Introduction: Computer Displays
A computer display displays video signals sent to it.
It displays outputs from the system's GPU.
Step 1: Types of Displays
Liquid-crystal display, Layers of liquid crystals illuminated by a backlight
Light-emitting Diode, An array of LEDs
organic light-emitting diode, An array of LEDs made of certain organic compounds that allow for different picture qualities
Cathode ray tube, An array of pixels hit by an electron beam
Quantum dot light emitting diode, LED display that uses quantum dots, allowing for more vibrant color and color accuracy.
Step 2: Cable Interfaces
VGA(Video Graphics Array) - Standard analog monitor interface, used on old displays
DVI(Digital Visual Interface) - Digital interface, generally for older displays
Display Port (DP) - Used on higher-end displays, especially higher than 1080p resolutions.
HDMI - The standard for 1080p monitors and widely used
Component, Composite, S-Video - All rarely seen on modern displays, sometimes on old televisions
Step 3: Resolution and Aspect Ratio
There are many different types of resolutions and aspect ratios.
Nowadays the most common is the 16x9 1080p(1920x1080) panel.
There are also higher and lower resolution displays. The picture explains it nicely
1920x1080 is described as 1K
from there, there is 2K which is essentially extended 1K
4K is 4x the resolution of 1K
8K is 4x the resolution of 4K
And so on.
Step 4: Color Accuracy
Color accuracy of monitors depends on their coverage and adherence to different color spaces
The main color space is the sRGB color space which was developed by HP and Microsoft in 1996. It is still widely used today in applications like photo editing
There is also the AdobeRGB color space which is an extension of the sRGB color space. It covers more cyan and green colors than the sRGB color space
Step 5: Refresh Rate and Response Time
Refresh rate is expressed in number of changes per second - Hertz(Hz)
Generally, high refresh rate is seen on gaming monitors. It is more expensive than the regular 60Hz
Response time is the time between when the image is sent and when it appears on the screen. This is usually expressed in milliseconds(ms)
The lower the response time the better. It means that the display is more responsive.
Step 6: Troubleshooting Pt 1
Read this troubleshooting guide as a progressive set of steps.
1. It is not receiving power
Check the power source and the power cable using another monitor or a multimeter
not much more to say, move to pt 2
Step 7: Troubleshooting Pt 2
2. It is not receiving signals from your GPU
In this case, you want to check 2 things. Do your cables work? (use another monitor that is working to check) Is your GPU outputting an image? (use another monitor that is working to check)
If your GPU does not output, there are 3 things to check. Check all the connections. Check that it is getting power. Check the drivers
Use the integrated video on your pc (if no image, move to pt 3) and run and install a package for the GPU drivers. Once these drivers are installed, plug in the GPU and you should get an image, if not, you probably have more to worry about than the monitor and you should move to pt 3.
Step 8: Troubleshooting Pt 3
Check that everything else works then (in Windows) go to your device manager If your monitor is not there and everything else is proven to work, go to option 4 If it does show up, go to the website of the monitor manufacturer. They should have a driver package you can run and install. This should work.
Step 9: Troubleshooting Pt 4
4. The thing is borked
If you've reached this you need to either try to fix it yourself or have someone else fix it.
It could be some kind of backlight issue or some other type of problem. The best thing to do is to go get it repaired by a professional, especially if you lack the experience or tools. Check your warranty or go to a repair shop.
Step 10: Maintainance
Generally, to maintain a monitor there are only a few things you can do
1. Clean it
-Use a soft microfiber cloth. Things such as paper towels can scratch the display
-Use water, diluted vinegar, isopropyl alcohol, or specialized cleaners (be careful as some can actually damage the screen)
2. Don't mishandle it
It really goes without saying. Don't drop it. Be careful of the ports. Unplug cables before transporting it. Carry it in a safe position. Don't unplug and plug in cables constantly, for no reason. Protect it from ESD.
Step 11: Maintenance - Cleaning
Step 12: GPU Driver Install
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