Instructables
Picture of Constellation Skirt
This is my first Instructable!  I'm a huge fan of Ms. Frizzle from the Magic School Bus series, an astronomy enthusiast, and a woman fascinated with e-textiles.  I thought I should combine the three, creating a constellation dress to wear to Dragon Con 2013.  I started working on ideas for the skirt back in November, when I planned to work with existing light strands.  After deciding that I couldn't customize distances between the stars and knowing some -very- basic circuitry, I started researching e-textiles.  The conductive thread I tested oxidized after about three months, and I wanted this skirt to last for years, so I decided to use ribbon cable, which gave me both cost-effectiveness and flexibility. 
 
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Step 1: Arranging the Constellations

Picture of Arranging the Constellations
Circuit Planning - Layout of Constellations.jpg
Once I'd decided to do several constellations, it was time to figure out which ones I wanted to do.  My favorite constellations needed to be included, and I went in search of the perfect sky.  I felt a bit like Neil deGrasse Tyson and his complaint about the night sky in the movie, Titanic ("We know the day, the date, the time, the weather conditions, the longitude, the latitude...we know all of this about the sinking spot of the Titanic.  There is only one sky she should have been looking at - and it was the wrong sky!" - Dr. Tyson, in an interview with Stephen Colbert at The Kimberley Academy in Montfort, NJ, January 2010).  Dr. Tyson is my hero, and I wanted the skirt to be accurate.  My type-A, OCD, science nerd kicked in - I determined to do the sky at the moment of my birth, from the place of my birth.  It wasn't going to be the complete sky, but this skirt was going to have 151 LEDs.  I sat down to plan, getting out my favorite astronomy app, GoSkyWatch, and programmed it to see what was overhead that day.  I picked from among the constellations, and created a sketch.  The skirt I'd sewn was a six-gore circle skirt, so I used the seams as guidelines.  I spread the constellations out a bit so that the images wouldn't overlap.  I made one design change after this skirt - I moved Ursa Minor to the hem of the skirt and away from where it would be sat on.  No one wants Polaris adjacent to...Uranus.

Step 2: Hand Painting the Skirt

Using some fabric paint and a fabric paint brush, I spread my skirt out on the floor, put paper underneath it so the paint wouldn't go through to my carpet, and began painstakingly free-handing the constellation pictures.  Please forgive the color variation - I was painting on my screen porch and the sun set, so the first ones are during daylight and the last ones are under a floodlight.

Step 3: Sewing the Stars

Picture of Sewing the Stars
Sewing Stars - Orion Diagram.png
Sewing Stars - Perseus Constellation.png
Sewing Stars - Taurus Constellation.png
Sewing Stars - Ursa Major Constellation.png
Wiring Diagram - Ursa Minor.png
I ordered flat-top super bright 5mm LEDs online for about $0.07 each, getting twice as many as I would use on the skirt - that way, I could replace poorly constructed ones, dim ones, or ones I broke throughout this process.  Using jewelers' pliers, I made the positive leads into flat "o" shapes and the negative leads into squares.  Doing so let me treat the LEDs as beads or sequins so that I could sew them into the skirt easily.  It also meant that I was saving money since I'd pay at least three times that price for LED sequins.  I sketched the way I wanted the wiring to go and stitched in the LEDs so that it would be relatively easy to do the soldering later.  I planned on 11-13 parallel-wired LEDs for each circuit.  The 13 circuits would then be run in parallel with each other.  The wiring diagram for Ursa Minor shows the shapes of the leads.  I've added circles and squares to that image, as well, since not all of the leads are clear in the picture.

Step 4: Preparing the Wiring

Picture of Preparing the Wiring
Circuit Installation - Ribbon Cable Separation 2.jpg
Circuit Installation - Ribbon Cable Separation 3.jpg
I bought a 15-ft. rainbow ribbon cable online and separated it into its ten individual colors.  If you've never done this before, the hardest part is keeping them neat and tidy once separated.  Put your thumbnail in the groove between two wire colors and slowly pull the wire on the end away from the rest of the ribbon cable.  I chose to use warm colors for positive and cool colors for negative, using the same color pairs to create circuits, like red and gray or orange and blue, which would make wiring that much easier (and my OCD much happier). 

Step 5: Testing the Circuits

Picture of Testing the Circuits
Circuit Testing - Breadboard with Two 9V.jpg
Circuit Testing - Vernier Data.jpg
With the extra LEDs I hadn't put into the skirt, I began testing my power needs on a breadboard.  I'd chosen 9V rechargeable low self-discharge batteries, and found a set of 10 and a charger online.  These are great, and typically used for RC applications, which made them ideal for my situation - I, too, had a high-drain situation, and was counting on a battery setup only lasting an hour or so.  I set up my parallel circuit, running 96 LEDs on my breadboard with two 9V batteries.  I chose not to use a resistor, wanting to see what the LEDs and batteries could take.  To test the battery life and light output, I ran my tests in a sealed shoebox with a Vernier light sensor gathering and graphing data for me.  The graph showed that I would get about an hour and 15 minutes of LEDs at the brightness level I wanted.  I ran the test four times, with a different pair of batteries each time; I got the same result in each test.  Time to solder!

Step 6: Soldering the LEDs

Picture of Soldering the LEDs
Circuit Installation - Soldering.jpg
Circuit Installation - Orion.jpg
Circuit Installation - Orion Testing.jpg
Using wire strippers, I stripped the coating mid-wire, and set out removing 2-3" from the end before laying the wire along my circuit and matching it with the gap between LEDs.  It was the most time-consuming game of "connect-the-dots" I've ever played!  Once I'd made a gap, I very carefully slid the coating down towards the bare end of the wire, leaving a 2-3mm gap for each connection.  When my wire was ready, I began tinning the wire and the leads with the soldering iron.  I'd learned how to solder specifically for this project, and I'm proud to say that I did a decent job.  I encountered a few cold solder points upon wearing the skirt, so, now that I'm not under a con deadline, I'd like to go back over the whole skirt again.  I'm also planning to use liquid tape to protect the exposed wire.  Once I finished the primary circuit for Orion, I tested it with my 9V.  I was really thrilled with the result, and set to the rest of my circuits, testing each as they were soldered.  I installed a primary positive wire and negative wire at the waist, using the same "connect-the-dots" method as before, and hooked up my batteries.

Step 7: All Done!

Picture of All Done!
Frizzle Finished.jpg
I wore a petticoat under the skirt to keep light from coming through where it wasn't supposed to.  It also gave me a barrier between myself and the wires.  The finished skirt was incredible, and the batteries didn't get too warm, but I'm still tinkering with the idea of a resistor, just to keep them cool.  I wore it on Sunday of Dragon Con 2013 and had a ton of fun teaching people celestial navigation and the stories from mythology.  I also use it at the science museum where I run the camps program, and I've worn it to a local observatory.  Now...to send these pictures to Neil deGrasse Tyson...
dtipping9 months ago
I am working on this to create a one week day camp where middle and high school girls can create their own skirt. I have worked out a way to have a petticoat, electronics panal (which can be removed), and top layer. That will allow for washing. I have prototype skirt 1.0 with petticoat 2.0. Both have way too much fabric for girls to finish in a week. Do you have any suggestions for a full skirt with less volume than yours? Thanks!
jessyratfink10 months ago
Gorgeous!
sokiboi7810 months ago
Love your Style!
Nice job.!!.check out mine what u think? made out of card boards and tape lol Vote if you like ;-)
Ace Frahm10 months ago
Amazing! At first I thought it was just a neat dress with a bunch of LEDs in it, then I see it's the ACTUAL constellations! You might try using EL wire to draw the links between the stars.
One step away from super-hero, all you need now are some physics-violating powers.
ecsaul2311 months ago
voted. great work!
silverov11 months ago
really a lot of work, but the details ... This makes it so special!
DragonDon11 months ago
I'm imposed with the level of detail. At first I thought it was going to be just a cool bunch of leds but then had a Neo moment ("Whoa") and loved the work!
smcgowen11 months ago
My favorite instructable ever! Clear, clever, practical, and whimsical. Thank you!
That is just dope.
Thursday11 months ago
This is awesome!

One thing I'm wondering about, though, is cleaning the skirt - that's a consideration which is holding me back from doing my own light-up clothing.
flyingpuppy11 months ago
I hope someone takes this instructable and uses it to make a Girl on Fire dress for Halloween! Pleeease!
mslaynie11 months ago
OMG, you are my hero. This is so phenomenal!! I love it all...
lawsonuw11 months ago
Awesome Awesome skirt! I love how the fabric glows around each LED. A minor suggestion, it appears that all the LEDs are running in parallel off of one rechargeable 9v battery? (which is almost always 6 series cells at 7.2 volts) I bet you could nearly double the run time at the same brightness if you split the LED array in half, and ran the two halves in series. I.e. battery+ -> half the LEDs -> other half of LEDs -> battery-. Alternatively a 3 cell AA pack would drive the current LED array a lot longer.
morganskye11 months ago
Lovely! I wish I'd been able to see it in person.
Also is it sad that I know this picture was taken at the Marriott? lol!
starrschaos11 months ago
That is epic. I love the details of this instructable too!
Since you were at Dcon this year, did you make it to the Sparkfun workshop? If not I wanted to share Sparkfun's Soft Circuits and Esewing kit. Its basically using conductive thread to sew LED series onto fabric, and its washable! take a look, it may inspire you!
BelleLindsay (author)  starrschaos11 months ago
Thanks, Starrs! I wanted to make it to the Sparkfun workshop, but I was another panel then. They put too many amazing programs on Sunday afternoon and evening!

I've been looking at Sparkfun's soft circuits since I started thinking about this project, and I hope to add a Lilypad to the setup. It's why I have 13 constellation groups - I was thinking about the pins on the arduino, but I ran short on time for testing. Now that I've gotten my feet wet and am not afraid of breadboarding or soldering, those etextiles materials from Sparkfun are next on my list. :)
RichardNeill11 months ago
Very impressive. One trick you may find useful in future is to use PTFE coated wire: the insulation doesn't shrink back when soldered, so you can make a very small joint, and let the solder wick back into the wire to reinforce the weak-spot where you may have nicked it with the stripper.
The_whippet11 months ago
This is amazing. I would wear this shamelessly, and I'm a guy, so that's really saying a lot. I hope to see a lot more instructables from you in the future!
Li Sashay11 months ago
Very cool and unique
stella0911 months ago
Super cool! Inspirational and well explained! Thanks!
doodlecraft11 months ago
Amazing! Totally spectacular, I just wish there was a hundred more pictures of the finished product...a dress like this merits a full blown fashion shoot! :)
sunshiine11 months ago
So gorgeous! What an awesome project! Thanks so much for sharing your hard work and please do share more like this! You will be a sensation here! Keep on shining!
sunshiine
astral_mage11 months ago
u could use glow in the dark paints as well?
astral_mage11 months ago
next step is to c if u can use thermal electric generators to provide the power u need? u can try buying 1 or 2 from tegpower.com , an c how it works.
astral_mage11 months ago
have u ever thought of making them 4 sale?
imbm2411 months ago
Very nicely made skirt and very well written Instructable. The only thing I would like to see added would be a parts list with suppliers, part numbers, and prices. I know that some of the items many people have on hand, know where to get, or would do differently but in case a beginner wants to do a project similar to what you did it would be nice to be able to start with some known products. This is especially true for the LEDs and the battery system that you found.

Otherwise one of the better Instructables I have read.
canida11 months ago
This is beautiful and amazing! Fantastic work. I'm inspired. :D
Natalina11 months ago
Such a great idea! Very cool.
Now this is a truly 'Star Studded' skirt! Great idea.
BelleLindsay (author)  Enchanted Craft11 months ago
Thank you, Craft. There's nothing cooler than several of your interests and passions coming together in one project. :)
That is beautiful!
BelleLindsay (author)  Penolopy Bulnick11 months ago
Thank you, Penolopy. I appreciate it!