Maybe you know the very popular Joule Thief circuit, that usually is used to drive LEDs, but this instructable will show you how to regulate the output voltage up to 30 volts. You can regulate example to 5 volts that is enough to charge a phone or any USB device. It charges slowly but works. Or you can use as a power supply for an Arduino, or for a simple project too. It would be an useful device. I've made a few experiments before the creating the full circuit, so the circuit works fine. The circuit uses a zener diode regulate the output voltage. I will try to describe detalied because it is easy to make a mistake. Don't want to bore you with the working theory, but if you are interested read on wiki or watch this video. You can build this gadget almost free, can find most of the components in a CFL bulb, so let's begin.
Step 1: Tools and Materials
- soldering iron and of course solder
- a multimeter (optional)
- a wire cutter
- and.... that is all
- You can see on the 2nd image that inside the CFL bulb is almost everything, you just need to buy a zener diode, wires and a PCB board. I've used components from a shop, beacause I can't make a clear instructable with short leg components
- 2N2222 transistor or equivalent, on the transistor in the CFL writes 2222A
- 47uF capacitor
- 50-1k resistor
- 1mm wire
- USB female jack, if you want to make a charger
- 1N4001 or any germanium diode
- toroidal core from the CFL bulb
- breadboard for testing (optional)
- PCB board
- zener diode with a value that you want to regulate the voltage We use the diode as a voltage regulator. Example I use a 5v1 (5.1 volts) zener that can regulate the voltage to about 5 volts that can charge a phone or can drive a Raspberry Pi. If you want to get another voltage example 7 volts for an Arduino, buy a 6v8 zener diode. If you're ready go choose your power supply!
Step 2: Choosing the Power Supply
To operate the circuit you will need a power supply that have enough current to converting to voltage. If you want to operate can use 2 solar panels from old garen lights connected in paralell or use a small DC motor with a propeller on it. This can be used as a hydro or wind turbine. Don't be afraid, if you can't read the circuit diagramm, I will describe step by step the building, so go prototyping!
Step 3: Prototyping on Breadboard and Creating the Inductor
- Get two wires, like on the first image and connect together, like on the second image.
- Now wrap the toroidal core with the wires and cut the endings, like on the third image.
- The starting of the green and red wires is named 1 and 2, and the and the endings are 3 and 4.
- Now solder the 2 and 3 together, like on the last image.
- And your inductor is done.
- Follow the images and the description, you can see the circuit with batteries on the 5th image.
- Put your transistor in the breadboard.
- Connect the resistor to the base of the transistor.
- After this put the soldered leg of the inductor in a free hole and connect to the positive wire of the battery.
- Connect the 1 and 4 legs of the inductor to the collector and to the resistor just like on the image.
- The negative wire is going to the emitter.
- Now you've made a simple Joule Thief, test it, if won't works check the connections. My 3v LED is working.
- If works get the cathode of the germanium diode, connect to the collector and put the anode in a free hole.
- With a capacitor connect the anode of the diode (positive) and the emitter (negative, GND).
- With reversed polarity install the zener diode.
Your protoype now is done! In the next step you can see the testing and the esplanation.
Step 4: Test and Explanation
The germanium diode blocks the current go backwards, and the capacitor with the zener diode ensure proper charging or flowing of the current. The zener's anode must be connected to the positive leg of the capacitor, that means reversed polarity. In this case the voltage is regulated to the zener's value (5v1). My multimeter showed me 5.17 volts, this is a perfect voltage for powering a project or for charging. If you solder anything in paralell to the zener's legs will works. In the next step i will make a USB charger, but you can connect example to an Arduion too.
Step 5: Soldering
Simply solder the components together on a PCB. On the images is described everything you need to know. I think no need more explanation, so go testing!