I am going to walk you through the process of prototyping a Printed Circuit Board using a laser cutter and supplies from your local Radioshack and hardware store.  This is a process I have perfected after several prototypes I created as part of my thesis, modular//neuroid.

Step 1: Prepare the Board

Remove the bare copper PC Board from the plastic being careful not to get oily fingerprints on it.  Place it on a clean, suitable spraying surface (newspaper or cardboard are great). Using flat black spray paint (I used Krylon brand) coat the copper 3 - 5, allowing time for each coat to dry before applying the next.  If your PC Board is double sided, be sure to repeat this step for the other side.  By the end of this step, your board should look completely black, no bumps or unevenness, and certainly no copper visible at all.
<p>I can see a lot of confusion and misinformation in the below comments section. Power is not nearly as critical as the wavelength of the laser you are using. Lasers discriminate. For instance, it doesn't matter how much power you have on a CO2 laser - it just won't cut copper. A UV (355nm) or Green (533) and even near IR (1064nm is common) CAN cut copper. As some have mentioned in the comments below, take a look at the Protolasers from LPKF Laser &amp; Electronics (they have various wavelengths optimized for different substrates and applications). If you search YouTube for Protolaser, you will find several video demonstrations. It's actually quite impressive what they can do.</p>
<p>Sorry, I don't get the point of all of this. It has been useful when you don't<br> need the develop process. The laser cut the traces instead of paint, that would be interesting and time/cost/environment saving. </p>
<p>Do you realize what type of a laser that would take? A fiber laser that can cut through metal so 30k USD+ The process laid out is for the rest of us mere mortals with a simple $400-5k dollar machine.</p>
<p>What kind of laser would you recommend, wattage wise?</p>
<p>You can cut down on the laser time and use up less etchant if your software will allow you to trace the edges of your circuit. That way the laser will remove only the outline of the traces and is much faster since it verctor cuts rather than doing a raster scan of the board. An added bonus is that you can ground the non-trace areas to provide ground plane to your board.</p>
Thats brilliant! I can't wait to try to it out. If only I had my own laser cutter... Fortunately a friend has one. Would something like this be suitable for the board http://www.digikey.com/product-detail/en/PC55/PC55-ND/28472 ? <br> <br>Are there any specifications for the type of board? I read about one Radioshack board where the copper would separate from the board when it was heated.
<p>Have a look at gabuleu.blosgpot.com</p><p>I bought a Shapeoko CNC and upgraded it to have a small diode laser. Not so expensive in the end.</p>
<p>I find that on my 40Watt laser cutter, the copper of a pcb doesnt absorb any noticable amount of the heat from the laser. But any other paint layer above the copper gets 95% destroyed by the laser, just leaving a thin film which is easily removed with a dilute solvent. In the case of brush on paint, i used Metholated Spirits, or for spray paint i used Mineral Turpentine.</p>
<p>I believe LPKF uses a UV laser, not an IR one. You probably are using a CO2 laser which emits in the infra red (IR).</p>
&nbsp;Hey is it possible to just cut deeper into the copper and skip the etching step?<br /> <br />
<p>No, Lasers cannot cut into metal (commercial lasers).</p>
<p>Go to LPKF website and search for ProtoLaser. They do it.</p>
What about a 150 W radium laser cutter ?
no, the laser cannot cut through the copper. This is a similar process to etching brass
even with 150w it is hard as the metal reflects light rather than absorbing it.
<p>Thanks, friend! Took me 3 tries getting the speed right, I did it going way too fast first off and it didn't make a dent, second time I set it way too slow and I set off a fire alarm. I bought another board I got the right speed and it was so much easier than wrecking a pair of pliers in ammonium persulphate. Thanks a heap</p>
<p>It sounds odd to me that not only on this build, but on other peoples projects, the reference is made to a laser not being able to cut metal. I had a walkthrough on using our new laser cutter/engraver, and even though we were using wood, the honeycomb base plate was cut in the spots where the test engraving was set progressively deeper. Not being familiar with the process yet, ours will do 500dpi, but I dont know what that translates into for font point. I saw a reference to 1000dpi in the manual, but at this moment I cant recall what it was it was for.</p>
<p>My concern is that the paint combustion would produce toxic fumes or other containments that could damage me or the very expensive laser cutter filtration system. Did you have to consult the manufacturer of the paint to ensure this wouldn't happen ?</p>
<p>Thanks, I try it with plastifier instead of black paint :</p><p>https://www.instructables.com/id/PCB-plastic-mask-etching-with-CO2-laser/</p>
by any chance did anyone tried with a vls4.60? I assume the black coating is doing just the same as a metal marking compound would do. Am I right? <br> <br>Thanks in Advance
What are you using for laser cuter?<br />
Epilog Legend 36 EXT
With what power laser?
Like it! Definitely think laser etching is preferable to chem etch <br> <br>http://www.lpkfusa.com/pcb-etching.html
Quote in first step &quot;Remove the black copper PC Board...&quot;<br /> <br /> Probably should be &quot;blank copper PC Board&quot;?<br /> <br /> It isn't black until after you've spray painted it. ;^)<br />
corrected!&nbsp; thanks!<br />
You're welcome. Thank you for giving us instructions on another means of masking PC boards. I've got to see if there is any interest in our area for getting some sort of communal laser equipment set up. The initial $20k price tags kind of put me off back when.<br />
Try searching your area on hackerspaces.org. Alot of Hackerspaces/Makerspaces have access to laser cutters.
I really like this technique where can I find a small or low priced one of these machines? less than 5k. or how can I get access to one?<br />
Do you have a Techshop near to you?&nbsp;They have laser cutters available.<br /> <br /> This is my local one -<br /> <br /> http://www.portlandtechshop.com/<br /> <br /> There's one Menlo Park as well. Don't know other locations I'm afraid.<br />
I live in albany ny where is the closest one?
You can also check out Hackerspaces.org<br>
Closest to you is http://www.techshopdurham.com in N.C.<br /> <br /> We have a nice laser cutter, and are making room in our new location to add a second one.<br />
I've been assured that cutting fiberglass (SiO2) with the Epilog laser is safe.&nbsp; No highly toxic fumes.<br /> <br /> So you can copper etch the PCB's as &quot;panels&quot;, then put them back in the laser to cut out the individual boards using the board outlines.&nbsp; Assuming you didn't leave copper over the board outlines.<br /> <br /> It is easy, it is quick, but the edge can be a little &quot;ugly&quot;. The fiberglass fibers etch unevenly, giving a ragged edge, and it tends to be discolored.&nbsp; A few swipes of a file will clean the edges up.<br /> <br /> So take into account the filing needed and allow +/-20mils for alignment accuracy when planning your board outline to nearest layout features.&nbsp; 30-50mils, depending how much filing you plan to do.<br /> <br /> You can also try to cut vias with the laser, but I had registration problems on the order of 5 to 20mils when taking boards out and putting them back in later.&nbsp; So I couldn't get the registration accurate enough for this to be viable.<br />
it's not the SiO2 that would be the issue, or even the part that's being affected much by a laser. It's the epoxy or plastic type material that the fiberglass is impregnated. There also is normally fire retardant, usually bromine.<br><br>A real high powered laser could at most melt the SiO2, but will not burn and cut it.<br><br>so, cutting circuit boards with a laser cutter may be a bad idea.
Good tutorial - I' ve been using the laser technique for about 4 mos now and am very pleased with it (overall) - but I'm not pleased when it comes to cutting the boards out... what technique did you use??? Your cut boards are far nicer than mine. <br /> <br /> Also, give auto primer a try - it etches the copper making the paint stick much better and you can get away with two coats. <br /> <br /> *Also, for those interested, I've got a Epilog Helix 45w, and the best setting for me is super hot, medium speed, bottom up engraving. As the author said, you *DO NOT* want to burn twice as the results are always less predictable. <br /> <br /> <br />
Oh, cool auto primer trick -- i'll try it out.<br /> <br /> As far as cutting the boards, I used a bandsaw.&nbsp; It worked nicely, however BE&nbsp;WARNED: it produces quite a bit of dust, and this FIBER&nbsp;GLASS&nbsp;dust, which is VERY&nbsp;HARMFUL if inhaled.&nbsp; I&nbsp;tried a couple other things like scoring and snapping, etc, and they just produced cracked boards like the one pictured below.&nbsp; That's my partner in crime (aka the godfather) who was trying to find healthier, safter alternatives to the bandsaw. None worked, hence the disappointed face.<br /> <br /> Link some of your projects! I'd love to see.<br /> <br />
The best method I've found for cutting circuit boards is a sheet metal cutter.&nbsp; Makes perfect cuts with very nice edges.&nbsp; The only issue is you can only get straight cuts!<br />
I agree, they do make perfect cuts - but where can the common man (like me) get one they can afford? I've used the air over hydraulic ones, but they'll set you back $5000 clams. Hve you found (please say YES!!!!) an affordable one that works? <br />
TechShop locations all have sheet metal shears that you can use.
you know those cutters in art rooms? the ones that have a grid on the plate...those will work with pcb clad board which is the copper sheet you see in this video....well those cutters will definatly work and they cost around $20-$200.......... depends on the size
Scoring works for me if I pass the blade a few times at different side to side angles (perpendicular to the straight guide edge). Sort of taking out a V shaped groove in the board. Then snap over a sharp edged surface. Plus it helps if you're manly when you are scoring the board I&nbsp;guess :)<br />
How do you get 2-sided alignment?&nbsp; <br /> <br /> I&nbsp;was getting 5-20mil variations between lasering the top and bottom, so the through holes didn't line up without going to something like 30/15 layout on the bottom.<br />
did you used the laser to cut the boards as well, or a different method? <br />
i am a sales in laser cutting machine company in china, we have used laser cutter like this been a long time, this is not for AD,if you need mroe information about this, let me know.<br /> sales.jinzulaser@hotmail,and welcome to our website www.jinzulaser.com&nbsp; <br />
how precise&nbsp; are you able to do a pcb with this? I&nbsp;see that you state 1,5 point as the minimum trace&nbsp; width but what does that translate into in mil? How much clearance do&nbsp; you have between traces?
Exactly how do I export a vector file from Eagle?&nbsp; I see how do do PNG images but not vectors.&nbsp; Thanks.<br />
File -&gt; Print -&gt; PDF...<br /> <br /> then open this file in Adobe Illustrator or the like.<br />
Very nice job, what power setting are you using? Thanks.<br />
I believe the best results happened with full power and medium-ish speed.&nbsp; It's always good to do a small test, perhaps on a corner of the board to be sure you get through the paint -- remember, you want to avoid lasering the same board twice at all costs!<br />

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