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I had a few weeks to build a chair and decided to experiment with bending plywood. Instead of laminating veneers or using a product like bendy ply, I tried laminating thin furniture grade plywood to make thicker plywood. My results were quite successful and the chair was very sturdy and relatively cheap to make. The molds were simple to build using hand tools; they can also be CNC machined for faster, more precise results. The seat pan and seat back are made from the same mold, the top and back legs are made from the same mold, and the bottom leg has its own mold. So, three molds make all of the parts for this chair.

Step 1: Tools and Materials

Materials:

  1. One gallon woodglue - I prefer to use Titebond III for its longer open time
  2. 1/8 inch 3 ply baltic birch plywood sheets
  3. Wood finish - I used Minwax polyacrylic
  4. Hardware
  5. 3/4 inch MDF sheets

Tools:

  1. Bandsaw with a fence
  2. Tablesaw
  3. Jigsaw
  4. Sandpaper
  5. Pencil
  6. Lots of clamps!

Step 2: Design and Dimension

The design:

To keep the design simple, I designed the chair to be built from three sets of parts. I sketched up a few different concepts and really liked the merging triangle. The side view sketch was very helpful for determining the seat height, leg angles, and seat back angle. This was going to be more of lounge chair so the angles were relatively steep so the person sitting would slide down into the chair. I used Solidworks to refine my chair design and layout the mold shapes.

Before I began building the molds, I tested various bending techniques and wood types. I settled on using 1/8 inch 3 ply baltic birch plywood. It was relatively cheap and bent quite nicely.

Minimum bend radius:

When you bend a material, stress starts to build up in the part. The inside curve of the bend is under compression, while the outside curve is under tension. If the bend is too tight, the material will fail from the tensile stress. Plywood is a unique material since it is a sandwich of thin layers of wood. Wood also has a grain direction. Each layer alternates the direction of the grain direction that that the plywood sheet is nice and rigid. This is a slight problem when trying to bend plywood.

I chose to use the thinnest plywood I could find. With the baltic birch I was able to achieve roughly a 4 inch bend diameter. So, my minimum bend radius would be about 2 inches before the material would start to break. Since wood is a fibrous material, bending slowly helps stretch the fibers gradually which helps reduce breakage. See the sketchbook photo for more explanation.


Step 3: Build the Molds

Use the 3/4 inch MDF sheet to make the molds. I traced the profile of the bend onto the MDF and then cut out the pieces using a jigsaw. Since the molds are 2D extrusions you can replicate the first piece you cut using a flush trim router bit if you have one. Otherwise, keep using the jigsaw to cut out identical pieces until the MDF mold stacks together at the right depth. The leg molds are 4 inches deep and the seat pan/back mold is 17.35 inches deep. You can make them deeper if you want because the plywood parts will be trimmed later.

Step 4: Mold the Legs

Use a table saw or bandsaw to cut the 1/8 inch baltic birch into 4 inch strips. Each leg needs 4 strips of baltic birch plywood laminated together. Place the plywood strips into the mold one at a time and liberally cover the top side with wood glue before placing another piece on top. Work quickly as the glue will start to set after about 10-15 minutes.

Once all of the plywood pieces are glued together in the mold, clamp the entire mold together tightly. More clamps are always better. Let the parts set and rest for at least 8 hours before de-molding them. Set them aside for 24 hours for a full cure.

Step 5: Mold the Seat Pan and Back

Molding the front was the most difficult task because of the size of the part. I ran into problems of the glue setting before I had clamped everything down. I would recommend using the slowest setting glue you can find for this part.

Step 6: Trimming the Parts and Test Fit

Once all of the parts have been molded, trim the uneven edges off using a bandsaw with a fence. The fence will help you cut nice and straight. I traced the front leg profiles onto the large seat pan part and cut out a section with a jigsaw.

Once all of the parts have been trimmed and cut out, it is time to test fit everything together. I used small clamps to hold the chair together to I could look at it from a distance to make some last minute design changes.

Step 7: Add Hardware and Finishes

I used socket head hex screws to secure the parts together. Each screw and nut was recessed and covered with a wood plug that I sanded down flush to the baltic birch. I wanted to hide the hardware as much as possible.

The Minwax polyacrylic finish went on nicely and gave the chair a nice gloss.

Step 8: Photography

Building the chair was great project. Bending plywood to make simple furniture is not as intimidating once you get into it. The laminated baltic birch plywood turned out to be incredibly strong.

<p>nice job</p>
<p>Great looking chair. How many sheets of ply did you use? and size?</p>
<p>Hi Kniegman,</p><p>yes, glue everywhere, the mid section spacers i did cut in pieces to keep the weight low.</p><p>This was an experiment based on a project for a Greenhouse, which was much larger, i copied and downscaled the structure. You can make large bended lighweight beams this way.</p><p>It also allows you to use thicker material, so instead of 1/8 strips, you can use 1/4 thick material, as the inner spacers do not need ot be bended and hence less mechanical stress on the bended structure.</p>
<p>wonderfull! </p>
<p>kniegmann, nice work on the chair, it looks store bought. Great results in your bends. The finish that you used lets the natural grains of the plywood show. Your photos and video are clear and easy to follow as well as your instructions. Good luck in the contest.</p>
<p>Great instructable, congrats.</p><p>Have been experimenting with bending , gluing clamping last summer, made a small greenhouse, i used pine, 1 x 1/4 strips, about 4ft long each.</p><p>The actual radius was very low, but to my surprise it really works.</p><p>I was able to make a strong frame, gothic window shape really simple,fast and cheap.</p><p>Just stapled clear plastic foil over it and done.</p><p>I made that as i was trying to find out a method to get a bended frame for a teardrop trailer, and this will do the job perfectly.</p>
<p>Very nice! I like your sacrificial table jig setup, looks like you have worked on a lot of projects. Did you glue on the spacers to get it to hold the bend? </p>
<p>Nice project!<br><br>Did you change the orientation of the layers when you laminated it together and how many layers did you end up with? What's the final thickness of say the seat? I really like the idea but have never tried it myself...</p>
<p>I used 1/8 inch baltic birch plywood, so the orientation of the layers already alternated. I used 4 layers of BB plywood so the final thickness was about half an inch.</p>
<p>that's a really cool design!</p>
<p>Amazing documentation! Love it.</p>
Nice job!
Super cool!
<p>Gives me an idea to add plywood to interior of a camper I am purchasing/having built. There is an area of the outer metal wall that has nothing on it. (????) Why they build them like that I don't know. But adding this will help with insulation. Thanks so much for posting this project!!! Chair is beautiful!</p>
<p>I would love to see pictures of your camper. I am working on some ideas for a small camper, kinda like the teardrop trailers.</p>
<p>Great Ideas! </p><p>Have you tried pre-bending the plywood before gluing? Perhaps using steam,like from a clothes steamer?</p><p>I'm also toying with teardrop camper ideas: your plywood bending opens up many ideas . . . also thinking about a sandwich with epoxy / fiberglass for strength. . . .the wheels are turning . . .</p>
I should mention another thing l like about the glue; it has no give, which is really nice when you're gluing bent laminations<br>
<p>Lee Valley Fish glue has a 60 - 90 minute open time - should work well for the major assembly glue up.</p><p>http://www.leevalley.com/en/wood/page.aspx?p=20019&amp;cat=1,110,42965,20019</p>
<p>Fish glue, interesting! I might be worried about the low water resistance though.</p>
You could just seal the edges with shellac or the likes, but it's hard to imagine (for me at least) a scenario where that would be a problem for a chair used indoors.
<p>Just beautiful. If you don't mind me asking, how much did cost to make (in materials)?</p>
<p>Gallon of titebond iii ~ $30<br>Baltic birch plywood (I bought some extra to experiment) ~ $100<br>MDF for molds (had some scrap) ~ $30<br>Hardware ~ $10<br>Polyacrylic finish ~ $20</p><p>Rough estimate is 190 dollars to build the chair and experiment a bit. </p>
<p>Good work! How much back bend did you experience for -say- the legs (step 4 pic 1) ... i.e. how many mm did the leg &quot;relax&quot; at the center of the bend after deforming - if any?</p><p>Thanks Mike</p>
<p>Spring back was pretty minimal actually, maybe a couple mm on the tighter bends. But I didn't notice anything major when I was molding the parts and never had to compensate to get good parts.</p>
<p>Yeah ... my experience is you have to expect +/- 1% (10mm at a bent length of 1m) with solid wood (oak, d=5mm, 3-5 layers), a bit less with birch plywood ... and it seems to be rather reproducible</p><p>Thanks<br>Mike</p>
<p>Any important reasons to use DAP's Weldwood vs. Titebond III?</p>
<p>You have to mix DAP's weldwood in order to use it, so you can make as much or as little as you need. It also is incredibly strong and won't creep (shift slightly) over time. Titebond works great though, I've used it on many projects.</p>
<p>Beautiful 'ible and project! I love the models and drawings you did...so cute and charming. :)</p>
<p>hello, nice work and I agree Baltic birch plywood is both strong and has nice looking plys. I've found using Weldwood plastic glue has the longest open time and the least amount of creep. Great design and thanks for the good instructions.</p><p>Gr</p>
<p>I found out about DAP's weldwood after this project. Definitely some good glue!</p>
<p>Hi. My plywood crack and brake when I make a tight bend. Can I put it in water over night? </p>
<p>I would avoid putting plywood in water, the glue may loosen and the ply's might separate when you start to bend it. All of the pine plywood I experimented with cracked; I had the best results with 1/8&quot; baltic birch plywood. The tightest bend I could make was about a 4 inch radius, any tighter than that and it would start to crack. Good luck!</p>
<p>Lovely work</p>
Thanks for posting, nice chair!
Beautiful piece. Well done!
Where did u get the wood from
<p>I bought the baltic birch from Atlanta Hardwoods. It comes in 5 ft x 5 ft sheets. You should be able to find this type of plywood at most hardwood lumber warehouses. </p>
Thanks for posting. I always assumed hot water or steam is required to bend and shape ply wood. This, I have to try! Thanks again
<p>Thank you for posting! I will have to try this technique when I get some time.</p>

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