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The modern connotation of Damascus steel is different from the original Damascus of the past. Historic Damascus steel referred to as crucible stee,l which had a very high carbon content and had a visible surface pattern because of its crystalline structure.Tthis Damascus steel, or Wootz steel, ended up being called Damascus steel because the crusader,s on their way down to the Holy Lan,d would purchase new blades of this superior steel (superior to medieval European steel) in cities like Damascus. The modern connotation, however, is instead different kinds of steels that have been pattern-welded and that display a similar surface pattern when acid etched. The Damascus you will see made here is is of the latter definition. Cable Damascus is perhaps one of the easiest ways to create Damascus steel with a complex pattern. Unlike other techniques, this method requires no folding and essentially comes in its own ready to forge shape.

Step 1: Safety

Like they always say, safety first! Seeing as how this whole process involves forging, grinding and dipping metal into chemicals, it is important to use the proper safety equipment. For the forge welding stage, many people who do any kind of smithing, know the basic safety equipment: gloves, apron, closed toed shoes, etc. Howeve,r one piece of equipment sometimes goes overlooked. Everyone knows that eye protection is important but for this kind of work you need a special kind of eye protection. The above and only picture in this section is of a pair of dydidium glasses. The reason that it is the only picture up there is because just about everybody who works with metal knows the safety basics but rarely do I see people point out this kind of eye protection. Normal goggles are usually fine for most crafts but not for forge welding. The heat required for forge welding puts out a bit of radiation that over the long term can cause vision loss. Dydidium however will block most of the radiation and save your eyes. One final point, dydidium glasses are not the same as welding masks or sunglasses. If you use either of these while forge welding, your pupils will dilate and your eyes will get even more of the radiation.

Step 2: Billet Prep

Before you can forge out your section of cable you have to set it all up. Before it goes in the fire you first have to cut off your section like in the first image. I cut off 3, 12 in sections of 1 inch cable at the time with a chop saw. You can use whatever method you like to cut the cable just be sure that the cable that you use is all steel with no plastic involved and that it is not galvanized as the heat reacting with the plating will produce gas that can make you very sick or even kill you. So keep that in mind when getting cable. Also, if this is your first time attempting cable Damascus you might not want to jump right in to the the larger diameter cable and instead start out with a piece of half inch. You wont be able to make anything more than a toothpick with the results but its a good way to practice without wasting bigger and more expensive cable.

After the cutting, be sure to wrap the ends of the cable with steel wire. This is to keep the section from unwinding during the first parts of the process. Be sure to only use plain steel wire because other wires that are coated or are made of other can melt or react with the heat and just mess everything up.

Everybody who makes Damascus has their own list of steps or additives that seem to make the whole process work for them. I encourage you to go, do some research and discover one that works for you. For me, I spray my cold metal with WD40 until it is just completely soaked and then coat the whole thing with regular borax before putting the sections in the fire. Both the borax and WD40 act to prevent oxidation which can make forge welding impossible. The borax won't typically stick to metal unless its hot or wet and the WD40 will burn off in the forge so getting the section wet with WD40 and using that to stick the borax on seems to make everything work for me.

Step 3: Forge Welding

Once in the forg,e you need to let this piece get hot and I mean high orange to yellow hot. Once it has reached the appropriate colo,r let it sit for another minute or so so that the whole section has soaked up the heat and it is evenly hot.

Before any hitting can be done, the section must first be twisted. Cable is full of empty space and empty space is bad for forge welding. Secure one end of the cable in a vice, or something similar, and use what ever tool you deem appropriate (I used channel locks) to twist the section in the direction that the cable is already twisting. This step may take several re-heatings. Keep twisting the cable until it can no longer be twisted without kinking. Be sure that the cable does not kink as that makes the whole process a bit more difficult.

After every step, until you are sure that the section is one homogeneous piece of steel, you should coat it in borax before placing it back in the fire. Coat the piece when it is a dull red color that will make sure that the borax sticks. One point to make about borax is that when it is hot it is very caustic and can destroy the inside of your forge so be sure that you have a piece of firebrick or something to protect the base of the forge. Also, hot borax coming off the piece in the next step can be rather painful and can leave scars so be sure to wear the appropriate gear. The last part of the forge welding is the actual welding part. Once the piece is hot, you can start hitting it. The idea is to hit it into into a square bar at first. As you hit around the bar, you should follow the twist of the cable. Personally, I prefer to start hitting in the middle and work my way out. Hitting will cause the fibers so separate to some extent so the shorter the distance from the first hit to the end of the hit the less the separation will occur. You will know that the piece is homogeneous based on the change in sound that the piece will make when being hit. Initiall, it will be more of a dull thud with each hit but once homogeneous it will make a bit more of a ping sound. Once it is homogeneous it can be beaten into the preferred shape.

Step 4: Shaping

When planning a projec,t be sure to remember that the final product will be much smaller than the original cable. Also keep in mind that the ends of the cable might fray and not weld. Don't fret. Just find where the weld starts and cut off the end. Because of the nature of cabl,e and the number of gaps and ridges in it you are bound to end up with pits and holes unless using a pneumatic hammer or a forge press. The key is to grind the bar down, see what you are working with and plan around that. I wanted to make pendants from my pieces and I decided that a kite shield would be and interesting shape. The finer the grit that you use when doing the final grind will determine how well you can see the pattern. Since I wanted a very deep etch i didn't need to go too high so i only went about 120 with the grit before the etch.

Step 5: Final Etch and Protection

Damascus steel when ground down should look just like one solid piece of metal. In order to get the pattern, you need to etch the steel with an acid. There are several options as far as acids go but personally I use ferric chloride. If you only want a very superficial etch, like the one in the cover image, you only need to dip the metal in the acid for about 20 min. I wanted a very deep etch that could actually be felt so I dipped mine for 7 hours. Once you are done with the etch, you need to clean it and neutralize the acid. One of the easiest ways to do that is just to spray Windex on the etched piece after it has been rinsed off. Don't forget to wear gloves and eye protection for all this. If you want to add some color to the piece, like the last two images in the title, just heat the piece up a bit after the etch until the desired color has been reached.

Once the etch is done, the last step is to protect the piece.Ssteel is strong but unfortunately has a tendency to rust. If the piece you are using is meant to be practical like a knife you can wax the surface. If the piece is more decorativ, than you can add a clear coat to it. It's all a matter of preference. For mine above, I decided to try a clear nail polish. I usually use clear polyurethane, but I wanted to try something else for a change. Once the piece is protected, all that is left is to display it.

Step 6: One Last Point

The piece I made here didn't require any quenching or heat treating because it is a decorative piece. If you choose to make a blade out of cable Damascus one thing to keep in mind is that when quenched, the steel has a tendency to warp in the direction of the cable twist. If you want a functional piece, make it thick, otherwise you might start with a knife and end up with a corkscrew.

Step 7: Update

Here are a few more pendants. They were all etched for almost 24 hours to get a very deep etch. They were all heated to different temperatures to achieve the colors shown. Finally they were coated with polyurethane to prevent rust.
Where did you get the 1in cable you used.... i cant find anything bigger than 1/2 inch.
http://www.labonville.com/1-Steel-Wire-Rope-Cable--1IMP_p_857.html<br><br>Here you go.
<p>Hi Armeria. Thanks for your informative instructable.I think the warping is caused because the wires of the cable are nearly aligned in one direction and after quenching, the contraction force is also exerted unequally in one direction to cause the warp. Don't you think folding the cable several times during the forge welding can obviate the problem?</p>
When heated, metal wants to resort to its original shape. The cable is tightly wound when it's made that it can't return to its original shape anymore, but it still wants to. The warping is caused by the different inner strands flexing, because they weren't fully fused. The more time you take, the better the steel comes out.
That might stop the warping but at the same time it could mess up the final pattern of the steel.
<p>I'm not a smith nor a forger or a metal worker in any way so my question is going to seem a bit out there but, wouldn't it be best to fold the strands into each other after getting them orange/yellow to get a nice pattern,no gaps/holes and stronger piece of metal? I mean like melting them all together and making just one piece? I know it may take longer but will it work? </p>
I think that you might be confusing the revealed pattern with having gaps in the steel. Proper forge welding will create a homogeneous billet. The pattern that is shown is the result of acid reacting to the different carbon contents of the former wires that experienced carbon migration before being welded. I hope that this helps!
<p>Very nice. As you mentioned in step 3, how much would the pattern be effected if you did kink the cable? Even tightly coiled it like a car coil spring and beat the hell out of it? might make for an interesting design.</p>
The reason that you don't want it to kink is because you have to beat the cable from all directions. If you were to beat it solid, and then twist it into a spring, you might end up with a cool pattern. Coiling the cable might also be more successfully attempted with thinner cable. Unless you have a nice big forge press, coling and beating cable that thick would take forever. Thanks for the comment.
<p>thanks me and my dad can finally make a good knife bl</p>
<p>The photo of you with the hammer and the cable on fire - now that's bad ass</p>
Thanks!
<p> very nice </p>
Thanks!
Hey. This looks like an awesome project. However would the metal be food safe if I were to use it for a knife?
Thanks for the comment. I believe that you could use it for kitchen knives so long as you made sure to properly clean and dry them so that they don't rust. I think that cable is closest to 10xx series steels so if you looked up how people handle knives made of those steels you should be fine.
<p>I love the look of Damascus! I went to where I get my torch/welding gasses and asked about the glasses.The correct spelling is Didymium.Hope this helps others looking for them.</p><p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Didymium" rel="nofollow">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Didymium</a></p>
Thanks, I don't know why I kept spelling it dy.
<p>I was up in Illinois with work and hooked up with a group of Blacksmiths. They let me use there forge and equipment and provided LOTS of instruction. This is the third one I have made and look forward to making more!!</p>
Thats a good looking knife.
<p>Thanks!</p>
<p>I have made Japanese style swords and lots of people think that it is different layers of steel welded together in the forge, it is the effect of the migration of particles martenzite troostite and perlite flowing together on every weld so these high carbon particles look as if there is a layer of hi carbon steel welded between mild steel,</p><p>it starts of as tamahagoni and is hyper eutectic steel up to 2% carbon the folding and welding is like making bread forming a homogenous chunk of steel eventually around 6 or7% this is then skin steel,</p>
<p>Very interesting. I suppose there are different types of steel cables, isn't?</p><p>Are they all appropriate to make knifes or cutting tools?</p><p>Besides the aesthetic, has damascus steel some outstanding properties?</p>
The steel in a piece of cable is actually all the same composition. The pattern is the result of carbon migration. Heating causes the carbon in the superficial areas of each wire to move outward. The carbon only has one place to go and creates a higher carbon area in between the wires hence the darker portion of the pattern. <br><br>As far as blade making goes, cable is usually comprised of steels similar or identical to 10xx series steels. These make for good blades if handled properly. You just have to remember to have a thicker blade to avoid the twisting warp during the quench.
<p>if you watch carefully at the steel as you quench it you will see it wriggle about this is what causes the warping,( this I think is why in ancient times they said the blade was alive),</p><p>if you move the steel in a figure of 8 as you quench it I think somehow it confuses the steel so it basically sits still and comes out with a better chance of staying straight </p>
I believe that the wriggling you are seeing is an illusion caused by the quenchant nearest the blade becoming heated and displacing cooler quenchant as it rises. If the blade were to visibly wriggle that would be devastating to the crystalline structure of the steel. You are right about moving the blade around as it will keep the quenchant that is in contact with the steel even in temperature. Thanks for your comment.
<p>Thanks for your kind response. Last point is particularly important.</p>
You're welcome!
Well done, never thought it was this &quot;easy&quot; to make Damascus. Nice directions, however have you tried normalizing the piece before a heat treat? This is suppost to relieve the stress created by hammering steel maybe it would stop the Damascus from twisting
I do actually normalize blades before heat treating them but the cable still warps. I'm not quite sure why it happens but it tends not to be as much of a problem in thicker pieces. Part of the reason I decided to make jewelry out of this batch is because it causes a lot less frustration than having a blade ruined due to warping.
I also have one more question, what type of burner do you use? I have been wanting to use propane but I just don't have a good burner
I am always open to questions. I got my forge from chili forge. Here is a link to the burners they use.<br> http://www.chileforge.com/NewDiablomainPage.html<br>One of the more important points is the gas pressure used when forging. Simply forging requires 6-10 psi while forge welding takes 16-20 psi. I hope that helps. <br>
What does your forge run on?
propane
<p>Ooh! It really looks beautiful, both with the short etch and the longer etch. Lovely work!</p>
Thanks!
very nice project. clear, concise directions as well
Thanks!
Very informative. Question: Have you ever tried Damascus shotgun barrels? To make, not as a metal source.
Thank you. I've seen them done but I don't have all of the tools to effectively make them. Perhaps one day I will be able to though.
<p>This is so cool! I've never heard of this before, but I love the background and history info you included!</p>
Thank you very much.

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