You may have noticed that your device charges faster when using a wall charger than when using a car charger. On some set-ups that charge through USB you may have also noticed that your device knows the difference. There may be a different icon displayed when charging with one than the other. The reason for this is that some devices can charge at different rates under different scenarios.
To simplify the jargon and only address what's necessary for this article: The USB standard provides for a non-data charging connection that will provide higher current. You can get the full rundown at wikipedia
I'm going to disclaim here for a second: I'm not responsible if you melt down, electrocute, or violently explode your very expensive device, your car, your home, or your dog. These are all very real possibilities if you misuse or make any alterations to electrical devices. Use sense and caution when voiding any warranty.
That being said, the method that devices use to determine when they can charge at a higher current is through the USB connection itself. A standard USB type-A connector uses 4 pins: The 2 outside pins are for supplying current and the 2 center pins are for data. If the center 2 data pins are shorted together then it is obvious that no data can flow. This is an indication to the device that it can charge at a faster rate.