Introduction: CPU Computer Repair 8th Period
Purpose: The CPU is the brain of the computer. CPUs manage and interpret data, commands, and information that are sent to the computer.
Specs and terminologies: The processor frequency: is measured in GHz; it is the speed at which the processor operates at internally depending on the multiplier you set in the BIOS. The speed of the processor is based on the FSB speed.
Clock Speed: The operating speed of a computer or its microprocessor is the rate at which it performs internal operations and expressed in cycles per second (megahertz).
Socket types: PGA988, LGA2011, LGA1155, LGA1156, LGA1136, LGA775, are only compatible with Intel CPUs while AMD’s sockets are AM3+, AM3, AM2+, AM2, FM1, F, and 940.
PGAs are pin grid arrays in which the socket is designed for CPUs that use pins to connect to the motherboard LGA: Land grid arrays connect to the motherboard in flat metallic pieces BGA: ball grid arrays have metallic balls that are soldered to the motherboard.
Types of Processor architecture: 32 bit processors are x86 processors due to intel designs used mostly on older and pentium designs 64 bit processors, designed by intel, are for workstations or servers often called x64 or IA64. THese require a 64-bit operating system, but can handle 32 bit applications by simulating 32 bit processing on the device. Hybrid processors have also been made and referred to as x86-64 bit processors created by AMD and Intel which can handle both 32 bit OS and 64 bit OS.
Other characteristics of processors: Multiprocessing is where a system can use two processing units installed within a signal processor, first used by Pentium. Certain motherboards might have 2 processor sockets. This means that it has dual processing or a multiprocessor platform. Processors process 2 threads at a time. A thread is a task that is given to the CPU. If you get extra registers, you can multi threaded which means processing two tasks at a time enabled in the BIOS setup Memory cache is the amount of memory included within the processor package: upper levels hold more accessible data and lower levels hold more data. The CPU looks through upper levels before lower levels Memory in the memory cache is either static RAM or Dynamic RAM. SRAM does nto need to be refreshed so it is faster than DRAM Processors support DRAM memory as long as it matches that of the RAM as well as different memory channels
Components to a processor: An input output unit is what manages data and instructions that enter and leave the processor. It has a control unit which manages all activities inside the processor itself, one or more arithmetic logic units to do logical comparisons and calculations inside the processor. It has registers which hold counters, data, instructions, and addresses that the ALU processes in the moment. Furthermore, ti has internal memory caches of 3 levels that hold data and instructions that are queued into being processed. Within, it is connected by buses which run at frequencies much higher than that of the Front Side bus which connects the processor to the chipset and memory on the motherboard.
Things that could happen if your CPU overheats: The system freezes in odd moments The system does not turn on BSOD The fan is not turned on Computer automatically turns itself on or shuts itself down Components connected to the motherboard do not work
What to do: Bent or broken pins will cause the CPU to not function properly so be sure that your pins are all ok. Make sure you installed a processor that is compatible with the motherboard Make sure there are not any cables that might block the airflow out of your computer By covering unused slots in the computer, you increase airflow out of your computer. This could help you cool down your case a lot better. The main problem with the CPU is heat because it shortens the lifespan of the CPU and memory. Check the manual for cooling guides and such. AMD recommends certain methods. Make sure your vents are not blocked by things You can buy heat sensors which plugs into the power supply and notifies you for overheating as well as use software such as CPU-Z or even just BIOS to regularly monitor your CPU temperature. Burn in tests are also a viable option as they can help you check for different temperatures found in your CPU. This can also help you check your CPU specs. Keeping speedster on so it doesn't run full speed when you aren't using it, such as web browsing and such. Do not overclock your CPU too much or else you will overheat it and damage it. If temperatures are high you can change the thermal paste by using rubbing alcohol to clean the old paste off the CPU and heatsink and applying a pea sized dot to the CPU then putting the heatsink back on If you have too many peripheral devices, your CPU performance could decrease drastically so make sure you check those aspects out Using 3rd party coolers will also help it run cooler. There is liquid cooling, heatsink cooling with fans and stuff, etc. Make sure your cooling system does not crush your CPU with its weight. If it's running high when you start you might disable some apps that load on boot to help lighten the load. Keep CPU parking on to save cores you don't need from running. Running CCleaner to clean registry can help a little because sometimes files are stored in lower level cache that cause cpu to work harder to find them, but that is more just to clean junk and not keep better track of where you keep things. If you think the system is overheating, you can use a fan or antistatic vacuum to try to clear the vents, heat sink, or any other known good method to cool down the CPU You can run temperature tests to see if it really is the temperature affecting the CPU