Picture of Conductive Fabric: Make Flexible Circuits Using An Inkjet Printer.
Extremely flexible and nearly transparent circuits can be made using conductive fabrics. Here are some of the experiments I've done with conductive fabrics. They can be painted or drawn on with resist and then etched like a standard circuit board. Conductive glue or conductive thread is then used to attach the components to the fabric circuit board.

To make this clear, the inkjet printer is not used to directly print resist onto the fabric. Instead, it is only used to print the circuit design onto the conductive fabric. You will then have to hand paint a clear resist over the inkjet image before the circuit can be etched.
See step 1 for details on a printer that may work to directly print the resist onto conductive fabric.

Alternately--an inkjet printer is not necessary--you can just freehand paint or draw on the resist where you want the conductive traces to be.

Pic 1 shows a simple circuit that that lights 3 LEDs. I made some of the traces circular to find out if they would conduct well at angles to the warp and weft of the fabric.


Performix (tm) liquid tape, black-Available at Wal-Mart or http://www.thetapeworks.com/liquid-tape.htm

Carbon Graphite, fine powder- Available in larger quantities at http://www.elementalscientific.net/
Available in smaller quantities at your local hardware store. It's called lubricating graphite and comes in small tubes or bottles.

Conductive thread-Available in small spools at: http://members.shaw.ca/ubik/thread/order.html
or at: http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/categories.php?cPath=2_135

Conductive fabrics available from: http://www.lessemf.com/fabric.html

Clear Nail Polish


Ferric Chloride etchant available at: http://www.allelectronics.com/cgi-bin/item/ER-3/445/DRY_CONCENTRATED_ETCHANT_.html
or at: http://www.circuitspecialists.com/search.itml?icQuery=ferric+chloride

Inkjet printer

toluol solvent-available at hardware stores

wax paper

Pic 2 shows the three conductive fabrics that were used in this instructable.

1-VeilShield-A mesh polyester plated with a blackened copper. Very light and 70% transparent.

2-FlecTron-copper plated nylon ripstop.

3-Nickel Mesh-Semi-transparent copper and nickel coated polyester.

pic 3 shows the back of the circuit and the glued components.


Excellent! A few thoughts for an active mind,. Example for thought. Using a tri -colour cartridge and finding a conductive liquid-or combination (2) that would prove conductive and use the third section for a fixative, You would have a UNIVERSAL answer and be able to pocket the profit. Just a thought!

Revanchist3 years ago
Truly magnificent! All it needs now is a way to avoid getting the components wet, but the shirt washed and we're in business! ... Well I mean washed because regardless of the coolness of the shirt, it'll eventually stink after a week no?

Truly marvelous! I'll add this to the list of DIY projects I want to try, Thanks
Ward_Nox7 years ago
combined w todays news of fabric that generates electricity this has potential
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermoelectric_effect shows a device that if you were to keep one side warm (against your wrist for example) and the other exposed to a cooler temperature (surrounding air) that it will generate an electrical charge. :)
You read about that too, eh? That's so cool. Now all they have to do is make enough to make a full article of clothing. ~adamvan2000
zetacool7 years ago
I wanna stamp my iPod onto my t-shirt. Cos I always forget my iPod and I always use the same T-shirt (yes, thats why I don´t have a girlfriend)
Why didn't anyone think of a fabric mp3 player anyway? It seems rather logical that it would sell quite good.
I'm still waiting for a fabric cell phone that I can velcro to my shoulder.
there is a fabric phone that can be bent and still works. i forgot where i saw it
So, so sweet! I want to make a motherboard on my t-shirt and the rest of the components on my jeans.
Watch your resistance carefully.
Resistance is futile!
resistance is useless.
Yes, combustibility needs to be address for safety reasons. To much current on this cloth and it may burst in to flames. Though there is an Idea for a electric fuse for say fireworks. This should be used with very small amounts of current. If you need to see an example I think a piece of stripped speaker wire on a car battery would do it. Be careful. The red light followed by the puff of smoke or if you have ever seen an extension cable burst in to flames. If I remember correctly this is nylon fiber for the instructable, that will melt and burn. If you do toast your project please use proper ventilation burning plastic is toxic.
lol, is that a capacitor or are you just happy to see me?
Boy, the inductor sure keeps the current flowing!
I have to say it. I've got a 3 and a half floppy and a 5 and a quarter hard drive. :0P ~adamvan2000
Sounds like a good way to fry your floppy...
I use solid state.
rofl planning to integrate a oled screen too? (what about cooling? or is it just going to be hot hot hot? )
wait a second...... Did you make a lighted piece of cloth with the Marathon symbol on it? epically awesome.
Wonderful Work! Congratulations!
Gjdj37 years ago
Wow, this is a cool instructable also! I didn't know that this could be done at home. Really nice job.
Edgar7 years ago
My biomedical engineer boyfriend got all excited when I showed him this, then he was like "Oh...it's not medical grade material." (need to use for brain implants =D
Polymorph7 years ago
Very cool!

Your direct inkjet print didn't work because the ink is wrong. Volkan and Stefan on the Homebrew_PCBsHomebrew_PCBs list figured out that Epson Durabrite or 3rd party pigmented ink will work as etch resist, but only if it is baked before etching.

Full disclosure: I'm owner of that group.
bowmaster7 years ago
This will come in handy when I am constructing my prototype Ninja suit.
fashiongeek7 years ago
What an amazing instruction - the BEST EVER I have seen for textile electronic which I am a BIG fanBIG fan off.
I do have one question: does the etching damage or weaken the fabric, make it brittle or easy to tear?
mikey77 (author)  fashiongeek7 years ago
The Ferric Chloride etchant does not seem to adversely effect the nylon (FlecTron) or the polyester (VeilShield and Nickel Mesh) fabrics. They are fairly inert plastics and do not appear to react with it. If anything, the fabrics become more flexible and supple wherever the copper or nickel plating is removed.
how difficult would it be to incorporate this into a standard shirt? perhaps there could be a method of attaching it to where it could easily be removed (as laundering a circuit board seems like a negative action to take : D )
I;m sure you could spray a protective layer onto it. As long as you remove power sources and treat it as a delicate piece of clothing I'd be willing to bet you could safely wash it.
thinguy7 years ago
I want to make a T shirt that says Hi
bob314157 years ago
Hi I'm from Ecuador. Your instructable is very funny! LOL!!!!
westfw7 years ago
So you can etch the conductive coating off of the conductive fabrics? That's very cool... When you're rinsing your etched fabric, don't forget to use LOTS of extra water to avoid having your drain pipes become the next thing to be etched.
This is SO cool! All your Instructables are awesome! And that robot thing, is that a helping hands robot? Really cool Instructable as always.