun and cool&quot; and amazing. And did I mention that it's fun? And cool?</p>
if you check out Mr.Teslonian on youtube he set up a truck to run off the gassification of wood. im not sure if the shells would throw off the chemistry of the gasses but combining this with a gassifier could be really cool.
Thanks, I'll check it out.
<p>just watched the video... MIND BLOWN!!! how did you learn all of those different techniques lost to the ages, very impressive </p>
Hey, thanks! I just pay attention to that kind of stuff. I also read old literature. Mostly though it's just because I'm paying attention and there are little clues everywhere. Also, since I have a developed a context for understanding basic processes, I probably understand the information that I do run across better and retain it. Kind of like you have to know what questions to ask or the answer may be missed entirely. Thanks for the nice comment. Check out my website. I'm all about relating this kind of stuff on there and youtube.
<p>Wow, you really look like you know what you're doing! I am starting to get into all of this kind of stuff, and I will definitley keep this in mind when I build my own lime furnace. Thank you!</p>
<p>You're welcome. Have fun!</p>
<p>cool, great efforts.</p>
Very interesting instructable. Thanks for sharing.
<p>Thank you Bob!</p>
<p>Another interesting thing: here in Germany we have a historic city where they made a deep bore to get hot water from volcanic underground. That worked nice, but unfortunately they crossed a layer with that dry limestone and the water from the bore got into that. Guess what happened! Exactly that reaction. Houses get more and more fissures and some had to be closed. Very impressive to see what this can do! Here's the German Wiki: <a href="https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebungsrisse_in_Staufen_im_Breisgau">https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebungsrisse_in_Staufen_im_Breisgau</a> (at least it has a few pictures if you can't read it)</p>
<p>oops. Whoda thunk of that ahead of time?</p>
That would be more permanent, and still relatively easy.
<p style="margin-left: 20.0px;">Thanks, that's an interesting idea. I think it would make it last a lot longer. The metal would eventually burn out, but I'm sure it would last a lot longer, or you could use thicker metal than a drum. If I went metal I would probably be inclined to use two layers and fill the space with dry wood ash. Then put a stack on it to provide draw and try harder to figure out how to burn from the top down, basically a TLUD design. Testing some kind of insulated TLUD has been on my lime burning agenda for a long time. I have the drums and other junk around, just haven't got to it yet. I like this stuff for experimenting because it's fast, I don't have to buy anything, and I can play with the form pretty easily. That is more or less how the pet started. We wanted to try some different stuff out shape wise, but have some insulation and/or mass. I also thought it would be cool to use some common natural materials and cob or adobe seemed like a lot of work and time for something that would also ultimately be temporary as well. And I didn't really know what design I wanted anyway as far as shape and stuff. I also like this for classes, because we can slap it up in one day and be burning it. I didn't expect the first pet to last for 8 burns even. This one looks more durable to me, and with some tweaking I wouldn't be surprised if that could be doubled or better. Perhaps a little higher proportion of clay, or some sand maybe, thicker walls, etc... Ultimately though, there are a lot of options. The concepts are pretty simple so we can just adapt different materials. Someday I'm going to run around and grab all the different metal junk on the property (quite a bit!:) and slap a bunch of different stuff up to see what I can get away with.</p>
<p>We used to have those lime pits when I was a child in front of building places just covered with planks. I remember one child fell in while playing and was harmed seriously. But this is very interesting to see who to make the stuff like our grandfathers did!</p>
<p>Being a kid means about 50 years ago...</p>
You could surround a barrel with the mud/straw to insulate it better, then build a sort of domed roof and chimney for it out of the mud straw.
This is pretty neat. If I living out of the city, I'd have to give this a try!<br><br>You mentioned that this device is temporary. Could you maybe build a more permanent structure using bricks lined with clay or mortar?
If you use charcoal there is very little smoke, but it will still be loud and you need a little space.<br><br>I'm not sure what the limitations of this kiln building method are until it's really taken to the logical limits. this one seems to be holding up better than previous ones, but I'm not sure why. perhaps it's just thicker, or maybe the slip was thicker. Using thicker slip would basically result in a higher proportion of clay. There may be an inherent weakness to the structure in any case, just because it has the hollows in it left by the burned out grass stems. But one of the things I'd like to do is play with other additions to the clay mix and with it's consistency to see if it could be made a little more durable. I would guess that this one is good for 10 burns at least from what I've seen so far. That is a lot of lime if you maximize it. I cut that burn in the video short because I was in a hurry, but I could have burned several more layers.<br><br>As far as other materials, there are all kinds of possibilities for a permanent kiln. I almost used bricks and plaster instead of building the first pet. I like this system because anyone can do it and it allows a lot of flexibility for testing ideas out or doing different shapes. Each of the pet kilns has been different in some way. I've thought about making a more permanent kiln, but at this point, I'm not even sure how I would design it.
Thanks for the great instructable!
You had me on &quot;lime up&quot;!
<p>It doesn't make any sense, I guess I was thinking of cowboy up or something :)</p>
well this is awesome. I think my list of summer projects just got longer...
<p>I generally thing that's a good thing!</p>
You sir, are a genius! I didn't know what lime was before reading this instruct able, but now I do, and I want to make it!
<p>ha, ha, Do it! Lime is like this hidden backbone of industrial civilization. Just it's use in metal processing and cement makes it of inestimable importance, but it shows up all kinds of other places too.</p>

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Bio: I have spent most of my life accumulating skills to be a more self reliant person. I like making stuff and doing multidisciplinary projects using ... More »
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