Introduction: Very Cheap Delta 3D Printer (about 150€)

Picture of Very Cheap Delta 3D Printer (about 150€)

A year or so, i began to interested about 3D Printers. Then, i started to look for information about this, how they are working, how they are made…

When i was prepared, i started to buy the pieces for to do my own 3D printer, it should be a delta type, because i like how it moves, but the downside of this is the calibration…

Step 1: Buy the Pieces:

Picture of Buy the Pieces:

The materials needed are:

4 stepper motors NEMA17 42HS40-1504A05-D20 (8,20€ each, joint purchase)

1 electronics kit (Arduino Mega, RAMPS 1.4, 5 Pololus A4988, RepRapDiscount LCD Panel) (26€ Aliexpress)

1 e3d v5 hotend (7€ Aliexpress)

1 ptfe tube (3€ Aliexpress)

1 aluminium extruder (7€ Aliexpress)

3 transmission belts (with pulleys) (about 3€ each, Aliexpress)

1 circular heatbed (7,50€ Aliexpress)

1 traxxas (8€ USA)

1 6 mm carbon fiber tube (4€ Decathlon)

6 8 mm smooth steel rods (18€/six, 3€ each)

6 8 mm linear bearings (0,83€ each)

Planks

Wires

Old pc ATX Power Supply

Nuts and bolts

Fans of old cooling table pc

3 Endstops (0,60€ each)

3 springs (free)

Circular mirror 22 cm diameter (4€)

Interrupt

Some pieces of Rostock 3D printer (a friend made me it)

Filament (20€)

The total cost is about 150€, looking for offers and buying to China and USA.

Step 2: Calibrate Electronic:

Picture of Calibrate Electronic:

For to calibrate the intensity step motors, i conected the RAMPS 1.4 to Arduino Mega, i put the Sprinter firmware, because it haven't got protections of temperature, etc, it doesn't work for print, but is really good for to adjust the electronics, it's need a old version of arduino IDE, for to compilate it. Put the drivers Pololu A4988, one by one for to calibrate the motors. All the electronics are in the kit.

Conect the multimeter in series between the RAMPS and the power supply, and at moment only conect a motor whenever, like the diagram. Click to Pronterface for move the motors and adjust the potentiometer for to have 200 mA at each motor, but the extruder needs to have 400 mA.

Finally, after adjust all drivers, the total intensity must to be about 0.8 or 0.9 A.

Like operation example the execute on it the song Gcode by Pronterface.

Step 3: Building the Structure:

Picture of Building the Structure:

the base is a triangle, the smooth steel rods are 2 in each vertex, separated 6,3 cm each other and perpendicular to the line of center, at 15,7 cm of this. I needed to do 2 equal parts, one upper and other lower. The upper haves a central hole for to pass the filament (the filament is of 1,75 mm). And the lower haves a central hole for to pass the heatbed wires and 3 smaller holes between the bars for to pase the belts.

I needed 3 tables to support the structure, measures 92 x 6 cm.

Other 3 tables for to close the sides of the base, 29 x 11 cm. One of this haves a hole for a fan to draw heat and other for an interrupt, other of this have 2 holes too, one for the LCD wires and other for a led and interrupt.

Finally, i need 2 small tables more and a wooden stick for support the filament's coil, and it is screwed to the upper base by the top.

Step 4: Painting the Structure:

Picture of Painting the Structure:

I bought spray paint and painted the structure, because the pieces had got differents colours and i dislike it.

Step 5: Doing the Diagonal Rods:

Picture of Doing the Diagonal Rods:

Put on a table two separate screws 25 cm between them. Moun the traxxas and introduce of them a piece of threaded rod of same diameter, then, put two traxxas on the screws and cut the carbon fiber tube to unite it. On this way, all rods will have the same measures. 6 rods are necessary.

Step 6: Mounting the Printer:

Picture of Mounting the Printer:

First i put the axis motors at lower base, inside of box. After i put the electronic and conected it, this time i connect all the components.

The next i put the power supply between te motors, at center of lower box, i put the fan, the interrupt and the LED, and closed the box with the others tables.

Put smooth steel rods and screw the heatbed at top of lower box, with the springs between the heatbed and the box, for to can regulate the height of it.

Mount the carbon fiber and the e3d hotend at piece of center and join them to the carriages pieces, with linear bearings attached to them, and introduce smooth steel rods at bearings.

Put the lateral tables for support the structure and the upper base with the clamping filament.

Put the piece that holds the pulley above the plain rod and put on it the endstop.

Connect and tighten the belt between each motor axis and the upper pulley.

Finally put the extruder motor below the upper base, to the next the hole center and wire all.

Put up the filament, and done!

Step 7: Configure Firmware and Calibrate the Printer:

The firmware used is the Marlin's lastest version, it's freeware and it's in google, for configure it, is necessary to do the next steps:

1. Open the lastest version of Arduino IDE and open the Marlin.ino

2. At file configuration.h, put your printer's parameters:

2.1. #define MOTHERBOARD 33 (33 is the RAMPS 1.4 used with 1 extruder)

2.2. #define DELTA (to specify delta printer)

2.3. #define DELTA_DIAGONAL_ROD 250.0 (measures of carbon fiber rods in mm)

2.4. #define DELTA_SMOOTH_ROD_OFFSET 157 (distance between the center of printer and the center of smooth steel rods in mm)

2.5. #define DELTA_EFFECTOR_OFFSET 33.0 (distance between the carbon fiber diagonal rod and the hotend tip)

2.6. #define DELTA_CARRIAGE_OFFSET 22 (distance between the diagonal rod and the center of smooth steel rods in mm)

2.7. #define TEMP_SENSOR_0 1

#define TEMP_SENSOR_1 0

#define TEMP_SENSOR_2 0

#define TEMP_SENSOR_BED 1 (to specify 1 extruder and heatbed)

2.8. #define INVERT_X_DIR true

#define INVERT_Y_DIR true

#define INVERT_Z_DIR true

#define INVERT_E0_DIR false (if is inverted, change true by false, its depends of side of attach the belt to carriage)

2.9 #define X_MAX_POS 90

#define X_MIN_POS -90

#define Y_MAX_POS 90

#define Y_MIN_POS -90

#define Z_MAX_POS 400

#define Z_MIN_POS 0 (to specify the printer's limit's moves after homming)

2.10. #define MANUAL_X_HOME_POS 0

#define MANUAL_Y_HOME_POS 0

#define MANUAL_Z_HOME_POS 475 (the max distance between the noozle and the heatbed)

2.11. #define DEFAULT_AXIS_STEPS_PER_UNIT {80,80,80,153.3414046} (steps for mm of each motor)


Finally, for calibrate it open the Repetier-Host and configure the printer on program, by manual handling, move it, it's will be calibrate when the distance between the noozle and the mirror is like a sheet of paper's thickness, that is, the Z = 0 hight parameter in all heatbed's area must be the same.

This step requires patience and time, and never ends, because it can always be better calibration.

Step 8: First Impression:

Picture of First Impression:

The first impression was a 10mm calibration cube, but it wasn't 10mm, the measures are incorrect... There is to change parameters and better calibrate the printer...

At this link there is a very good manual for to better calibration of printer:

http://builda3dprinter.eu/build-manuals/kossel_min...

Step 9: More Advanced Impressions:

Picture of More Advanced Impressions:

After better calibration, i got a very good impressions, for example, a Raspberry Pi Case, a pen holder, and a better pieces for my printer. However, there is still much for calibrate for the machine works perfect.

I have added some videos about the printer printing.

Comments

Gizmolo (author)2017-04-21

Hi there, whete can one find the stl files?

Regards
Marcel

tswaehn (author)2015-10-01

That sounds incredible. The total cost totally convince me to build one myself.

you should do it! ;)

I am wondering where to get the printed parts from.

Schober (author)tswaehn2015-10-02

If you have no access to a 3D printer even to rent time on one, you could probably order the 3D printed parts from an online 3D printing service like Shapeways. You'll just have to have object files for the parts.

SilverEye2000 (author)Schober2016-11-23

but where are the files?

tswaehn (author)Schober2015-10-02

I am new to 3d printing. Your suggestion is absolutely acceptable - thanks mate. Sounds like a good plan.

it says when you open it in a new tab: <Error>


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Cra7y (author)2016-08-07

I don't really understand your explanation of how the plates are made in step 3, could you clarify that?

DougL2 (author)2015-10-01

When assembling the Traxxas joints, I found that freezing the metal parts in a glass dish and having a pot of boiling water works great to remove the slop from standard assembling. Drop a plastic part in the water(20-30 seconds max), while you place a metal part on a hard insulator. remove the plastic part from boiling water, locate smooth indented side and quickly push that onto the metal part. Repeat 11 more times.

Now when they all cool the joints should almost squeak they will be so tight and slop free.

jeanniel1 (author)DougL22015-10-02

What a great idea, as long as you don't move any more than necessary to get the part snug on!

DougL2 (author)jeanniel12016-06-05

I put the metal parts in a thick shallow bowl in the freezer and take it out together. The boiling water is right next to my assembly area(very small ) on the counter top and I put down a piece of cereal box for an insulator to the stone counter top. All happens very quickly even for 12 joints. I also use different tweezers for the cold and hot parts. Really not hard to do.

Acking2002 (author)2016-04-29

I plan on building this in the summer and I am wondering what I should get the nozzle width .3mm .4mm or .5mm I am also wondering wether I should get a long or short distance feeder? Thanks for the great tutorial!

akankit114 (author)2016-01-31

I liked your instructables??I am tryingvto build one. Pls help me.can you please give me the dimensions of top and bottom of printer?? And pls tell me is it safe to order printer parts from Aliexpress??How much custom charges you paid?? How much I will have to pay of I order something from it?? I am from India.

Sqidman31 (author)2016-01-19

I want one.

DiegoS8 (author)2015-11-25

Donde compraste las varillas de acero?

SandresM (author)2015-11-02

Hello, could you post the files for the 3d parts that are required please? I would like try to do this project

NuttaponT (author)2015-10-11

^_^ Thank you

Gonzalorincon (author)2015-10-07

muchas gracias por el aporte

Eclipse1525 (author)2015-09-25

Now show us how to 3D print a second 3D printer

jeanniel1 (author)Eclipse15252015-10-02

heh heh heh

jproffer (author)2015-10-02

where did you source the steel rods from, so cheaply?

tommaragos1 (author)2015-10-01

Shameless plug for the height increaser: on this printer: http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:622082

It works...

joebaby1953 (author)2015-10-01

I love the long travel in the Z axis, but I don't see where the x,y travel is generated from. Can someone enlighten me?

Darmach (author)joebaby19532015-10-01

Imagine what happens when one of the rods will travel higher than rest - and there you go, you got x-y travel. a delta is not a carthesian printer (like for ex. reprap prusa i3)

in that case, the printer should be bad building, and it has a bad calibration and the pieces will be wrong... the case is that was good build

joebaby1953 (author)Darmach2015-10-01

I understand now, hence the need to calibrate the head. I am a long time machine tool person. This is a fascinating concept. I would like to build one just to fully grasp the details, too many other projects though. Thank you Darmach.

Darmach (author)joebaby19532015-10-01

This is nothing, check this out - talking about crazy ideas ,)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i6POrjVXgsk

joebaby1953 (author)Darmach2015-10-01

I like this one a lot.

This is awesome concept! If there was an instructable for a polar printer, that'd be nice.

the x, y lenght is determined for the heatbed, in this case is about 20 cm diameter

ThomasR35 (author)2015-10-01

What resolution does this print in? IE How thin are the layers?

I usually use 0'2mm layer high, but the precission depends of nozzle and calibration, it can be very good, all depends abaut a better calibration

gsvanwinkle (author)2015-10-01

You wrote an excellent instructable. If I may, have you considered adding autoleveling to it? The Marlin firmware already supports it, as does the RAMPS shield and arduino. The cost for the sensor isn't that much, but it would save the endless hours spent calibrating the zero level of the z-axis.

Yes, i have considered it, but i haven't do it yet, in future i will put in printer

M4n0v3y (author)2015-10-01

Great! Easy design and easy to acquire parts! This is a feaseable project for me!

eskaiguolker (author)2015-09-26

Increíble, es la primera vez que veo una configuración como esa en una impresora 3D. La ventaja de objetos más altos es considerable. Espero que consigas la calibración perfecta. Me lo pasó a mis favoritos por que por precio y diseño es más que interesante.
Un saludo.

Muchas gracias por las felicitaciones, un placer compartirlo con la comunidad.

Saludos.

rpotts2 (author)2015-09-25

you don't print a whole 3d printer. if you look at some of the earlier steps, you will see some of the parts his friend printed for him. they are more or less connecting parts or just some ialized parts. it's the same as the owl at the end. load the code for it and wait.

Just4Fun Media (author)2015-09-25

That is a really interesting looking printer! What are the advantages over a traditional x,y,z configuration?

Have a great day! :-)

it is faster than traditionals, and you can print more hights objects, however, the calibration is more hard...

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